Gene Symbol: rcsA
Description: transcriptional regulator of colanic acid capsular biosynthesis
Alias: ECK1949, JW1935, cpsR
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Fredericks C, Shibata S, Aizawa S, Reimann S, Wolfe A. Acetyl phosphate-sensitive regulation of flagellar biogenesis and capsular biosynthesis depends on the Rcs phosphorelay. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:734-47 pubmed
    ..Acetyl approximately P-dependent capsular biosynthesis required both RcsB and RcsA, while the lack of RcsC restored capsular biosynthesis to acetyl approximately P-deficient cells...
  2. Vianney A, Jubelin G, Renault S, Dorel C, Lejeune P, Lazzaroni J. Escherichia coli tol and rcs genes participate in the complex network affecting curli synthesis. Microbiology. 2005;151:2487-97 pubmed
    ..RcsC, the sensor of the RcsBCD phosphorelay, is involved, together with RcsA, in colanic acid capsule synthesis, and also modulates the expression of tolQRA and csgDEFG...
  3. Huang Y, Ferrières L, Clarke D. The role of the Rcs phosphorelay in Enterobacteriaceae. Res Microbiol. 2006;157:206-12 pubmed
    ..In this review we discuss the role of the Rcs phosphorelay in the Enterobacteriaceae, highlighting the observation that the Rcs phosphorelay appears to play a key role in the temporal regulation of biofilm formation and pathogenicity. ..
  4. Majdalani N, Gottesman S. The Rcs phosphorelay: a complex signal transduction system. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2005;59:379-405 pubmed
    RcsC, RcsB, and RcsA were first identified as a sensor kinase, a response regulator, and an auxiliary regulatory protein, respectively, regulating the genes of capsular polysaccharide synthesis...
  5. Gottesman S, Trisler P, Torres Cabassa A. Regulation of capsular polysaccharide synthesis in Escherichia coli K-12: characterization of three regulatory genes. J Bacteriol. 1985;162:1111-9 pubmed
    ..b>rcsA and rcsB are positive regulators of capsule synthesis. rcsA is located at min 43 on the E...
  6. Brill J, Quinlan Walshe C, Gottesman S. Fine-structure mapping and identification of two regulators of capsule synthesis in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:2599-611 pubmed
    ..Examination of double mutants and cells carrying multicopy rcsB+ plasmids reveal an rcsA-independent pathway for capsule synthesis...
  7. Gottesman S, Stout V. Regulation of capsular polysaccharide synthesis in Escherichia coli K12. Mol Microbiol. 1991;5:1599-606 pubmed
    ..Two positive regulators, RcsA and RcsB, are necessary for maximal capsule expression...
  8. Gupte G, Woodward C, Stout V. Isolation and characterization of rcsB mutations that affect colanic acid capsule synthesis in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:4328-35 pubmed
    ..Lastly, several of our rcsB mutants were found to be allele specific (rcsC137 specific) for rcsC, suggesting a physical as well as functional interaction between RcsC and RcsB proteins. ..
  9. Ebel W, Trempy J. Escherichia coli RcsA, a positive activator of colanic acid capsular polysaccharide synthesis, functions To activate its own expression. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:577-84 pubmed
    ..Transcription of the cps operon is controlled by at least two positive regulators, RcsA and RcsB...

More Information


  1. Houng H, Noon K, Ou J, Baron L. Expression of Vi antigen in Escherichia coli K-12: characterization of ViaB from Citrobacter freundii and identity of ViaA with RcsB. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:5910-5 pubmed
    ..coli and S. typhi were identified as rcsB mutants by complementation tests using plasmid pJB100. Introduction of rcsA::Tn10 into E. coli harboring functional ViaB sequences eliminates the expression of Vi antigen...
  2. Castanie Cornet M, Treffandier H, Francez Charlot A, Gutierrez C, Cam K. The glutamate-dependent acid resistance system in Escherichia coli: essential and dual role of the His-Asp phosphorelay RcsCDB/AF. Microbiology. 2007;153:238-46 pubmed
    ..regulator RcsB can be activated either by phosphorylation through the RcsCD pathway or by an accessory cofactor RcsA. Although conserved in Enterobacteriaceae, the role of this system in adaptation to environmental stress conditions ..
  3. Stout V, Gottesman S. RcsB and RcsC: a two-component regulator of capsule synthesis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:659-69 pubmed
    ..The rcsB and rcsC genes, which are oriented convergently with their stop codons 196 base pairs apart, are separated by a long direct repeat including two repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences. ..
