Gene Symbol: pykF
Description: pyruvate kinase I
Alias: ECK1672, JW1666
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     pykF

Top Publications

  1. Valentini G, Stoppini M, Speranza M, Malcovati M, Ferri G. Bacterial pyruvate kinases have a shorter N-terminal domain. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1991;372:91-3 pubmed
    ..This makes the suggested functional role of the N-terminal domain unlikely [Muirhead, H. (1990) Biochem. Soc. Trans. 18, 193-196] although an elongation of this domain with evolution is apparent. ..
  2. Kotlarz D, Garreau H, Buc H. Regulation of the amount and of the activity of phosphofructokinases and pyruvate kinases in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975;381:257-68 pubmed
    ..Kinetics of depression after a shift to anaerobiosis have been followed and found to be of the order of the doubling time. ..
  3. Siddiquee K, Arauzo Bravo M, Shimizu K. Effect of a pyruvate kinase (pykF-gene) knockout mutation on the control of gene expression and metabolic fluxes in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;235:25-33 pubmed
    The metabolic regulation of Escherichia coli lacking a functional pykF gene was investigated based on gene expressions, enzyme activities, intracellular metabolite concentrations and the metabolic flux distribution obtained based on (13)C-..
  4. Zhu J, Shimizu K. Effect of a single-gene knockout on the metabolic regulation in Escherichia coli for D-lactate production under microaerobic condition. Metab Eng. 2005;7:104-15 pubmed
    The effects of several single-gene knockout mutants (pykF, ppc, pflA, pta, and adhE mutants) on the metabolic flux distribution in Escherichia coli were investigated under microaerobic condition...
  5. Rodríguez Prados J, de Atauri P, Maury J, Ortega F, Portais J, Chassagnole C, et al. In silico strategy to rationally engineer metabolite production: A case study for threonine in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;103:609-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis predicts that manipulating a few reactions is sufficient to obtain an important increase in threonine production without major perturbations of metabolite concentrations. ..
  6. Weiss B. The deoxycytidine pathway for thymidylate synthesis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:7922-6 pubmed
    ..The pathway requires the gene for any of three nucleoside diphosphate kinases (ndk, pykA, or pykF) and the gene for a 5'-nucleotidase (yfbR).
  7. Muñoz M, Ponce E. Pyruvate kinase: current status of regulatory and functional properties. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;135:197-218 pubmed
    ..coli, cat and rabbit muscle. A number of attributes of the enzyme that make it of particular interest in biomedicine and industry are also discussed. ..
  8. Emmerling M, Bailey J, Sauer U. Glucose catabolism of Escherichia coli strains with increased activity and altered regulation of key glycolytic enzymes. Metab Eng. 1999;1:117-27 pubmed
    ..The flux data demonstrate that overexpression of even single enzymes early in a central pathway can increase the fluxes to a particular metabolic product, although it may not affect the glucose uptake rate. ..
  9. Zhu T, Phalakornkule C, Koepsel R, Domach M, Ataai M. Cell growth and by-product formation in a pyruvate kinase mutant of E. coli. Biotechnol Prog. 2001;17:624-8 pubmed
    ..This substantial reduction in acids is accompanied by an increase in CO(2) production. Moreover, unlike the B. subtilis pyk mutant, the E. coli pyk mutant did not show a substantial increase in the PEP pool. ..

More Information


  1. Mattevi A, Valentini G, Rizzi M, Speranza M, Bolognesi M, Coda A. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli pyruvate kinase type I: molecular basis of the allosteric transition. Structure. 1995;3:729-41 pubmed
    ..On transition from the T- to the R-state all 12 domains of the functional tetramer modify their relative orientations. These concerted motions are the molecular basis of the coupling between the active centre and the allosteric site. ..
  2. Griffiths J, Cheriyan M, Corbell J, Pocivavsek L, Fierke C, Toone E. A bacterial selection for the directed evolution of pyruvate aldolases. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004;12:4067-74 pubmed
    ..This selection system allows rapid screening of mutant enzyme libraries and facilitates the discovery of enzymes with novel substrate specificities. ..
  3. Ponce E, Garcia M, Muñoz M. Participation of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in Escherichia coli strains with an inactive phosphotransferase system (PTS- Glc+) in gluconate and glucose batch cultures. Can J Microbiol. 2005;51:975-82 pubmed
    ..the overall activity of the ED pathway on gluconate resulted in important increments in PTS- Glc+ and PTS- Glc+ pykF mutants...
  4. Waygood E, Sanwal B. The control of pyruvate kinases of Escherichia coli. I. Physicochemical and regulatory properties of the enzyme activated by fructose 1,6-diphosphate. J Biol Chem. 1974;249:265-74 pubmed
  5. Ponce E, Flores N, Martinez A, Valle F, Bolivar F. Cloning of the two pyruvate kinase isoenzyme structural genes from Escherichia coli: the relative roles of these enzymes in pyruvate biosynthesis. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:5719-22 pubmed
    We report the cloning of the pykA and pykF genes from Escherichia coli, which code for the two pyruvate kinase isoenzymes (ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferases; EC in this microorganism...
