proP

Summary

Gene Symbol: proP
Description: proline/glycine betaine transporter
Alias: ECK4104, JW4072
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Wood J, Bremer E, Csonka L, Kraemer R, Poolman B, van der Heide T, et al. Osmosensing and osmoregulatory compatible solute accumulation by bacteria. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2001;130:437-60 pubmed
    ..that can act as both osmosensors and osmoregulatory transporters have been identified (secondary transporters ProP of E. coli and BetP of C. glutamicum as well as ABC transporter OpuA of L. lactis)...
  2. Cosquer A, Pichereau V, Pocard J, Minet J, Cormier M, Bernard T. Nanomolar levels of dimethylsulfoniopropionate, dimethylsulfonioacetate, and glycine betaine are sufficient to confer osmoprotection to Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999;65:3304-11 pubmed
    ..levels of osmoprotectants were ineffective with a mutant strain (GM50) that expressed only the low-affinity ProP osmoporter. Transport studies showed that DMSA and DMSP, like GB, were taken up via both ProU and ProP...
  3. Buurman E, McLaggan D, Naprstek J, Epstein W. Multiple paths for nonphysiological transport of K+ in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:4238-45 pubmed
    ..In contrast, expression of wild-type ProP, TrkG, and TrkH proteins increased uptake when encoded on multicopy plasmids...
  4. Griffith J, Baker M, Rouch D, Page M, Skurray R, Paulsen I, et al. Membrane transport proteins: implications of sequence comparisons. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1992;4:684-95 pubmed
    ..Their sequence similarities imply a common mechanism of action. This hypothesis provides an objective basis for examining their mechanisms of action and relationships to other transporters. ..
  5. Racher K, Voegele R, Marshall E, Culham D, Wood J, Jung H, et al. Purification and reconstitution of an osmosensor: transporter ProP of Escherichia coli senses and responds to osmotic shifts. Biochemistry. 1999;38:1676-84 pubmed
    The ProP protein of Escherichia coli is an osmoregulatory H+-compatible solute cotransporter. ProP is activated by an osmotic upshift in both whole cells and membrane vesicles...
  6. Culham D, Lasby B, Marangoni A, Milner J, Steer B, van Nues R, et al. Isolation and sequencing of Escherichia coli gene proP reveals unusual structural features of the osmoregulatory proline/betaine transporter, ProP. J Mol Biol. 1993;229:268-76 pubmed
    Transporters encoded in genetic loci putP, proP and proU mediate proline and/or betaine accumulation by Escherichia coli K-12. The ProP and ProU systems are osmoregulatory...
  7. Culham D, Tripet B, Racher K, Voegele R, Hodges R, Wood J. The role of the carboxyl terminal alpha-helical coiled-coil domain in osmosensing by transporter ProP of Escherichia coli. J Mol Recognit. 2000;13:309-22 pubmed
    Concentrative uptake of osmoprotectants via transporter ProP contributes to the rehydration of Escherichia coli cells that encounter high osmolality media...
  8. Racher K, Culham D, Wood J. Requirements for osmosensing and osmotic activation of transporter ProP from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2001;40:7324-33 pubmed
    Transporter ProP of Escherichia coli, a solute-H+ symporter, can sense and respond to osmotic upshifts imposed on cells, on membrane vesicles, or on proteoliposomes that incorporate purified ProP-(His)6...
  9. Csonka L. The role of proline in osmoregulation in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Basic Life Sci. 1981;18:533-42 pubmed
    ..this conclusion is based on the observation that putP- proP- double mutants, which lack both of the known proline permeases are resistant in minimal medium to the toxic ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Stalmach M, Grothe S, Wood J. Two proline porters in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1983;156:481-6 pubmed
    ..5 mM). We conclude that E. coli, like Salmonella typhimurium, possesses a second proline porter that is inactivated by mutations at the proP locus.
  2. Milner J, Grothe S, Wood J. Proline porter II is activated by a hyperosmotic shift in both whole cells and membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli K12. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:14900-5 pubmed
    ..by glycine betaine in a manner analogous to that observed in whole cells; and (iv) eliminated by lesions in proP. Membrane vesicles were able to transport serine but not glutamine and serine transport was reduced by the ..
  3. Wood J. Osmosensing by bacteria. Sci STKE. 2006;2006:pe43 pubmed
    ..Detailed studies of osmosensing transporters OpuA, BetP, and ProP suggest that they sense and respond to different osmotic pressure-dependent cellular properties...
