Gene Symbol: proV
Description: glycine betaine/proline ABC transporter periplasmic binding protein
Alias: ECK2671, JW2652, osrA, proU
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Gul N, Poolman B. Functional reconstitution and osmoregulatory properties of the ProU ABC transporter from Escherichia coli. Mol Membr Biol. 2013;30:138-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We have purified the components of ProU, i.e., the substrate-binding protein ProX, the nucleotide-binding protein ProV and the transmembrane protein ProW, and reconstituted the full transporter complex in liposomes...
  2. Rajkumari K, Gowrishankar J. An N-terminally truncated RpoS (sigma(S)) protein in Escherichia coli is active in vivo and exhibits normal environmental regulation even in the absence of rpoS transcriptional and translational control signals. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:3167-75 pubmed
    ..a plasmid-borne arabinose-inducible promoter, is as proficient as the wild type in directing transcription from the proU P1 promoter; at three other sigma(S)-dependent promoters that were tested (osmY, katE, and csiD), the truncated ..
  3. Lindquist S, Galleni M, Lindberg F, Normark S. Signalling proteins in enterobacterial AmpC beta-lactamase regulation. Mol Microbiol. 1989;3:1091-102 pubmed
    ..Instead it is suggested that AmpD and AmpE sense the effect of beta-lactam action on peptidoglycan biosynthesis and relay this signal to AmpR. ..
  4. Stirling D, Hulton C, Waddell L, Park S, Stewart G, Booth I, et al. Molecular characterization of the proU loci of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli encoding osmoregulated glycine betaine transport systems. Mol Microbiol. 1989;3:1025-38 pubmed
    The proU loci of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli encode high-affinity glycine betaine transport systems which play an important role in survival under osmotic stress...
  5. Wright C, Beattie G. Bacterial species specificity in proU osmoinducibility and nptII and lacZ expression. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;8:201-8 pubmed
    ..The Escherichia coli proU promoter, which is induced by low water potential in E...
  6. May G, Faatz E, Lucht J, Haardt M, Bolliger M, Bremer E. Characterization of the osmoregulated Escherichia coli proU promoter and identification of ProV as a membrane-associated protein. Mol Microbiol. 1989;3:1521-31 pubmed
    ..coli promoters. Using an antiserum raised against a ProV-beta-galactosidase hybrid protein, we have identified ProV as a protein associated with the cytoplasmic membrane...
  7. Lucht J, Bremer E. Characterization of mutations affecting the osmoregulated proU promoter of Escherichia coli and identification of 5' sequences required for high-level expression. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:801-9 pubmed
    Expression of the Escherichia coli proU operon, which encodes an efficient uptake system for the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, is strongly increased in cells grown at high osmolarity...
  8. Csonka L, Hanson A. Prokaryotic osmoregulation: genetics and physiology. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1991;45:569-606 pubmed
  9. Fournier M, Ozeki H. Structure and organization of the transfer ribonucleic acid genes of Escherichia coli K-12. Microbiol Rev. 1985;49:379-97 pubmed

More Information


  1. Prince W, Villarejo M. Osmotic control of proU transcription is mediated through direct action of potassium glutamate on the transcription complex. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:17673-9 pubmed
    Osmoregulated transcription from the proU promoter of Escherichia coli has been successfully reconstituted from purified components in a simple in vitro system consisting of plasmid DNA template, RNA polymerase, and nucleotides in the ..
  2. Kavalchuk K, Madhusudan S, Schnetz K. RNase III initiates rapid degradation of proU mRNA upon hypo-osmotic stress in Escherichia coli. RNA Biol. 2012;9:98-109 pubmed publisher
    Hyper-osmotic stress strongly induces expression of the Escherichia coli proU operon encoding a high affinity uptake system for the osmoprotectants glycine betaine and proline betaine...
  3. Ramirez R, Villarejo M. Osmotic signal transduction to proU is independent of DNA supercoiling in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:879-85 pubmed
    b>proU expression has been proposed to form part of a general stress response that is regulated by increased negative DNA supercoiling brought about by environmental signals such as osmotic or anaerobic stress (N. Ni Bhriain, C. J...
  4. Rajkumari K, Gowrishankar J. In vivo expression from the RpoS-dependent P1 promoter of the osmotically regulated proU operon in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium: activation by rho and hns mutations and by cold stress. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:6543-50 pubmed publisher
    Unlike the sigma(70)-controlled P2 promoter for the osmotically regulated proU operon of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the sigma(s)-controlled P1 promoter situated further upstream appears not to contribute ..
  5. Barron A, Jung J, Villarejo M. Purification and characterization of a glycine betaine binding protein from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:11841-6 pubmed
    ..The protein was absent in mutants with lambda placMu insertions in the proU region, a locus involved in transport of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine...
  6. Gowrishankar J, Jayashree P, Rajkumari K. Molecular cloning of an osmoregulatory locus in Escherichia coli: increased proU gene dosage results in enhanced osmotolerance. J Bacteriol. 1986;168:1197-204 pubmed
    ..We propose the designations proU for the gene originally identified by the proU224::Mu d1(lac Ap) insertion and proV for the gene upstream (that is, counterclockwise) of proU.
