Gene Symbol: pta
Description: phosphate acetyltransferase
Alias: ECK2291, JW2294
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Wanner B, Wilmes Riesenberg M. Involvement of phosphotransacetylase, acetate kinase, and acetyl phosphate synthesis in control of the phosphate regulon in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2124-30 pubmed
    ..coenzyme A, Pi, and ADP are converted into acetate, coenzyme A, and ATP via the enzymes phosphotransacetylase (Pta) and acetate kinase (AckA)...
  2. Gupta S, Clark D. Escherichia coli derivatives lacking both alcohol dehydrogenase and phosphotransacetylase grow anaerobically by lactate fermentation. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:3650-5 pubmed
    ..Similarly, phosphotransacetylase-negative mutants (pta mutants) neither excrete acetate nor grow anaerobically...
  3. Dittrich C, Bennett G, San K. Characterization of the acetate-producing pathways in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Prog. 2005;21:1062-7 pubmed
    ..derived from the central aerobic metabolic pathway often compete with the acetate-producing pathways poxB and ackA-pta for glucose as the substrate...
  4. Shalel Levanon S, San K, Bennett G. Effect of ArcA and FNR on the expression of genes related to the oxygen regulation and the glycolysis pathway in Escherichia coli under microaerobic growth conditions. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2005;92:147-59 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that lower conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA is the main reason for high fluxes through lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in cultures of the arcA, fnr double mutant strain. ..
  5. Zhu J, Shimizu K. Effect of a single-gene knockout on the metabolic regulation in Escherichia coli for D-lactate production under microaerobic condition. Metab Eng. 2005;7:104-15 pubmed
    The effects of several single-gene knockout mutants (pykF, ppc, pflA, pta, and adhE mutants) on the metabolic flux distribution in Escherichia coli were investigated under microaerobic condition...
  6. Brown T, Jones Mortimer M, Kornberg H. The enzymic interconversion of acetate and acetyl-coenzyme A in Escherichia coli. J Gen Microbiol. 1977;102:327-36 pubmed
    ..The genes that specify acetate kinase (ack) and phosphotransacetylase (pta) activities are cotransducible with each other and with purF and are thus located at about min 50 on the E...
  7. Shi I, Stansbury J, Kuzminov A. A defect in the acetyl coenzyme A<-->acetate pathway poisons recombinational repair-deficient mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:1266-75 pubmed
    ..We isolated insertions in ackA and pta, which comprise a two-gene operon responsible for the acetate<-->acetyl coenzyme A interconversion...
  8. Chang D, Shin S, Rhee J, Pan J. Acetate metabolism in a pta mutant of Escherichia coli W3110: importance of maintaining acetyl coenzyme A flux for growth and survival. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:6656-63 pubmed
    ..coli W3100 pta mutant defective in phosphotransacetylase, the first enzyme of the acetate pathway, were investigated...
  9. Kakuda H, Hosono K, Shiroishi K, Ichihara S. Identification and characterization of the ackA (acetate kinase A)-pta (phosphotransacetylase) operon and complementation analysis of acetate utilization by an ackA-pta deletion mutant of Escherichia coli. J Biochem. 1994;116:916-22 pubmed
    The pta gene encoding phosphotransacetylase was cloned on a high copy plasmid with or without the ackA gene encoding acetate kinase in Escherichia coli...

More Information


  1. Huang J, Shi J, Liu Q, Xu Q, Xie X, Wen T, et al. [Effects of gene pta disruption on L-tryptophan fermentation]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2011;51:480-7 pubmed
    To study the effects of gene pta disruption on biosynthesis of L-tryptophan. The pta gene of the L-tryptophan producing strain E. coli TRTH was disrupted by Red recombination technology and a pta mutant E...
  2. Nahku R, Valgepea K, Lahtvee P, Erm S, Abner K, Adamberg K, et al. Specific growth rate dependent transcriptome profiling of Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 in accelerostat cultures. J Biotechnol. 2010;145:60-5 pubmed publisher
    ..34+/-0.01h(-1) and two acetate synthesis pathways - phosphotransacetylase-acetate kinase (pta-ackA) and pyruvate oxidase (poxB) - contributed to the synthesis at the beginning of overflow metabolism, i.e...
  3. Fredericks C, Shibata S, Aizawa S, Reimann S, Wolfe A. Acetyl phosphate-sensitive regulation of flagellar biogenesis and capsular biosynthesis depends on the Rcs phosphorelay. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:734-47 pubmed
    ..Temporal control of flagella biogenesis implicates the Rcs phosphorelay (and, by extension, acetyl approximately P) in the transition of motile, planktonic individuals into sessile biofilm communities. ..
