Gene Symbol: proA
Description: gamma-glutamylphosphate reductase
Alias: ECK0244, JW0233, pro
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. van Alphen W, Lugtenberg B, Berendsen W. Heptose-deficient mutants of Escherichia coli K12 deficient in up to three major outer membrane proteins. Mol Gen Genet. 1976;147:263-9 pubmed
    ..Heptose-deficient strains have an increased amount of 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate. ..
  2. Echtenkamp P, Wilson D, Shuler M. Cell cycle progression in Escherichia coli B/r affects transcription of certain genes: Implications for synthetic genome design. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;102:902-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, gene position, with regard to the C period, and gene function are important factors to incorporate into design criteria for synthetic bacterial genomes. ..
  3. Lim D. Structure and biosynthesis of unbranched multicopy single-stranded DNA by reverse transcriptase in a clinical Escherichia coli isolate. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:3531-42 pubmed
    ..This suggests that either the RT has an endonuclease activity or that the msDNA-RNA compound is autocatalytically processed. ..
  4. Henrich B, Plapp R. Locations of the genes from pepD through proA on the physical map of the Escherichia coli chromosome. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:7407-8 pubmed
  5. Hayzer D, Leisinger T. Proline biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Kinetic and mechanistic properties of glutamate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1983;742:391-8 pubmed
  6. Smith C, Deutch A, Rushlow K. Purification and characteristics of a gamma-glutamyl kinase involved in Escherichia coli proline biosynthesis. J Bacteriol. 1984;157:545-51 pubmed
    ..coli. These results indicated that the only major difference was that the enzyme from the 3,4-dehydroproline-resistant strain was 100-fold less sensitive to feedback inhibition by proline. ..
  7. Mahan M, Csonka L. Genetic analysis of the proBA genes of Salmonella typhimurium: physical and genetic analyses of the cloned proB+ A+ genes of Escherichia coli and of a mutant allele that confers proline overproduction and enhanced osmotolerance. J Bacteriol. 1983;156:1249-62 pubmed
    ..We constructed Tn5 insertion mutations in the proB and the proA genes of E. coli, carried on F'128 in S. typhimurium. Using P22 transduction in S...
  8. Fayerman J, Vann M, Williams L, Umbarger H. ilvU, a locus in Escherichia coli affecting the derepression of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase and the RPC-5 chromatographic profiles of tRNAIle and tRNAVal. J Biol Chem. 1979;254:9429-40 pubmed
    ..The mutated ilvU loci abolish the derepression and are more efficient in retarding the conversion. ..
  9. Hayzer D, Leisinger T. The gene-enzyme relationships of proline biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. J Gen Microbiol. 1980;118:287-93 pubmed
    ..Analysis of a number of strains of E. coli has demonstrated that gene proA codes for gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase and proB for gamma-glutamyl kinase...

More Information


  1. Hayzer D, Leisinger T. Proline biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Purification and characterisation of glutamate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Eur J Biochem. 1982;121:561-5 pubmed
    ..High initial levels of the enzyme were achieved by using a multicopy ColEl-pro A, B hybrid plasmid. The protein has a molecular weight of 1...
  2. Hayzer D. Sub-cloning of the wild-type proAB region of the Escherichia coli genome. J Gen Microbiol. 1983;129:3215-25 pubmed
    The genes proA and proB encoding the first two enzymes of the proline biosynthetic sequence in Escherichia coli were subcloned from a ColE1 hybrid plasmid containing 23.3 kilobases of genomic DNA...
  3. Hadley R, Hu M, Timmons M, Yun K, Deonier R. A partial restriction map of the proA-purE region of the Escherichia coli K12 chromosome. Gene. 1983;22:281-7 pubmed
    ..75% of these fragments have been located relative to proA, B, argF, lac, proC, purE, and various insertion sequence elements normally present in this region...
  4. Berg C, Rossi J. Proline excretion and indirect suppression in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1974;118:928-34 pubmed
    ..In proline auxotrophs blocked at an early step in proline biosynthesis (proA or proB), reversion to prototrophy is often due to a mutation in the arginine pathway which diverts N-acetyl ..
  5. Inuzuka M, Miyano H, Tomoeda M. Specific action of 4-nitropyridine 1-oxide on Excherichia coli K-12 pro+ strains leading to the isolation of proline-requiring mutants: isolation and characterization of pro-mutants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1976;10:325-32 pubmed glutamyl gamma-phosphate (proB(-)) or the pathway from glutamyl gamma-phosphate to glutamic gamma-semialdehyde (proA(-)) or both...
  6. Deutch A, Rushlow K, Smith C. Analysis of the Escherichia coli proBA locus by DNA and protein sequencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984;12:6337-55 pubmed
    ..of the cI857 repressor protein resulted in the simultaneous overproduction of the proB (gamma-glutamyl kinase) and proA (gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase) gene products...
  7. Hirota Y, Inuzuka M, Tomoeda M. Elective selection of proline-requiring mutants. J Bacteriol. 1966;91:2392 pubmed
  8. Hayzer D, Leisinger T. Proline biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Stoichiometry and end-product identification of the reaction catalysed by glutamate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Biochem J. 1981;197:269-74 pubmed
    ..The end-product of the reaction is demonstrated to be 5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid, probably arising from the true end-product gamma-glutamyl phosphate. ..
  9. Nersisian A, Fedorova I, Khurges E. [Cloning of genes for proline biosynthesis in Escherichia coli]. Genetika. 1986;22:2713-20 pubmed
    ..4 MD) carrying proAB genes was constructed. Localization of proA and proB genes on the cloned chromosome fragment was determined by complementation test and the measuring of ..
  10. Baich A. The biosynthesis of proline in Escherichia coli: phosphate-dependent glutamate -semialdehyde dehydrogenase (NADP), the second enzyme in the pathway. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1971;244:129-34 pubmed
  11. Kershner J, Yu McLoughlin S, Kim J, Morgenthaler A, Ebmeier C, Old W, et al. A Synonymous Mutation Upstream of the Gene Encoding a Weak-Link Enzyme Causes an Ultrasensitive Response in Growth Rate. J Bacteriol. 2016;198:2853-63 pubmed publisher
    ..the mechanisms by which growth of Escherichia coli can be improved when fitness is limited by such an enzyme, E383A ProA (ProA*)...