Gene Symbol: pldA
Description: outer membrane phospholipase A
Alias: ECK3815, JW3794
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Chemler J, Fowler Z, McHugh K, Koffas M. Improving NADPH availability for natural product biosynthesis in Escherichia coli by metabolic engineering. Metab Eng. 2010;12:96-104 pubmed publisher
    ..The best engineered strain carrying Delta pgi, Delta ppc and Delta pldA deletions accumulated up to 817 mg/L of leucocyanidin and 39 mg/L (+)-catechin in batch culture with 10 g/L glucose ..
  2. Horrevoets A, Hackeng T, Verheij H, Dijkman R, de Haas G. Kinetic characterization of Escherichia coli outer membrane phospholipase A using mixed detergent-lipid micelles. Biochemistry. 1989;28:1139-47 pubmed
    ..Despite its broad specificity, the enzyme will initially act as a phospholipase A1 in the E. coli envelope where it is embedded in phospholipids. ..
  3. Ubarretxena Belandia I, Boots J, Verheij H, Dekker N. Role of the cofactor calcium in the activation of outer membrane phospholipase A. Biochemistry. 1998;37:16011-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we suggest that the first Ca2+ plays a role in the stabilization of the dimeric state of the enzyme. The role of the second Ca2+ and the observed synergy between active site occupancy and Ca2+ affinity are discussed. ..
  4. Snijder H, Dijkstra B. Bacterial phospholipase A: structure and function of an integral membrane phospholipase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1488:91-101 pubmed
    ..In this review, we summarise the implications of these structural data for the understanding of the function and regulation of OMPLA, and discuss a mechanism for phospholipase dependent colicin release in Escherichia coli. ..
  5. Howard S, Cavard D, Lazdunski C. Phospholipase-A-independent damage caused by the colicin A lysis protein during its assembly into the inner and outer membranes of Escherichia coli. J Gen Microbiol. 1991;137:81-9 pubmed
    ..E. coli tolQ cells, which were shown to be leaky for periplasmic proteins, were transduced to pldA and then transformed with the recombinant colicin A plasmid pKA...
  6. Cavard D. Assembly of colicin A in the outer membrane of producing Escherichia coli cells requires both phospholipase A and one porin, but phospholipase A is sufficient for secretion. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:3723-33 pubmed
    ..Similar heat-labile forms were obtained with various colicin A derivatives, demonstrating that the C-terminal domain of colicin A, but not the hydrophobic hairpin present in this domain, was involved in their formation. ..
  7. Hardaway K, Buller C. Effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetate on phospholipids and outer membrane function in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1979;137:62-8 pubmed
    ..These experiments suggest that the EDTA-induced loss of outer membrane barrier function of E. coli K-12 is mediated through the activation of phospholipase A. ..
  8. Homma H, Chiba N, Kobayashi T, Kudo I, Inoue K, Ikeda H, et al. Characteristics of detergent-resistant phospholipase A overproduced in E. coli cells bearing its cloned structural gene. J Biochem. 1984;96:1645-53 pubmed
    ..coli is a 28K-dalton protein and is exclusively located in the outer membrane. We cloned the pldA gene of E. coli, which is responsible for the activity of DR-phospholipase A...
  9. Snijder H, Kingma R, Kalk K, Dekker N, Egmond M, Dijkstra B. Structural investigations of calcium binding and its role in activity and activation of outer membrane phospholipase A from Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2001;309:477-89 pubmed
    ..For this family of phospholipases, we have characterised a consensus sequence motif (YTQ-X(n)-G-X(2)-H-X-SNG) that contains conserved residues involved in dimerisation and catalysis. ..

More Information


  1. Dekker N, Merck K, Tommassen J, Verheij H. In vitro folding of Escherichia coli outer-membrane phospholipase A. Eur J Biochem. 1995;232:214-9 pubmed
    ..Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a high content of beta strand, in good agreement with a predicted beta-barrel structure of this outer-membrane protein. ..
  2. Ubarretxena Belandia I, Cox R, Dijkman R, Egmond M, Verheij H, Dekker N. Half-of-the-sites reactivity of outer-membrane phospholipase A against an active-site-directed inhibitor. Eur J Biochem. 1999;260:794-800 pubmed
    ..The half-of-the-sites reactivity is discussed in view of the dimeric nature of this enzyme. ..
  3. Boekema E, Stuart M, Koning R, Keegstra W, Brisson A, Verheij H, et al. A 7.4-A projection structure of outer membrane phospholipase A from Escherichia coli by electron crystallography. J Struct Biol. 1998;123:67-71 pubmed
    ..A 7.4-A projection map reveals OMPLA molecules exhibiting an oval-shaped domain of 30 x 20 A resembling the beta-barrel structure characteristic of porins, which is associated with a 25-A elongated domain of lower density. ..
  4. Snijder H, Ubarretxena Belandia I, Blaauw M, Kalk K, Verheij H, Egmond M, et al. Structural evidence for dimerization-regulated activation of an integral membrane phospholipase. Nature. 1999;401:717-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Dimerization results in functional oxyanion holes and substrate-binding pockets, which are absent in monomeric OMPLA. These results provide a detailed view of activation by dimerization of a membrane protein...