  4. Jayaratne P, Keenleyside W, MacLachlan P, Dodgson C, Whitfield C. Characterization of rcsB and rcsC from Escherichia coli O9:K30:H12 and examination of the role of the rcs regulatory system in expression of group I capsular polysaccharides. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:5384-94 pubmed
    ..Group IB capsular polysaccharides all contain amino sugars. In group IB strains, multicopy rcsBK30 activates synthesis of colanic acid. ..
  5. Dierksen K, Trempy J. Identification of a second RcsA protein, a positive regulator of colanic acid capsular polysaccharide genes, in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:5053-6 pubmed
    A second form of RcsA, a positive activator of the capsular polysaccharide genes (cps), has been identified in Escherichia coli. Ferguson plot analysis suggests that the two RcsA proteins differ by size rather than by charge...
  6. Stout V. Identification of the promoter region for the colanic acid polysaccharide biosynthetic genes in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:4273-80 pubmed
    ..The network of proteins involved in regulating the expression of these genes includes the two positive regulators RcsA and RcsB. This work describes the site of action of these two activator proteins and the promoter of the cps genes...
  7. Corbett D, Roberts I. Capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli. Adv Appl Microbiol. 2008;65:1-26 pubmed publisher
  8. Majdalani N, Heck M, Stout V, Gottesman S. Role of RcsF in signaling to the Rcs phosphorelay pathway in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:6770-8 pubmed
    ..In addition to the transmembrane sensor kinase RcsC, the RcsA coregulator, and the response regulator RcsB, two new components have been characterized, RcsD and RcsF...
  9. Boulanger A, Francez Charlot A, Conter A, Castanie Cornet M, Cam K, Gutierrez C. Multistress regulation in Escherichia coli: expression of osmB involves two independent promoters responding either to sigmaS or to the RcsCDB His-Asp phosphorelay. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:3282-6 pubmed
    ..osmB appears as another example of a multistress-responsive gene whose transcription involves both a sigma(S)-dependent promoter and a second one independent of sigma(S) but controlled by stress-specific transcription factors. ..
  10. Sand O, Gingras M, Beck N, Hall C, Trun N. Phenotypic characterization of overexpression or deletion of the Escherichia coli crcA, cspE and crcB genes. Microbiology. 2003;149:2107-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of crcA, cspE and crcB results in a slight (2.2-fold) activation of the rcsA gene. Deleting crcA, cspE and crcB is not lethal to cells but results in an increase in sensitivity to camphor...
  11. Ferrières L, Aslam S, Cooper R, Clarke D. The yjbEFGH locus in Escherichia coli K-12 is an operon encoding proteins involved in exopolysaccharide production. Microbiology. 2007;153:1070-80 pubmed
    ..operon is controlled by the Rcs phosphorelay, in a manner that is dependent on the auxiliary regulatory protein RcsA. Interestingly, Northern blot analysis revealed that the amount of yjbE transcripts in the cell is higher than the ..
  12. Chen M, Takeda S, Yamada H, Ishii Y, Yamashino T, Mizuno T. Characterization of the RcsC-->YojN-->RcsB phosphorelay signaling pathway involved in capsular synthesis in Escherichia coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001;65:2364-7 pubmed
    ..coli. We identified several such genes, namely, rcsB, rcsA, djlA, lolA, and ompG...
  13. Stout V. Regulation of capsule synthesis includes interactions of the RcsC/RcsB regulatory pair. Res Microbiol. 1994;145:389-92 pubmed
  14. Lee Y, Chang C, Kuo C, Chen M, Yu C, Lin P, et al. Subunit oligomerization and substrate recognition of the Escherichia coli ClpYQ (HslUV) protease implicated by in vivo protein-protein interactions in the yeast two-hybrid system. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:2393-401 pubmed
    ..The ClpYQ protease degrades the cell division inhibitor, SulA, and a positive regulator of capsule transcription, RcsA, as well as RpoH, a heat shock sigma transcription factor...
  15. Francez Charlot A, Laugel B, Van Gemert A, Dubarry N, Wiorowski F, Castanie Cornet M, et al. RcsCDB His-Asp phosphorelay system negatively regulates the flhDC operon in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2003;49:823-32 pubmed
    ..The regulation is potentiated by the RcsB cofactor RcsA. Genetic analysis indicates that an RcsAB box, located downstream of the promoter, is required for the regulation...