  7. Biemans Oldehinkel E, Mahmood N, Poolman B. A sensor for intracellular ionic strength. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10624-9 pubmed
    ..We present a model for the gating of membrane transport by ionic strength and propose a new role for CBS domains...
  8. Prigent Combaret C, Vidal O, Dorel C, Lejeune P. Abiotic surface sensing and biofilm-dependent regulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5993-6002 pubmed sessile bacteria: the OmpC porin, the high-affinity transport system of glycine betaine (encoded by the proU operon), the colanic acid exopolysaccharide (wca locus, formerly called cps), tripeptidase T (pepT), and the nickel ..
  9. Druger Liotta J, Prange V, Overdier D, Csonka L. Selection of mutations that alter the osmotic control of transcription of the Salmonella typhimurium proU operon. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:2449-59 pubmed
    ..designated osmX, in Salmonella typhimurium that result in constitutive expression of the normally osmoregulated proU operon...
  10. Sutherland L, Cairney J, Elmore M, Booth I, Higgins C. Osmotic regulation of transcription: induction of the proU betaine transport gene is dependent on accumulation of intracellular potassium. J Bacteriol. 1986;168:805-14 pubmed
    The proU locus, which encodes a high-affinity betaine transport system, and the kdp operon, which encodes a potassium transport system, are the principal osmoresponsive genes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium...
  11. Gowrishankar J. Identification of osmoresponsive genes in Escherichia coli: evidence for participation of potassium and proline transport systems in osmoregulation. J Bacteriol. 1985;164:434-45 pubmed
    ..obtained to support the notion that osrA codes for an osmoresponsive L-proline transport system and is homologus to proU in Salmonella typhimurium...
  12. Wise A, Brems R, Ramakrishnan V, Villarejo M. Sequences in the -35 region of Escherichia coli rpoS-dependent genes promote transcription by E sigma S. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:2785-93 pubmed
    ..Substitution of cytosine nucleotides for thymidine at the -35 site of the sigma D-dependent proU promoter effectively abolished transcription by E sigma D but allowed E sigma S to direct transcription from the ..
  13. Grothe S, Krogsrud R, McClellan D, Milner J, Wood J. Proline transport and osmotic stress response in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1986;166:253-9 pubmed
    ..Mutation proU205, which was similar in genetic map location and phenotype to other proU mutations isolated in E...
  14. Wang J, Syvanen M. DNA twist as a transcriptional sensor for environmental changes. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:1861-6 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  15. May G, Faatz E, Villarejo M, Bremer E. Binding protein dependent transport of glycine betaine and its osmotic regulation in Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1986;205:225-33 pubmed
    ..of a high-affinity, binding protein dependent transport system for glycine betaine, which is encoded by the proU region...
  16. Faatz E, Middendorf A, Bremer E. Cloned structural genes for the osmotically regulated binding-protein-dependent glycine betaine transport system (ProU) of Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Microbiol. 1988;2:265-79 pubmed
    The proU locus of Escherichia coli encodes a high-affinity, binding-protein-dependent transport system (ProU) for the osmoprotectant glycine betaine...
  17. Gutierrez C, Barondess J, Manoil C, Beckwith J. The use of transposon TnphoA to detect genes for cell envelope proteins subject to a common regulatory stimulus. Analysis of osmotically regulated genes in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1987;195:289-97 pubmed
    ..Osmo-inducible fusions of phoA were found to ompC and to a gene that is probably proU. These two genes were already known to be transcriptionally induced by osmolarity...
  18. Dattananda C, Gowrishankar J. Osmoregulation in Escherichia coli: complementation analysis and gene-protein relationships in the proU locus. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:1915-22 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that proU is an operon with three genes, designated in order proV, proW, and proX, encoding respectively the gene products above...
  19. Lucht J, Bremer E. Adaptation of Escherichia coli to high osmolarity environments: osmoregulation of the high-affinity glycine betaine transport system proU. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1994;14:3-20 pubmed
    ..In this overview, we discuss the properties of the high-affinity glycine betaine transport system ProU and the osmotic regulation of its structural genes.
  20. Verheul A, Wouters J, Rombouts F, Abee T. A possible role of ProP, ProU and CaiT in osmoprotection of Escherichia coli by carnitine. J Appl Microbiol. 1998;85:1036-46 pubmed
    ..that, under osmotic stress, carnitine accumulates in the cytoplasm following import through the ProP and ProU transport systems. Betaine and carnitine also protect E...
  21. Park S, Stirling D, Hulton C, Booth I, Higgins C, Stewart G. A novel, non-invasive promoter probe vector: cloning of the osmoregulated proU promoter of Escherichia coli K12. Mol Microbiol. 1989;3:1011-23 pubmed
    ..Only one such promoter, subsequently identified as part of the proU operon, was isolated...
  22. Gowrishankar J. Nucleotide sequence of the osmoregulatory proU operon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:1923-31 pubmed
    ..whose orientation, order, location, and sizes were in close accord with genetic evidence for three cistrons (proV, proW, and proX) in this operon...
  23. Overdier D, Csonka L. A transcriptional silencer downstream of the promoter in the osmotically controlled proU operon of Salmonella typhimurium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:3140-4 pubmed
    The proU operon of Salmonella typhimurium is induced by conditions of high osmolality. The cis-acting sequences that mediate osmotic control of transcription were characterized by deletion analysis...