  5. Brok R, Dekker N, Gerrits N, Verheij H, Tommassen J. A conserved histidine residue of Escherichia coli outer-membrane phospholipase A is important for activity. Eur J Biochem. 1995;234:934-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, a His142Gly mutant protein appeared to be inactive. These results show that His142 is important for the enzymatic activity of OMPLA. ..
  6. Homma H, Kobayashi T, Chiba N, Karasawa K, Mizushima H, Kudo I, et al. The DNA sequence encoding pldA gene, the structural gene for detergent-resistant phospholipase A of E. coli. J Biochem. 1984;96:1655-64 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of the pldA gene of Escherichia coli K-12, which codes for detergent-resistant phospholipase A (DR-phospholipase A), located in the outer membrane, was determined and the amino acid sequence of DR-phospholipase A ..
  7. Ubarretxena Belandia I, Hozeman L, van der Brink van der Laan E, Pap E, Egmond M, Verheij H, et al. Outer membrane phospholipase A is dimeric in phospholipid bilayers: a cross-linking and fluorescence resonance energy transfer study. Biochemistry. 1999;38:7398-405 pubmed
    ..The results are discussed in terms of the activation of dimeric OMPLA due to changes in the physical state of the bilayer which occur upon perturbation of the membrane integrity. ..
  8. Stanley A, Chuawong P, Hendrickson T, Fleming K. Energetics of outer membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA) dimerization. J Mol Biol. 2006;358:120-31 pubmed
  9. Malinverni J, Silhavy T. An ABC transport system that maintains lipid asymmetry in the gram-negative outer membrane. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8009-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the Mla pathway constitutes a bacterial intermembrane PL trafficking system...
  10. Dekker N, Tommassen J, Verheij H. Bacteriocin release protein triggers dimerization of outer membrane phospholipase A in vivo. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:3281-3 pubmed
    ..In vivo chemical cross-linking experiments revealed that the activation coincides with dimerization of OMPLA. Permeabilization of the cell envelope and dimerization were characterized by a lag time of 2 h. ..
  11. Dekker N, Tommassen J, Lustig A, Rosenbusch J, Verheij H. Dimerization regulates the enzymatic activity of Escherichia coli outer membrane phospholipase A. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:3179-84 pubmed
    ..Data from chemical cross-linking on whole cells indicate that OMPLA is present in the outer membrane as a monomer and that activation of the enzyme induces dimerization concurrent with the appearance of enzymatic activity. ..
  12. Brok R, Boots A, Dekker N, Verheij H, Tommassen J. Sequence comparison of outer membrane phospholipases A: implications for structure and for the catalytic mechanism. Res Microbiol. 1998;149:703-10 pubmed
    In this study, the nucleotide sequence of the Enterobacter agglomerans pldA gene encoding outer membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA; EC was determined...
  13. Brok R, Belandia I, Dekker N, Tommassen J, Verheij H. Escherichia coli outer membrane phospholipase A: role of two serines in enzymatic activity. Biochemistry. 1996;35:7787-93 pubmed
    ..In a specific OMPLA-negative mutant strain, the pldA gene coding for OMPLA was shown to differ from the wild-type gene by a single point mutation, resulting in the ..
  14. Aldea M, Maples V, Kushner S. Generation of a detailed physical and genetic map of the ilv-metE-udp region of the Escherichia coli chromosome. J Mol Biol. 1988;200:427-38 pubmed
  15. Molloy M, Herbert B, Slade M, Rabilloud T, Nouwens A, Williams K, et al. Proteomic analysis of the Escherichia coli outer membrane. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:2871-81 pubmed
    ..In an additional demonstration we show the value of parallel protein analysis to document changes in E. coli OMP expression as influenced by culture temperature...
  16. Stanley A, Fleming K. The role of a hydrogen bonding network in the transmembrane beta-barrel OMPLA. J Mol Biol. 2007;370:912-24 pubmed
    ..These results highlight the context dependence and broad range of interactions that can be mediated by polar residues in membrane proteins. ..
  17. Horrevoets A, Verheij H, de Haas G. Inactivation of Escherichia coli outer-membrane phospholipase A by the affinity label hexadecanesulfonyl fluoride. Evidence for an active-site serine. Eur J Biochem. 1991;198:247-53 pubmed
    ..On the basis of the kinetics of inactivation of OM PLA by hexadecanesulfonyl fluoride, we discuss a possible catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. ..
  18. Kobayashi T, Kudo I, Homma H, Karasawa K, Inoue K, Ikeda H, et al. Gene organization of pldA and pldB, the structural genes for detergent-resistant phospholipase A and lysophospholipase L2 of Escherichia coli. J Biochem. 1985;98:1007-16 pubmed
    The genes coding for the phospholipid degradation enzymes in E. coli, detergent-resistant (DR-) phospholipase A (pldA) and lysophospholipase L2 (pldB), were cloned together on the plasmid pKO1 (Homma, H., Kobayashi, T., Ito, Y., Kudo, I...