  16. Wehland M, Bernhard F. The RcsAB box. Characterization of a new operator essential for the regulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in enteric bacteria. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:7013-20 pubmed
    The interaction of the two transcriptional regulators RcsA and RcsB with a specific operator is a common mechanism in the activation of capsule biosynthesis in enteric bacteria...
  17. Bury Moné S, Nomane Y, Reymond N, Barbet R, Jacquet E, Imbeaud S, et al. Global analysis of extracytoplasmic stress signaling in Escherichia coli. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000651 pubmed publisher
    ..The extracytoplasmic stress signaling pathways in E. coli thus regulate mainly complementary functions whose discrete contributions are integrated to mount the full adaptive response. ..
  18. Sledjeski D, Gottesman S. A small RNA acts as an antisilencer of the H-NS-silenced rcsA gene of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:2003-7 pubmed
    ..capsular polysaccharide synthesis in Escherichia coli K-12 depends on the level of an unstable positive regulator, RcsA. The amount of RcsA protein is limited both by its rapid degradation by Lon, an ATP-dependent protease, and by its ..
  19. Meenakshi S, Munavar M. Suppression of capsule expression in Δlon strains of Escherichia coli by two novel rpoB mutations in concert with HNS: possible role for DNA bending at rcsA promoter. Microbiologyopen. 2015;4:712-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Lon protease of Escherichia coli is implicated in the turnover of RcsA (positive regulator of genes involved in capsular polysaccharide synthesis) and SulA (cell division inhibitor ..
  20. Nagahama H, Sakamoto Y, Matsumoto K, Hara H. RcsA-dependent and -independent growth defects caused by the activated Rcs phosphorelay system in the Escherichia coli pgsA null mutant. J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2006;52:91-8 pubmed
    ..We showed that the poor growth at 37 degrees C was corrected by disruption of the rcsA gene, which codes for a coregulator protein that interacts with the RcsB response regulator of the phosphorelay ..
  21. Kuo M, Chen K, Wu W. Regulation of RcsA by the ClpYQ (HslUV) protease in Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2004;150:437-46 pubmed
    ..An experimental cue implied that the capsule synthesis activator RcsA, a known substrate of Lon, is probably a specific substrate for the ClpYQ protease...
  22. Francez Charlot A, Castanie Cornet M, Gutierrez C, Cam K. Osmotic regulation of the Escherichia coli bdm (biofilm-dependent modulation) gene by the RcsCDB His-Asp phosphorelay. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:3873-7 pubmed
    ..The regulation is direct and requires an RcsB box next to the bdm -35 element. In addition, bdm is shown to be activated by osmotic shock in an Rcs-dependent way. ..
  23. Shiba Y, Matsumoto K, Hara H. DjlA negatively regulates the Rcs signal transduction system in Escherichia coli. Genes Genet Syst. 2006;81:51-6 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that DjlA functions as a negative regulator of the Rcs system unless abnormally overproduced. ..
  24. Castanie Cornet M, Cam K, Jacq A. RcsF is an outer membrane lipoprotein involved in the RcsCDB phosphorelay signaling pathway in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:4264-70 pubmed
    ..One is RcsA, which can stimulate the activity of the response regulator RcsB independently of the phosphorelay to regulate a ..
  25. Majdalani N, Hernandez D, Gottesman S. Regulation and mode of action of the second small RNA activator of RpoS translation, RprA. Mol Microbiol. 2002;46:813-26 pubmed
    ..This work suggests a new signal for RpoS translation and extends the global regulation effected by the RcsC/RcsB system to coregulation of RpoS with capsule and FtsZ. ..
  26. Nagahama H, Oshima T, Mori H, Matsumoto K, Hara H. Hyperexpression of the osmB gene in an acidic phospholipid-deficient Escherichia coli mutant. J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2007;53:143-51 pubmed
  27. Potrykus J, Wegrzyn G. The ypdI gene codes for a putative lipoprotein involved in the synthesis of colanic acid in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;235:265-71 pubmed
    ..This phenotype depends on the function of the rcsA gene, but not on that of rcsF...
  28. Mouslim C, Latifi T, Groisman E. Signal-dependent requirement for the co-activator protein RcsA in transcription of the RcsB-regulated ugd gene. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:50588-95 pubmed
    ..of certain RcsB-activated genes, such as the capsule synthesis cps operon, requires the co-activator protein RcsA, whereas expression of other RcsB-activated genes is RcsA-independent...
