Gene Symbol: pstS
Description: phosphate ABC transporter periplasmic binding protein
Alias: ECK3721, JW3706, R2pho, nmpA, phoR2a, phoS
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Ledvina P, Tsai A, Wang Z, Koehl E, Quiocho F. Dominant role of local dipolar interactions in phosphate binding to a receptor cleft with an electronegative charge surface: equilibrium, kinetic, and crystallographic studies. Protein Sci. 1998;7:2550-9 pubmed
    ..That binding depends almost entirely on local dipolar interactions with the receptor has important ramification in electrostatic interactions in protein structures and in ligand recognition. ..
  2. Rosen B, Liu Z. Transport pathways for arsenic and selenium: a minireview. Environ Int. 2009;35:512-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we discuss the membrane proteins that transport arsenic and selenium into cells, from bacteria to humans, as well as some of the efflux proteins involved in detoxification. ..
  3. Steed P, Wanner B. Use of the rep technique for allele replacement to construct mutants with deletions of the pstSCAB-phoU operon: evidence of a new role for the PhoU protein in the phosphate regulon. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:6797-809 pubmed
    ..Further, our results contradict those of M. Muda, N. N. Rao, and A. Torriani (J. Bacteriol. 174:8057-8064, 1992), who reported that the PhoU protein was required for Pi uptake. ..
  4. Magota K, Otsuji N, Miki T, Horiuchi T, Tsunasawa S, Kondo J, et al. Nucleotide sequence of the phoS gene, the structural gene for the phosphate-binding protein of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1984;157:909-17 pubmed
    b>phoS is the structural gene for the phosphate-binding protein, which is localized in periplasm and involved in active transport of phosphate in Escherichia coli...
  5. Levitz R, Bittan R, Yagil E. Complementation tests between alkaline phosphatase-constitutive mutants (phoS and phoT) of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1981;145:1432-5 pubmed
    Complementation tests between phoS and phoT mutations showed that they belong to the same cistron. Homozygosis of a heterozygotic partial diploid resulted from allelic transfer from the chromosome to the F' episome.
  6. Zuckier G, Torriani A. Genetic and physiological tests of three phosphate-specific transport mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1981;145:1249-56 pubmed
    ..The pst-2 pit double mutant was incapable of Pi utilization, but the phoT35 pit double mutant exhibited no such deficiency. ..
  7. Taschner N, Yagil E, Spira B. A differential effect of sigmaS on the expression of the PHO regulon genes of Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2004;150:2985-92 pubmed
    ..Other PHO genes such as phoE and ugpB are likewise affected by sigma(S). In contrast, pstS, which encodes a periplasmic phosphate-binding protein and is a negative regulator of PHO, is stimulated by sigma(S)..
  8. Willsky G, Bennett R, Malamy M. Inorganic phosphate transport in Escherichia coli: involvement of two genes which play a role in alkaline phosphatase regulation. J Bacteriol. 1973;113:529-39 pubmed
    Two classes of alkaline phosphatase constitutive mutations which comprise the original phoS locus (genes phoS and phoT) on the Escherichia coli genome have been implicated in the regulation of alkaline phosphatase synthesis...
  9. Aguena M, Spira B. Transcriptional processing of the pst operon of Escherichia coli. Curr Microbiol. 2009;58:264-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcription of pst is initiated at the promoter located upstream to the first gene, pstS. Immediately after its synthesis, the primary transcript of pst is cleaved into shorter mRNA molecules in a ..

More Information


  1. Barrett A, Depledge M, Powles R. Interstitial pneumonitis following bone marrow transplantation after low dose rate total body irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1983;9:1029-33 pubmed
    ..5 Gy we suggest that dose rate may significantly affect the incidence. Data so far available suggest a true improvement in therapeutic ratio for low dose rate single fraction TBI compared with high dose rate. ..
  2. Xavier K, Kossmann M, Santos H, Boos W. Kinetic analysis by in vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance of internal Pi during the uptake of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate by the pho regulon-dependent Ugp system and the glp regulon-dependent GlpT system. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:699-704 pubmed
    ..Both systems were inversely controlled by internal Pi. Whereas the Ugp system was inhibited, the GlpT system was stimulated by elevated internal Pi. ..
  3. Faraldo Gómez J, Roux B. Electrostatics of ion stabilization in a ClC chloride channel homologue from Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2004;339:981-1000 pubmed
    ..Finally, it is shown that, in contrast to K-channels, and in analogy to the SBP/PBP sulfate/phosphate-binding proteins, the contribution of helix macrodipoles to chloride binding in EcClC is only marginal. ..