  4. Tsatskis Y, Khambati J, Dobson M, Bogdanov M, Dowhan W, Wood J. The osmotic activation of transporter ProP is tuned by both its C-terminal coiled-coil and osmotically induced changes in phospholipid composition. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:41387-94 pubmed
    Transporter ProP of Escherichia coli (ProPEc) senses extracellular osmolality and mediates osmoprotectant uptake when it is rising or high...
  5. Eguchi Y, Okada T, Minagawa S, Oshima T, Mori H, Yamamoto K, et al. Signal transduction cascade between EvgA/EvgS and PhoP/PhoQ two-component systems of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3006-14 pubmed
    ..coli resulted in enhanced expression of 13 PhoP/PhoQ-regulated genes, crcA, hemL, mgtA, ompT, phoP, phoQ, proP, rstA, rstB, slyB, ybjG, yrbL, and mgrB...
  6. Anderson R, Menzel R, Wood J. Biochemistry and regulation of a second L-proline transport system in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1980;141:1071-6 pubmed
    ..141:1064--1070, 1980) have identified this system by showing that it is inactivated by mutations at the locus proP. We have found that it is an active transport system with an apparent Km for L-proline of 3 x 10(-4) M and a strict ..
  7. Verheul A, Wouters J, Rombouts F, Abee T. A possible role of ProP, ProU and CaiT in osmoprotection of Escherichia coli by carnitine. J Appl Microbiol. 1998;85:1036-46 pubmed
    ..it was established that, under osmotic stress, carnitine accumulates in the cytoplasm following import through the ProP and ProU transport systems. Betaine and carnitine also protect E...
  8. Typas A, Stella S, Johnson R, Hengge R. The -35 sequence location and the Fis-sigma factor interface determine sigmas selectivity of the proP (P2) promoter in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2007;63:780-96 pubmed
    The P2 promoter of proP, encoding a transporter for proline and glycine betaine in Escherichia coli, is a unique paradigm, where master regulators of different growth stages, Fis and sigma(S) (RpoS), collaborate to achieve promoter ..
  9. Cheng Y, Yang W, Johnson R, Yuan H. Structural analysis of the transcriptional activation region on Fis: crystal structures of six Fis mutants with different activation properties. J Mol Biol. 2000;302:1139-51 pubmed
    ..as in the rrnB P1 promoter, or when bound to a site overlapping the -35 RNA polymerase binding site, such as in the proP P2 promoter...
  10. Romantsov T, Guan Z, Wood J. Cardiolipin and the osmotic stress responses of bacteria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1788:2092-100 pubmed publisher
    ..CL is concentrated at the poles of diverse bacterial cells. A FlAsH-tagged variant of osmosensory transporter ProP is also concentrated at E. coli cell poles...
  11. Mileykovskaya E. Subcellular localization of Escherichia coli osmosensory transporter ProP: focus on cardiolipin membrane domains. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:1419-22 pubmed
    ..of the phospholipid cardiolipin in recruitment of a membrane protein (specifically H(+)-osmoprotectant symporter ProP) to the Escherichia coli cell poles...
  12. Mukhopadhyay R, Huang K, Wingreen N. Lipid localization in bacterial cells through curvature-mediated microphase separation. Biophys J. 2008;95:1034-49 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation is consistent with recent experiments showing that in Escherichia coli cells with reduced cardiolipin concentrations, cardiolipin and the osmoregulatory protein ProP fail to localize to the poles.
  13. McLeod S, Xu J, Johnson R. Coactivation of the RpoS-dependent proP P2 promoter by fis and cyclic AMP receptor protein. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:4180-7 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli proP P2 promoter, which directs the expression of an integral membrane transporter of proline, glycine betaine, and other osmoprotecting compounds, is induced upon entry into stationary phase to protect cells from ..
  14. Phadtare S, Inouye M. Role of CspC and CspE in regulation of expression of RpoS and UspA, the stress response proteins in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:1205-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, this upregulation is lost in the Delta rpoS strain. Other RpoS-controlled proteins such as ProP and KatG, are also upregulated by the overexpression of CspC...
  15. Landis L, Xu J, Johnson R. The cAMP receptor protein CRP can function as an osmoregulator of transcription in Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 1999;13:3081-91 pubmed
    Transcription of the P1 promoter of the Escherichia coli proP gene, which encodes a transporter of osmoprotectants, is strongly induced by a shift to hyperosmotic media...