  29. Callewaert L, Vanoirbeek K, Lurquin I, Michiels C, Aertsen A. The Rcs two-component system regulates expression of lysozyme inhibitors and is induced by exposure to lysozyme. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:1979-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We report activation of this pathway by lysozyme and increased lysozyme sensitivity when Rcs induction is genetically blocked. This lysozyme sensitivity could be alleviated by complementation with Ivy and MliC. ..
  30. Ghosh D, Roy K, Williamson K, Srinivasiah S, Wommack K, Radosevich M. Acyl-homoserine lactones can induce virus production in lysogenic bacteria: an alternative paradigm for prophage induction. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:7142-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In the same lambda lysogen we also demonstrated that sdiA, the AHL receptor, and rcsA, a positive transcriptional regulator of exopolysaccharide synthesis, are involved in the AHL-mediated induction ..
  31. Chang C, Hu H, Tsai C, Wu W. The degradation of RcsA by ClpYQ(HslUV) protease in Escherichia coli. Microbiol Res. 2016;184:42-50 pubmed publisher
    In Escherichia coli, RcsA, a positive activator for transcription of cps (capsular polysaccharide synthesis) genes, is degraded by the Lon protease...
  32. Ogasawara H, Hasegawa A, Kanda E, Miki T, Yamamoto K, Ishihama A. Genomic SELEX search for target promoters under the control of the PhoQP-RstBA signal relay cascade. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:4791-9 pubmed
    ..With these data taken together, we conclude that the expression of both asr and csgD is under the direct control of the PhoQP-RstBA signal relay cascade. ..
  33. Munavar H, Zhou Y, Gottesman S. Analysis of the Escherichia coli Alp phenotype: heat shock induction in ssrA mutants. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:4739-51 pubmed
    ..mutations, UV sensitivity and overproduction of capsule, are due to the stabilization of two substrates, SulA and RcsA. Inactivation of transfer mRNA (tmRNA) (encoded by ssrA), coupled with a multicopy kanamycin resistance determinant,..
  34. Torres Cabassa A, Gottesman S. Capsule synthesis in Escherichia coli K-12 is regulated by proteolysis. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:981-9 pubmed
    ..polysaccharide synthesis (cps) are transcriptionally regulated by lon as well as by three other regulatory genes, rcsA, -B, and -C (S. Gottesman, P. Trisler, and A. S. Torres-Cabassa, J. Bacteriol. 162:1111-1119, 1985)...
  35. Gervais F, Phoenix P, Drapeau G. The rcsB gene, a positive regulator of colanic acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli, is also an activator of ftsZ expression. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3964-71 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrated that the level of colanic acid is reduced when the cells carry a multicopy rcsC plasmid, suggesting that the RcsC sensor has phosphatase activity. ..
  36. Davalos Garcia M, Conter A, Toesca I, Gutierrez C, Cam K. Regulation of osmC gene expression by the two-component system rcsB-rcsC in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:5870-6 pubmed
    ..Deletion analysis located the site necessary for RcsB activation just upstream of osmCp(1). In vitro transcription experiments and gel mobility shift assays demonstrated that RcsB stimulates RNA polymerase binding at osmCp(1). ..
  37. Carballès F, Bertrand C, Bouche J, Cam K. Regulation of Escherichia coli cell division genes ftsA and ftsZ by the two-component system rcsC-rcsB. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:442-50 pubmed
    ..The promoter, ftsA1p, located in the ftsQ coding sequence, co-regulates ftsA and ftsZ. The sequences required for rcsB activity are immediately adjacent to this promoter. ..
  38. Sledjeski D, Gottesman S. Osmotic shock induction of capsule synthesis in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:1204-6 pubmed
    ..In contrast to observations in some other osmotically regulated systems, addition of glycine betaine enhanced the osmotic induction of cps::lacZ by both sucrose and NaCl but had no effect alone. ..
  39. Stout V, Torres Cabassa A, Maurizi M, Gutnick D, Gottesman S. RcsA, an unstable positive regulator of capsular polysaccharide synthesis. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:1738-47 pubmed
    b>RcsA is an unstable positive regulator required for the synthesis of colanic acid capsular polysaccharide in Escherichia coli. Degradation of the RcsA protein in vivo depends on the ATP-dependent Lon protease...