  4. Taschner N, Yagil E, Spira B. The effect of IHF on sigmaS selectivity of the phoA and pst promoters of Escherichia coli. Arch Microbiol. 2006;185:234-7 pubmed
    ..Introduction of a -13C residue in the promoter region of phoA, another PHO regulon gene that is not directly affected by IHF, did not affect its exclusive transcription initiation by Esigma (D). ..
  5. Yang P, Li Y, Wang Y, Meng K, Luo H, Yuan T, et al. A novel beta-mannanase with high specific activity from Bacillus circulans CGMCC1554: gene cloning, expression and enzymatic characterization. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2009;159:85-94 pubmed publisher
    ..After hydrolysis of LBG, oligomannosides accounted for 76% of the hydrolysis products. All these properties collectively make MAN5A a better candidate than current mannanases for use in the food and feed industry. ..
  6. Iwakura M, Shimura Y, Tsuda K. Isolation of DNA fragment containing phoS gene of Escherichia coli K-12. J Biochem. 1982;92:615-22 pubmed
    The DNA fragment containing the phoS gene, a regulatory gene for alkaline phosphatase, has been isolated from Escherichia coli K-12 chromosomal DNA by cutting off the DNA with Hind III restriction enzyme and by cloning the gene with ..
  7. Morita T, Amemura M, Makino K, Shinagawa H, Magota K, Otsuji N, et al. Hyperproduction of phosphate-binding protein, phoS, and pre-phoS proteins in Escherichia coli carrying a cloned phoS gene. Eur J Biochem. 1983;130:427-35 pubmed
    A large amount of phosphate-binding protein, the phoS gene product, accumulated in the periplasmic space of the cells when an Escherichia coli strain carrying a multicopy plasmid containing a chromosomal fragment of the phoS-phoT region (..
  8. Surin B, Jans D, Fimmel A, Shaw D, Cox G, Rosenberg H. Structural gene for the phosphate-repressible phosphate-binding protein of Escherichia coli has its own promoter: complete nucleotide sequence of the phoS gene. J Bacteriol. 1984;157:772-8 pubmed
    The complete nucleotide sequence of the phoS gene, the structural gene for the phosphate-repressible, periplasmic phosphate-binding protein Escherichia coli K-12, was determined...
  9. Surin B, Rosenberg H, Cox G. Phosphate-specific transport system of Escherichia coli: nucleotide sequence and gene-polypeptide relationships. J Bacteriol. 1985;161:189-98 pubmed
    ..Along with the DNA sequence for the phoS gene reported previously (Surin et al., J. Bacteriol. 157:772-778, 1984; Magota et al., J. Bacteriol...
  10. Amemura M, Makino K, Shinagawa H, Kobayashi A, Nakata A. Nucleotide sequence of the genes involved in phosphate transport and regulation of the phosphate regulon in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1985;184:241-50 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose to designate the allele phoW. The order of the genes in this region has been established to be phoS-phoW-pstA(=phoT)-pstB-phoU counterclockwise on the E. coli genetic map.
  11. Wanner B, Latterell P. Mutants affected in alkaline phosphatase, expression: evidence for multiple positive regulators of the phosphate regulon in Escherichia coli. Genetics. 1980;96:353-66 pubmed
    ..The phoB gene product is always needed together with either the phoR or phoM gene product. In addition, the phoR gene product acts as a negative regulator.--We describe a model for phoA gene expression consistent with this new evidence. ..
  12. Cox G, Rosenberg H, Downie J, Silver S. Genetic analysis of mutants affected in the Pst inorganic phosphate transport system. J Bacteriol. 1981;148:1-9 pubmed
    ..The phoS gene, defined as the structural gene for the phosphate-binding protein, is also part of the operon, but the phoS28 ..
  13. Torriani A. From cell membrane to nucleotides: the phosphate regulon in Escherichia coli. Bioessays. 1990;12:371-6 pubmed
    ..alkaline phosphatase) by high Pi concentrations in the medium requires the presence of an intact Pst operon (pstS, pstC, pstA, pstB and phoU) and phoR...
  14. Spira B, Yagil E. The relation between ppGpp and the PHO regulon in Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1998;257:469-77 pubmed
    ..In a delta relA delta spoT strain that is unable to accumulate ppGpp the expression of two genes (phoA and pstS) that belong to the PHO regulon is impaired, even in constitutive mutants...
  15. Yagil E, Be eri H. Arsenate-resistant alkaline phosphatase-constitutive mutants of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1977;154:185-9 pubmed
    ..Some of these mutants are linked to ilv (phoS- or phoT-), other are linked to proC (phoR-)...
  16. Hoffer S, Tommassen J. The phosphate-binding protein of Escherichia coli is not essential for P(i)-regulated expression of the pho regulon. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:5768-71 pubmed
    Disruption of pstS encoding the P(i)-binding protein in Escherichia coli generally leads to the constitutive expression of the pho regulon...