  4. Yun N, San K, Bennett G. Enhancement of lactate and succinate formation in adhE or pta-ackA mutants of NADH dehydrogenase-deficient Escherichia coli. J Appl Microbiol. 2005;99:1404-12 pubmed
    ..of NADH dehydrogenase (NDH)-deficient, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase (PTA-ACK) mutants were constructed...
  5. Sanchez A, Bennett G, San K. Novel pathway engineering design of the anaerobic central metabolic pathway in Escherichia coli to increase succinate yield and productivity. Metab Eng. 2005;7:229-39 pubmed
    ..A recombinant E. coli strain, SBS550MG, was created by deactivating adhE, ldhA and ack-pta from the central metabolic pathway and by activating the glyoxylate pathway through the inactivation of iclR, which ..
  6. Avison M, Horton R, Walsh T, Bennett P. Escherichia coli CreBC is a global regulator of gene expression that responds to growth in minimal media. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:26955-61 pubmed
    ..The cre regulon genes are: the ackA/pta operon, the products of which collectively catalyze the conversion of acetyl-CoA into acetate and ATP; talA, which ..
  7. Pascal M, Chippaux M, Abou Jaoudé A, Blaschkowski H, Knappe J. Mutants of Escherichia coli K12 with defects in anaerobic pyruvate metabolism. J Gen Microbiol. 1981;124:35-42 pubmed
    ..Evidence is presented that anaerobic nitrite reduction with pyruvate involves at least the dehydrogenase subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. ..
  8. Mizrahi I, Biran D, Ron E. Involvement of the Pta-AckA pathway in protein folding and aggregation. Res Microbiol. 2009;160:80-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate the involvement of the acetyl phosphate pathway in chaperone capabilities, in addition to their effect on proteolysis. ..
  9. Hong J, Hunt A, Masters P, Lieberman M. Requirements of acetyl phosphate for the binding protein-dependent transport systems in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:1213-7 pubmed
    ..Thus acetyl phosphate has been implicated in active transport. Evidence is also presented that neither the protonmotive force nor the ecf gene product is required for the shock-sensitive transport systems. ..
  10. Shams Yazdani S, Gonzalez R. Engineering Escherichia coli for the efficient conversion of glycerol to ethanol and co-products. Metab Eng. 2008;10:340-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These yields and productivities are superior to those reported for the conversion of glycerol to ethanol-H(2) or ethanol-formate by other organisms and equivalent to those achieved in the production of ethanol from sugars using E. coli. ..
  11. YOUNG J, Henne K, Morgan J, Konopka A, Ramkrishna D. Integrating cybernetic modeling with pathway analysis provides a dynamic, systems-level description of metabolic control. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008;100:542-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The E. coli model successfully describes the metabolic shift that occurs upon deleting the pta-ackA operon that is responsible for fermentative acetate production...
  12. De Mey M, Lequeux G, Beauprez J, Maertens J, Van Horen E, Soetaert W, et al. Comparison of different strategies to reduce acetate formation in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Prog. 2007;23:1053-63 pubmed
    ..approaches to reduce acetate formation were investigated: (1) direct reduction of the carbon flow to acetate (ackA-pta, poxB knock-out); (2) anticipation on the underlying metabolic and regulatory mechanisms that lead to acetate (..
  13. Klein A, Shulla A, Reimann S, Keating D, Wolfe A. The intracellular concentration of acetyl phosphate in Escherichia coli is sufficient for direct phosphorylation of two-component response regulators. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:5574-81 pubmed
    Acetyl phosphate, the intermediate of the AckA-Pta pathway, acts as a global signal in Escherichia coli...
  14. Goldman D. Purification of phosphotransacetylase from Escherichia coli, K-12. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1958;28:436-7 pubmed
  15. Guest J. Anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli K12 with fumarate as terminal electron acceptor. Genetic studies with menaquinone and fluoroacetate-resistant mutants. J Gen Microbiol. 1979;115:259-71 pubmed
    ..mutants were isolated and four different classes were identified: ack, lacking acetate kinase; pta, lacking phosphotransacetylase; facA, lacking both of these activities; and facB, which retained both of these ..
  16. Groban E, Clarke E, Salis H, Miller S, Voigt C. Kinetic buffering of cross talk between bacterial two-component sensors. J Mol Biol. 2009;390:380-93 pubmed publisher
    ..that significant cross talk between EnvZ and CpxR only occurs for the triple mutant DeltaompR DeltacpxA DeltaactA-pta. All seven combinations of these knockouts were made to test this prediction and only the triple mutant ..