  6. Tiwari N, Woods L, Haley R, Kight A, Goforth R, Clark K, et al. Identification and characterization of native proteins of Escherichia coli BL-21 that display affinity towards Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography and Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography Matrices. Protein Expr Purif. 2010;70:191-5 pubmed publisher
    ..coli strain(s) deficient in certain genomic proteins, and the design of an IMAC-HIC affinity tail for recombinant protein isolation based on the very proteins deleted from the genome. ..
  7. Donovan K, Zhu S, Liuni P, Peng F, Kessans S, Wilson D, et al. Conformational Dynamics and Allostery in Pyruvate Kinase. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:9244-56 pubmed publisher
  8. Emmerling M, Dauner M, Ponti A, Fiaux J, Hochuli M, Szyperski T, et al. Metabolic flux responses to pyruvate kinase knockout in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:152-64 pubmed
    ..Reliability of the flux estimates thus obtained was verified by statistical error analysis and by comparison to intracellular carbon flux ratios that were independently calculated from the same NMR data by metabolic flux ratio analysis. ..
  9. Valentini G, Iadarola P, Somani B, Malcovati M. Two forms of pyruvate kinase in Escherichia coli. A comparison of chemical and molecular properties. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1979;570:248-58 pubmed
    ..A comparison of these data shows that the two forms are different proteins, each being a tetramer of identical subunits. ..
  10. Lee B, Yen J, Yang L, Liao J. Incorporating qualitative knowledge in enzyme kinetic models using fuzzy logic. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1999;62:722-9 pubmed
    ..The resulting models, even though they do not provide additional physical meaning in enzyme mechanisms, allow the model to incorporate semiquantitative information in metabolic pathway models. ..
  11. Bledig S, Ramseier T, Saier M. Frur mediates catabolite activation of pyruvate kinase (pykF) gene expression in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:280-3 pubmed
    Expression of a pykF-lacZ fusion was studied as a function of the carbon source in wild-type strains and strains lacking or overproducing the FruR protein of Escherichia coli...
  12. Diaz Ricci J. ADP modulates the dynamic behavior of the glycolytic pathway of Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;271:244-9 pubmed
    ..However, when PEP or F6P is constant, the system evolves toward the formation of stable limit cycles with periods ranging from 0.2 min to hours. ..
  13. Ohara O, Dorit R, Gilbert W. Direct genomic sequencing of bacterial DNA: the pyruvate kinase I gene of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:6883-7 pubmed
  14. Boiteux A, Markus M, Plesser T, Hess B, Malcovati M. Analysis of progress curves. Interaction of pyruvate kinase from Escherichia coli with fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and calcium ions. Biochem J. 1983;211:631-40 pubmed
    ..These effects can be understood by assuming that Ca2+ has the same binding properties as Mg2+, although it does not allow a catalytic turnover. ..
  15. Yohannes E, Thurber A, Wilks J, Tate D, Slonczewski J. Polyamine stress at high pH in Escherichia coli K-12. BMC Microbiol. 2005;5:59 pubmed
    ..During log-phase growth at pH 7.0, 1 mM spermine induced eight proteins, including PykF, GlpK, SerS, DeaD, OmpC and OmpF...
  16. Schneider D, Duperchy E, Coursange E, Lenski R, Blot M. Long-term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. IX. Characterization of insertion sequence-mediated mutations and rearrangements. Genetics. 2000;156:477-88 pubmed
    ..DNA adjacent to the insertions indicates that the affected genes are involved in central metabolism (knockouts of pykF and nadR), cell wall synthesis (adjacent to the promoter of pbpA-rodA), and ill-defined functions (knockouts of ..
  17. Valentini G, Chiarelli L, Fortin R, Speranza M, Galizzi A, Mattevi A. The allosteric regulation of pyruvate kinase. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:18145-52 pubmed
    ..These site-directed mutagenesis data are discussed in the light of the molecular basis for the hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, which is caused by mutations in human erythrocyte PK gene. ..
  18. Cunningham D, Liu Z, Domagalski N, Koepsel R, Ataai M, Domach M. Pyruvate kinase-deficient Escherichia coli exhibits increased plasmid copy number and cyclic AMP levels. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:3041-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The elevated cAMP in PB25 suggests that Pyk may participate in glucose catabolite repression by serving among all of the factors that tighten gene expression. ..
  19. Al Zaid Siddiquee K, Arauzo Bravo M, Shimizu K. Metabolic flux analysis of pykF gene knockout Escherichia coli based on 13C-labeling experiments together with measurements of enzyme activities and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;63:407-17 pubmed
    ..It was found that flux through phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase and malic enzyme were up-regulated in the pykF- mutant as compared with the wild type, and acetate formation was significantly reduced in the mutant...