  16. Gouesbet G, Jebbar M, Talibart R, Bernard T, Blanco C. Pipecolic acid is an osmoprotectant for Escherichia coli taken up by the general osmoporters ProU and ProP. Microbiology. 1994;140 ( Pt 9):2415-22 pubmed
    ..specific uptake mutants and competitive assays, we established that the imino acid enters the cells through the ProP and ProU systems with Km values of 225 and 53 microM, respectively...
  17. Culham D, Hillar A, Henderson J, Ly A, Vernikovska Y, Racher K, et al. Creation of a fully functional cysteine-less variant of osmosensor and proton-osmoprotectant symporter ProP from Escherichia coli and its application to assess the transporter's membrane orientation. Biochemistry. 2003;42:11815-23 pubmed
    Transporter ProP of Escherichia coli is an osmosensor and an osmoprotectant transporter. Previous results suggest that medium osmolality determines the proportions of ProP in active and inactive conformations...
  18. Jebbar M, Talibart R, Gloux K, Bernard T, Blanco C. Osmoprotection of Escherichia coli by ectoine: uptake and accumulation characteristics. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:5027-35 pubmed
    ..Its osmoprotective ability was as potent as that of glycine betaine. The ProP and ProU systems are both involved in ectoine uptake and accumulation in E. coli...
  19. McLaggan D, Epstein W. Escherichia coli accumulates the eukaryotic osmolyte taurine at high osmolarity. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1991;65:209-13 pubmed
    Escherichia coli accumulated taurine at high osmolarity via the ProU and ProP transport systems. Taurine accumulation was shown to be osmotically active as it displaced cytoplasmic K+...
  20. Gowrishankar J. Identification of osmoresponsive genes in Escherichia coli: evidence for participation of potassium and proline transport systems in osmoregulation. J Bacteriol. 1985;164:434-45 pubmed
  21. Dinnbier U, Limpinsel E, Schmid R, Bakker E. Transient accumulation of potassium glutamate and its replacement by trehalose during adaptation of growing cells of Escherichia coli K-12 to elevated sodium chloride concentrations. Arch Microbiol. 1988;150:348-57 pubmed
    ..coli. However, during osmoadaptation a high internal potassium concentration appeared to stimulate the derepression of proline-uptake systems (mainly system ProP).
  22. Smith M, Crane R, Keates R, Wood J. Overexpression, purification, and characterization of ProQ, a posttranslational regulator for osmoregulatory transporter ProP of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2004;43:12979-89 pubmed
    b>ProP is an osmosensor and osmoregulatory transporter in Escherichia coli. Osmotic activation of ProP is attenuated 5-fold in the absence of soluble protein ProQ, but proQ lesions do not influence proP transcription or ProP levels...
  23. Wood J. Osmosensing by bacteria: signals and membrane-based sensors. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1999;63:230-62 pubmed
    ..The osmoprotectant transporter ProP and channel MscL act as osmosensors after purification and reconstitution in proteoliposomes...
  24. Saidijam M, Bettaney K, Szakonyi G, Psakis G, Shibayama K, Suzuki S, et al. Active membrane transport and receptor proteins from bacteria. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005;33:867-72 pubmed
  25. Hillar A, Culham D, Vernikovska Y, Wood J, Boggs J. Formation of an antiparallel, intermolecular coiled coil is associated with in vivo dimerization of osmosensor and osmoprotectant transporter ProP in Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2005;44:10170-80 pubmed
    Membrane transporter ProP from Escherichia coli senses extracellular osmolality and responds by mediating the uptake of osmoprotectants such as glycine betaine when osmolality is high...
  26. Aiyar S, McLeod S, Ross W, Hirvonen C, Thomas M, Johnson R, et al. Architecture of Fis-activated transcription complexes at the Escherichia coli rrnB P1 and rrnE P1 promoters. J Mol Biol. 2002;316:501-16 pubmed
    ..The accompanying paper shows that the 273 determinant on alphaCTD is also targeted by Fis at the proP P2 promoter where the activator binds overlapping the -35 hexamer...
  27. Xu J, Johnson R. Fis activates the RpoS-dependent stationary-phase expression of proP in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:5222-31 pubmed
    ..lac fusions was screened for those which give increased expression in the presence of Fis in order to isolate a ProP-LacZ protein fusion...