  17. Singh R, Yang Y, Lu B, Bennett G, San K. Expression of the pfl gene and resulting metabolite flux distribution in nuo and ackA-pta E. coli mutant strains. Biotechnol Prog. 2006;22:898-902 pubmed
    Our laboratory previously studied the interaction between nuo and the acetate-producing pathway encoded by ackA-pta in Escherichia coli...
  18. Matsuyama A, Yamamoto H, Nakano E. Cloning, expression, and nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli K-12 ackA gene. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:577-80 pubmed
    ..It was deduced that the ackA gene coded for a protein of 400 amino acids with an Mr of 43,297. The ackA gene was found to be located about 15 kilobases upstream of the purF-folC-hisT region of the chromosome. ..
  19. Shiloach J, Fass R. Growing E. coli to high cell density--a historical perspective on method development. Biotechnol Adv. 2005;23:345-57 pubmed
    ..Additional research on the effects of heterologous protein biosynthesis on signal transduction, proteolysis and post transcription events in E. coli may improve its productivity. ..
  20. Kirkpatrick C, Maurer L, Oyelakin N, Yoncheva Y, Maurer R, Slonczewski J. Acetate and formate stress: opposite responses in the proteome of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:6466-77 pubmed
    ..Acetate repressed 17 proteins, among them phosphotransferase (Pta)...
  21. Rhie H, Dennis D. The function of ackA and pta genes is necessary for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) synthesis in recombinant pha+ Escherichia coli. Can J Microbiol. 1995;41 Suppl 1:200-6 pubmed
    ..PHA) biosynthesis pathway on a plasmid (pha+), the function of the ackA (acetate kinase) and pta (phosphotransacetylase) genes is necessary for efficient incorporation of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3-HV) into the ..
  22. Campos Bermudez V, Bologna F, Andreo C, Drincovich M. Functional dissection of Escherichia coli phosphotransacetylase structural domains and analysis of key compounds involved in activity regulation. FEBS J. 2010;277:1957-66 pubmed publisher
    Escherichia coli phosphotransacetylase (Pta) catalyzes the reversible interconversion of acetyl-CoA and acetyl phosphate. Both compounds are critical in E...
  23. Castaño Cerezo S, Pastor J, Renilla S, Bernal V, Iborra J, Cánovas M. An insight into the role of phosphotransacetylase (pta) and the acetate/acetyl-CoA node in Escherichia coli. Microb Cell Fact. 2009;8:54 pubmed publisher
    ..mutations in the acetate excretion/assimilation pathways, acetyl-CoA synthethase (acs) and phosphotransacetylase (pta), in E. coli BW25113 grown on glucose or acetate minimal media...
  24. Levine S, Ardeshir F, Ames G. Isolation and Characterization of acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase mutants of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1980;143:1081-5 pubmed
    Mutations in the ack (acetate kinase) and pta (phosphotransacetylase) genes in Salmonella typhimurium were characterized and determined to be analogous to those of previously described Escherichia coli mutants...
  25. Sule P, Wadhawan T, Carr N, Horne S, Wolfe A, Prüss B. A combination of assays reveals biomass differences in biofilms formed by Escherichia coli mutants. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2009;49:299-304 pubmed publisher
    ..The ATP assay, in combination with other quantitative and qualitative assays, will allow us to perform genetic studies on the regulatory network that underlies the early steps in E. coli biofilm formation. ..
  26. Yamamoto Otake H, Matsuyama A, Nakano E. Cloning of a gene coding for phosphotransacetylase from Escherichia coli. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1990;33:680-2 pubmed
    A phosphotransacetylase gene (pta) has been cloned from a genomic DNA library of Escherichia coli 1100, a derivative of strain K-12...
  27. Mizrahi I, Biran D, Ron E. Requirement for the acetyl phosphate pathway in Escherichia coli ATP-dependent proteolysis. Mol Microbiol. 2006;62:201-11 pubmed
    ..In this communication we present evidence for the general role of the acetyl phosphate pathway in protein degradation. ..
  28. Miyake M, Miyamoto C, Schnackenberg J, Kurane R, Asada Y. Phosphotransacetylase as a key factor in biological production of polyhydroxybutyrate. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2000;84-86:1039-44 pubmed
    Phosphotransacetylase (Pta) catalyzes the reversible conversion of acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) to acetyl phosphate...