  20. Shimada T, Fujita N, Maeda M, Ishihama A. Systematic search for the Cra-binding promoters using genomic SELEX system. Genes Cells. 2005;10:907-18 pubmed
  21. Valentini G, Stoppini M, Iadarola P, Malcovati M, Ferri G, Speranza M. Divergent binding sites in pyruvate kinases I and II from Escherichia coli. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1993;374:69-74 pubmed
    ..Sequence comparison with E. coli type I, yeast and cat muscle pyruvate kinases shows that the binding regions of pyruvate kinase II are clearly divergent from those of pyruvate kinase I and of the eukaryotic enzymes. ..
  22. Muirhead H. Isoenzymes of pyruvate kinase. Biochem Soc Trans. 1990;18:193-6 pubmed
  23. Speranza M, Valentini G, Iadarola P, Stoppini M, Malcovati M, Ferri G. Primary structure of three peptides at the catalytic and allosteric sites of the fructose-1,6-bisphosphate-activated pyruvate kinase from Escherichia coli. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1989;370:211-6 pubmed
    ..Clayden, D.A., Lorimer, C.G., Fothergill-Gilmore, L.A., Schiltz, E. & Schmitt, W. (1986) EMBO J. 5, 475-481). ..
  24. Garrido Pertierra A, Cooper R. Evidence for two distinct pyruvate kinase genes in Escherichia coli K-12. FEBS Lett. 1983;162:420-2 pubmed
    ..Genes specifying pyruvate kinase A and pyruvate kinase F were present on the small F-prime F506 and the locus for pyruvate kinase F was found to be at minute 36.5 on the E. coli genetic map. ..
  25. Malcovati M, Valentini G. AMP- and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate-activated pyruvate kinases from Escherichia coli. Methods Enzymol. 1982;90 Pt E:170-9 pubmed
  26. Markus M, Plesser T, Boiteux A, Hess B, Malcovati M. Analysis of progress curves. Rate law of pyruvate kinase type I from Escherichia coli. Biochem J. 1980;189:421-33 pubmed
    ..In the absence of ligands, most of the enzyme is in a third state that binds ATP at an allosteric site. ..
  27. Ponce E, Martinez A, Bolivar F, Valle F. Stimulation of glucose catabolism through the pentose pathway by the absence of the two pyruvate kinase isoenzymes in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1998;58:292-5 pubmed
    ..The increased participation of the PP in glucose metabolism in this strain, was also reflected on the levels of the glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases. ..
  28. Peng L, Arauzo Bravo M, Shimizu K. Metabolic flux analysis for a ppc mutant Escherichia coli based on 13C-labelling experiments together with enzyme activity assays and intracellular metabolite measurements. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;235:17-23 pubmed
    ..9% of the carbon flux being channeled via the glyoxylate shunt. However, the flux of the pentose phosphate pathway significantly decreased in the ppc mutant. ..
  29. Depping R, Lohaus C, Meyer H, Rüger W. The mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases Alt and ModB of bacteriophage T4: target proteins identified. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;335:1217-23 pubmed
    ..E. coli trigger factor and the elongation factor EF-Tu were 2 targets of ModB action, and these proteins were among the 10 identified as targets of Alt, hinting that these factors are involved in phage replication. ..
  30. Woods R, Schneider D, Winkworth C, Riley M, Lenski R. Tests of parallel molecular evolution in a long-term experiment with Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9107-12 pubmed publisher which candidate genes were identified based on parallel phenotypic changes, here we sequenced four loci (pykF, nadR, pbpA-rodA, and hokB/sokB) in which mutations of unknown effect had been discovered in one population, and ..
  31. Zhu T, Bailey M, Angley L, Cooper T, Dobson R. The quaternary structure of pyruvate kinase type 1 from Escherichia coli at low nanomolar concentrations. Biochimie. 2010;92:116-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we show that, unlike some other PK isoenzymes, the modulation of oligomeric state by the allosteric effectors FBP and PEP does not occur at a concentration of 10 nM or above. ..
  32. Kim Y, Park J, Cho J, Cho K, Park Y, Lee J. Proteomic response analysis of a threonine-overproducing mutant of Escherichia coli. Biochem J. 2004;381:823-9 pubmed
    ..coli mutant. ..
  33. Fischer E, Sauer U. A novel metabolic cycle catalyzes glucose oxidation and anaplerosis in hungry Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:46446-51 pubmed
  34. Shen R, Olcott M, Kim J, Rajagopal I, Mathews C. Escherichia coli nucleoside diphosphate kinase interactions with T4 phage proteins of deoxyribonucleotide synthesis and possible regulatory functions. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:32225-32 pubmed publisher
    ..coli mutant. Our data indicate that the regulatory roles are metabolic, not genetic, in nature...
  35. Ostrowski E, Woods R, Lenski R. The genetic basis of parallel and divergent phenotypic responses in evolving populations of Escherichia coli. Proc Biol Sci. 2008;275:277-84 pubmed
    ..Substitutions in the same locus clustered together phenotypically, indicating concordance between molecular and phenotypic measures of divergence. ..