  28. Haardt M, Kempf B, Faatz E, Bremer E. The osmoprotectant proline betaine is a major substrate for the binding-protein-dependent transport system ProU of Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Gen Genet. 1995;246:783-6 pubmed
    The ProP and ProU transport systems of Escherichia coli mediate the uptake of several osmoprotectants including glycine betaine...
  29. Kunte H, Crane R, Culham D, Richmond D, Wood J. Protein ProQ influences osmotic activation of compatible solute transporter ProP in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:1537-43 pubmed
    b>ProP is an osmoregulatory compatible solute transporter in Escherichia coli K-12...
  30. Xu J, Johnson R. Cyclic AMP receptor protein functions as a repressor of the osmotically inducible promoter proP P1 in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:2410-7 pubmed
    Transcription of the proP gene, encoding a transporter of the osmoprotectants proline and glycine betaine, is controlled from two promoters, P1 and P2, that respond primarily to osmotic and stationary-phase signals, respectively...
  31. Randall K, Lever M, Peddie B, Chambers S. Competitive accumulation of betaines by Escherichia coli K-12 and derivative strains lacking betaine porters. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1245:116-20 pubmed
    ..E. coli K-12 derivative WG439 (putP- proP- proU-) did not accumulate any of 15 betaines...
  32. Culham D, Romantsov T, Wood J. Roles of K+, H+, H2O, and DeltaPsi in solute transport mediated by major facilitator superfamily members ProP and LacY. Biochemistry. 2008;47:8176-85 pubmed publisher
    H (+)-solute symporters ProP and LacY are members of the major facilitator superfamily. ProP mediates osmoprotectant (e.g., proline) accumulation, whereas LacY transports the nutrient lactose...
  33. Menzel R, Roth J. Identification and mapping of a second proline permease Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1980;141:1064-70 pubmed
    In this paper we demonstrate the existence of a second proline permease, gene proP, in Salmonella typhimurium...
  34. Gowrishankar J. proP-mediated proline transport also plays a role in Escherichia coli osmoregulation. J Bacteriol. 1986;166:331-3 pubmed
    ..The osmoprotective ability of this compound was correlated with the presence in these strains of a functional proP+ gene...
  35. Gauthier M, Le Rudulier D. Survival in seawater of Escherichia coli cells grown in marine sediments containing glycine betaine. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990;56:2915-8 pubmed
    ..supplemented with GB or not supplemented and measured the efficiency of GB uptake systems and the expression of proP and proU genes in both seawater and sediments...
  36. Wood J, Zadworny D. Amplification of the put genes and identification of the put gene products in Escherichia coli K12. Can J Biochem. 1980;58:787-96 pubmed
    ..Two additional loci, proP (at 92 min) and proT (at 82 min), have also been implicated in L-proline transport. We have studied four ColE1/E...
  37. Hillar A, Tripet B, Zoetewey D, Wood J, Hodges R, Boggs J. Detection of alpha-helical coiled-coil dimer formation by spin-labeled synthetic peptides: a model parallel coiled-coil peptide and the antiparallel coiled coil formed by a replica of the ProP C-terminus. Biochemistry. 2003;42:15170-8 pubmed
    ..Two synthetic peptides containing Cys substitutions were used: a 35-residue model peptide and the 30-residue ProP peptide...
  38. Mellies J, Wise A, Villarejo M. Two different Escherichia coli proP promoters respond to osmotic and growth phase signals. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:144-51 pubmed
    b>proP of Escherichia coli encodes an active transport system for proline and glycine betaine which is activated by both hyperosmolarity and amino acid-limited growth...
  39. Xu J, Johnson R. Activation of RpoS-dependent proP P2 transcription by the Fis protein in vitro. J Mol Biol. 1997;270:346-59 pubmed
    The proP gene, encoding a transporter of the osmoprotecting compounds proline and glycine betaine, is expressed from two promoters...
  40. McLeod S, Aiyar S, Gourse R, Johnson R. The C-terminal domains of the RNA polymerase alpha subunits: contact site with Fis and localization during co-activation with CRP at the Escherichia coli proP P2 promoter. J Mol Biol. 2002;316:517-29 pubmed
    ..Fis activates transcription at the RpoS-dependent proP P2 promoter when bound to a site that overlaps the minus sign35 hexamer by a mechanism that requires the C-terminal ..
  41. Liu F, Culham D, Vernikovska Y, Keates R, Boggs J, Wood J. Structure and function of transmembrane segment XII in osmosensor and osmoprotectant transporter ProP of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2007;46:5647-55 pubmed
    Escherichia coli transporter ProP acts as both an osmosensor and an osmoregulator. As medium osmolality rises, ProP is activated and mediates H+-coupled uptake of osmolytes like proline...