  17. Aguena M, Yagil E, Spira B. Transcriptional analysis of the pst operon of Escherichia coli. Mol Genet Genomics. 2002;268:518-24 pubmed
    ..The pst operon of Escherichia coli, which encodes the phosphate-specific transport system, is composed of five genes, pstS, pstC, pstA, pstB and phoU, whose transcription is induced by phosphate starvation...
  18. Aguena M, Ferreira G, Spira B. Stability of the pstS transcript of Escherichia coli. Arch Microbiol. 2009;191:105-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcription of pst is initiated at the promoter located upstream to the first gene, pstS. Immediately after its synthesis, the primary transcript of pst is cleaved into shorter mRNA molecules...
  19. Rosenberg H, Gerdes R, Chegwidden K. Two systems for the uptake of phosphate in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1977;131:505-11 pubmed
    ..In strains in which both systems were fully operative, the initial rates of uptake was nearly additive, and the systems appeared to interact with a common intracellular phosphate pool. ..
  20. Rice C, Pollard J, Lewis Z, McCleary W. Employment of a promoter-swapping technique shows that PhoU modulates the activity of the PstSCAB2 ABC transporter in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:573-82 pubmed publisher
    ..coli. Here we utilized P(phoB)::P(tac) and P(pstS)::P(tac) strains to characterize phenotypes resulting from various DeltaphoU mutations...
  21. Aguena M, Spira B. RT-PCR of long prokaryotic operon transcripts without DNase treatment. J Microbiol Methods. 2003;55:419-23 pubmed
    ..To avoid amplification of genomic DNA, the hybrid-primer molecules that were not incorporated into the first-strand cDNA were removed by RNase H treatment followed by ultrafiltration...
  22. Yao N, Ledvina P, Choudhary A, Quiocho F. Modulation of a salt link does not affect binding of phosphate to its specific active transport receptor. Biochemistry. 1996;35:2079-85 pubmed
    ..That no dramatic effect on phosphate affinity was produced by these ionic perturbations indicates a major role for hydrogen bonds and other local dipoles in the binding and charge stabilization of ionic ligands. ..
  23. Wang Z, Choudhary A, Ledvina P, Quiocho F. Fine tuning the specificity of the periplasmic phosphate transport receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis, ligand binding, and crystallographic studies. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:25091-4 pubmed
  24. Levitz R, Klar A, Sar N, Yagil E. A new locus in the phosphate specific transport (PST) region of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;197:98-103 pubmed
    ..coli chromosome which lacks the periplasmic phosphate binding protein. In contrast to other phoS mutations (which have the same phenotype) it complements the mutations in phoT and pstB...
  25. Amemura M, Shinagawa H, Makino K, Otsuji N, Nakata A. Cloning of and complementation tests with alkaline phosphatase regulatory genes (phoS and phoT) of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1982;152:692-701 pubmed
    The regulatory genes of alkaline phosphatase, phoS and phoT, of Escherichia coli were cloned on pBR322, initially as an 11.8-kilobase EcoRI fragment. A restriction map of the hybrid plasmid was established...
  26. Ruiz N, Silhavy T. Constitutive activation of the Escherichia coli Pho regulon upregulates rpoS translation in an Hfq-dependent fashion. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5984-92 pubmed
    ..This upregulation of rpoS translation is Hfq dependent, suggesting the involvement of a small regulatory RNA (sRNA). The transcription of this yet-to-be-identified sRNA is regulated by the PhoBR two-component system...
  27. Wang Z, Luecke H, Yao N, Quiocho F. A low energy short hydrogen bond in very high resolution structures of protein receptor--phosphate complexes. Nat Struct Biol. 1997;4:519-22 pubmed
  28. Luecke H, Quiocho F. High specificity of a phosphate transport protein determined by hydrogen bonds. Nature. 1990;347:402-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These features are fundamental to understanding phosphate transport systems and molecular recognition of charged substrates or ions in other biological processes...
  29. Hirshberg M, Henrick K, Haire L, Vasisht N, Brune M, Corrie J, et al. Crystal structure of phosphate binding protein labeled with a coumarin fluorophore, a probe for inorganic phosphate. Biochemistry. 1998;37:10381-5 pubmed publisher
  30. Sermon J, Vanoirbeek K, De Spiegeleer P, Van Houdt R, Aertsen A, Michiels C. Unique stress response to the lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate enzyme system in Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 2005;156:225-32 pubmed
    ..Several of the induced genes or pathways may be involved in bacterial defense against the toxic effects of the lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate enzyme system. ..