  29. Kakuda H, Shiroishi K, Hosono K, Ichihara S. Construction of Pta-Ack pathway deletion mutants of Escherichia coli and characteristic growth profiles of the mutants in a rich medium. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1994;58:2232-5 pubmed
    ..Using cloned genes and a plasmid with a temperature-sensitive replication origin, three kinds of Pta-Ack pathway deletion mutants were constructed...
  30. Hesslinger C, Fairhurst S, Sawers G. Novel keto acid formate-lyase and propionate kinase enzymes are components of an anaerobic pathway in Escherichia coli that degrades L-threonine to propionate. Mol Microbiol. 1998;27:477-92 pubmed
    ..Double null mutants deficient in phosphotransacetylase (Pta) and acetate kinase (AckA) or AckA and TdcD were unable to metabolize threonine to propionate, indicating that ..
  31. Matsuyama A, Yamamoto Otake H, Hewitt J, MacGillivray R, Nakano E. Nucleotide sequence of the phosphotransacetylase gene of Escherichia coli strain K12. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994;1219:559-62 pubmed
    The phosphotransacetylase gene (pta) from Escherichia coli strain K-12 1100 was identified in a cloned fragment of chromosomal DNA (Yamamoto-Otake, H., Matsuyama, A. and Nakano, A. (1990) Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 33, 680-682)...
  32. Nystrom T. The glucose-starvation stimulon of Escherichia coli: induced and repressed synthesis of enzymes of central metabolic pathways and role of acetyl phosphate in gene expression and starvation survival. Mol Microbiol. 1994;12:833-43 pubmed
    ..Members of this stimulon included enzymes of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway, phosphotransacetylase (Pta) and acetate kinase (AckA) of the acetyl phosphate/acetate production pathway, and formate transacetylase...
  33. Nakashima N, Tamura T. Conditional gene silencing of multiple genes with antisense RNAs and generation of a mutator strain of Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:e103 pubmed publisher
    ..All the vectors were co-transformable; the antisense RNAs against lacZ, ackA, pta and pepN were co-expressed, and silencing of all the target genes was confirmed...
  34. Zheng C, Yang L, Hoopmann M, Eng J, Tang X, Weisbrod C, et al. Cross-linking measurements of in vivo protein complex topologies. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2011;10:M110.006841 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our unbiased data provide novel in vivo topological information that can impact understanding of biological function, even for cases where high resolution structures are not yet available. ..
  35. El Mansi M, Cozzone A, Shiloach J, Eikmanns B. Control of carbon flux through enzymes of central and intermediary metabolism during growth of Escherichia coli on acetate. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2006;9:173-9 pubmed
    ..switch' are turned-on as a consequence of direct competition, on the one hand, between phosphotransacetylase (PTA) and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (alpha-KGDH) for their common co-factor free-CoA (HS-CoA) and, on the other ..
  36. Suzuki T, Abiko Y, Shimizu M. Activation and inhibition of purified phosphotransacetylase of Escherichia coli B by pyruvate and by NADH2 and certain nucleotides. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1969;35:102-8 pubmed
  37. Suzuki T. Phosphotransacetylase of Escherichia coli B, activation by pyruvate and inhibition by NADH and certain nucleotides. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1969;191:559-69 pubmed
  38. Shimizu M, Suzuki T, Kameda K, Abiko Y. Phosphotransacetylase of Escherichia coli B, purification and properties. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1969;191:550-8 pubmed
  39. Katayama A, Tsujii A, Wada A, Nishino T, Ishihama A. Systematic search for zinc-binding proteins in Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:2403-13 pubmed
    ..coli increased up to more than 30 species (or more than 3% of about 1000 proteins expressed under laboratory culture conditions). The specificity and affinity of zinc-binding were analysed for some of the zinc-binding proteins. ..
  40. Fong S, Nanchen A, Palsson B, Sauer U. Latent pathway activation and increased pathway capacity enable Escherichia coli adaptation to loss of key metabolic enzymes. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:8024-33 pubmed
    ..adaptive evolution of four metabolic gene deletion mutants of Escherichia coli (delta pgi, delta ppc, delta pta, and delta tpi) in parallel evolution experiments of each mutant...
  41. Yang Y, Bennett G, San K. Effect of inactivation of nuo and ackA-pta on redistribution of metabolic fluxes in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1999;65:291-7 pubmed
    ..Interactions between nuo and the acetate-producing pathway encoded by ackA-pta were investigated by examining the metabolic patterns of several mutant strains under anaerobic growth conditions...