  42. May G, Faatz E, Villarejo M, Bremer E. Binding protein dependent transport of glycine betaine and its osmotic regulation in Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1986;205:225-33 pubmed
    ..We also find a second glycine betaine transport system that is dependent on proP and exhibits a lower substrate affinity...
  43. MacMillan S, Alexander D, Culham D, Kunte H, Marshall E, Rochon D, et al. The ion coupling and organic substrate specificities of osmoregulatory transporter ProP in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1420:30-44 pubmed
    Transporter ProP of Escherichia coli, a member of the major facilitator superfamily, mediates osmoprotective proline or glycine betaine accumulation by bacteria exposed to high osmolality environments...
  44. Culham D, Vernikovska Y, Tschowri N, Keates R, Wood J, Boggs J. Periplasmic loops of osmosensory transporter ProP in Escherichia coli are sensitive to osmolality. Biochemistry. 2008;47:13584-93 pubmed publisher
    b>ProP is an osmosensory transporter. The activities of ProP and ProP*, a cysteine-less, His(6)-tagged ProP variant, increase with osmotic pressure in cells and proteoliposomes...
  45. Romantsov T, Helbig S, Culham D, Gill C, Stalker L, Wood J. Cardiolipin promotes polar localization of osmosensory transporter ProP in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:1455-65 pubmed
    The osmolality required to activate osmosensory transporter ProP and the proportion of cardiolipin (CL) among the phospholipids of Escherichia coli rise with growth medium osmolality...
  46. Culham D, Dalgado C, Gyles C, Mamelak D, MacLellan S, Wood J. Osmoregulatory transporter ProP influences colonization of the urinary tract by Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 1998;144 ( Pt 1):91-102 pubmed
    Osmoregulatory transporters ProP and ProU mediate the use of betaines as osmoprotectants by Escherichia coli. Glycine betaine and proline betaine are present in mammalian urines. Betaine uptake may therefore facilitate the growth of E...
  47. McLeod S, Xu J, Cramton S, Gaal T, Gourse R, Johnson R. Localization of amino acids required for Fis to function as a class II transcriptional activator at the RpoS-dependent proP P2 promoter. J Mol Biol. 1999;294:333-46 pubmed
    b>ProP is an integral membrane transporter of proline, glycine betaine, and several other osmoprotecting compounds. Fis plus RpoS collaborate to promote a burst of proP transcription in late exponential growth phase...
  48. Wood J, Culham D, Hillar A, Vernikovska Y, Liu F, Boggs J, et al. A structural model for the osmosensor, transporter, and osmoregulator ProP of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2005;44:5634-46 pubmed
    Transporter ProP of Escherichia coli, a member of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), acts as an osmosensor and an osmoregulator in cells and after purification and reconstitution in proteoliposomes...
  49. Milner J, Wood J. Insertion proQ220::Tn5 alters regulation of proline porter II, a transporter of proline and glycine betaine in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:947-51 pubmed
    ..E. Stalmach, S. Grothe, and J. M. Wood, J. Bacteriol. 156:481-486, 1983), is not linked to putP, proP, or proU. It was located at 40.4 min on the E...
  50. Wood J. Bacterial osmosensing transporters. Methods Enzymol. 2007;428:77-107 pubmed
  51. Zoetewey D, Tripet B, Kutateladze T, Overduin M, Wood J, Hodges R. Solution structure of the C-terminal antiparallel coiled-coil domain from Escherichia coli osmosensor ProP. J Mol Biol. 2003;334:1063-76 pubmed
    ..Transporter ProP of Escherichia coli, a proton symporter and a member of the major facilitator superfamily, senses osmotic shifts ..
  52. Culham D, Henderson J, Crane R, Wood J. Osmosensor ProP of Escherichia coli responds to the concentration, chemistry, and molecular size of osmolytes in the proteoliposome lumen. Biochemistry. 2003;42:410-20 pubmed
    Transporter ProP of Escherichia coli mediates the cellular accumulation of organic zwitterions in response to increased extracellular osmolality...
  53. Sayeed W, Baenziger J. Structural characterization of the osmosensor ProP. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1788:1108-15 pubmed publisher
    b>ProP, an osmoprotectant symporter from the major facilitator superfamily was expressed, purified and reconstituted into proteoliposomes that are amenable to structural characterization using infrared spectroscopy...