  19. Cavard D. Inhibition of colicin synthesis by the antibiotic globomycin. Arch Microbiol. 1998;171:50-8 pubmed
    ..abolished by a null mutation in the lpp gene encoding the murein-lipoprotein, and enhanced by a mutation in the pldA gene encoding the outer membrane phospholipase A...
  20. Dekker N. Outer-membrane phospholipase A: known structure, unknown biological function. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:711-7 pubmed
    ..Possible roles for OMPLA in maintaining the cell envelope integrity and in pathogenicity are discussed. ..
  21. Bishop R. Structural biology of membrane-intrinsic beta-barrel enzymes: sentinels of the bacterial outer membrane. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1778:1881-96 pubmed
    ..The ensuing adaptive responses occur instantaneously and rapidly outpace other signal transduction mechanisms that similarly function to restore the outer membrane permeability barrier. ..
  22. De Geus P, Van Die I, Bergmans H, Tommassen J, de Haas G. Molecular cloning of pldA, the structural gene for outer membrane phospholipase of E. coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1983;190:150-5 pubmed
    The pldA gene of Escherichia coli K12, which is involved in the synthesis of an outer membrane (OM) phospholipase, has been cloned using a cosmid cloning system...
  23. Blaauw M, Dekker N, Verheij H, Kalk K, Dijkstra B. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of outer membrane phospholipase A from Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 1995;373:10-2 pubmed
    ..They have the symmetry of the trigonal spacegroup P3(1)21 (or P3(2)21) with cell dimensions of a = b = 79.6 A and c = 102.8 A (alpha = beta = 90 degrees, gamma = 120 degrees). Native crystals diffract to a resolution of 2.6 A. ..
  24. Ebie Tan A, Fleming K. Outer membrane phospholipase a dimer stability does not correlate to occluded surface area. Biochemistry. 2008;47:12095-103 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that van der Waals packing may not be a strong predictor of stability for all membrane proteins. ..
  25. Irino N, Nakayama K, Nakayama H. The recQ gene of Escherichia coli K12: primary structure and evidence for SOS regulation. Mol Gen Genet. 1986;205:298-304 pubmed
    ..The -10 region of the presumptive recQ promoter overlapped the putative terminator for the upstream gene pldA, and was immediately followed by a 15 bp stretch of DNA bearing a strong resemblance to the reported sequences of ..
  26. Homma H, Kobayashi T, Ito Y, Kudo I, Inoue K, Ikeda H, et al. Identification and cloning of the gene coding for lysophospholipase L2 of E. coli K-12. J Biochem. 1983;94:2079-81 pubmed
    ..These facts together with the results of a Pl transduction experiment revealed that the pld B gene must be between the pld A and met E genes on the E. coli chromosome. ..
  27. Brok R, Brinkman E, van Boxtel R, Bekkers A, Verheij H, Tommassen J. Molecular characterization of enterobacterial pldA genes encoding outer membrane phospholipase A. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:861-70 pubmed
    The pldA gene of Escherichia coli encodes an outer membrane phospholipase A. A strain carrying the most commonly used mutant pldA allele appeared to express a correctly assembled PldA protein in the outer membrane...
  28. Kingma R, Egmond M. Activation of a covalent outer membrane phospholipase A dimer. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:2178-85 pubmed
    ..A covalent linkage was not able to restore high affinity calcium binding in these variants, demonstrating that a proper dimer interface is essential for optimal catalysis. ..
  29. Rangl M, Rima L, Klement J, Miyagi A, Keller S, Scheuring S. Real-time Visualization of Phospholipid Degradation by Outer Membrane Phospholipase A using High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy. J Mol Biol. 2017;429:977-986 pubmed publisher
  30. Jacoboni I, Martelli P, Fariselli P, De Pinto V, Casadio R. Prediction of the transmembrane regions of beta-barrel membrane proteins with a neural network-based predictor. Protein Sci. 2001;10:779-87 pubmed
    ..In addition, protein topology is assigned on the basis of the location of the longest loops in the models. We propose this as a general method to fill the gap of the prediction of beta-barrel membrane proteins. ..
  31. Voll M, Leive L. Release of lipopolysaccharide in Escherichia coli resistant to the permeability increase induced by ethylenediaminetetraacetate. J Biol Chem. 1970;245:1108-14 pubmed
  32. Langen G, Harper J, Silhavy T, Howard S. Absence of the outer membrane phospholipase A suppresses the temperature-sensitive phenotype of Escherichia coli degP mutants and induces the Cpx and sigma(E) extracytoplasmic stress responses. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:5230-8 pubmed
    ..A mutation in pldA, which encodes outer membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA), was found to rescue degP cells from the temperature-..
  33. De Geus P, Verheij H, Riegman N, Hoekstra W, de Haas G. The pro- and mature forms of the E. coli K-12 outer membrane phospholipase A are identical. EMBO J. 1984;3:1799-802 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of the pldA gene, coding for the outer membrane (OM) phospholipase A of Escherichia coli K-12, and flanking sequences, was determined...
  34. Burgess N, Dao T, Stanley A, Fleming K. Beta-barrel proteins that reside in the Escherichia coli outer membrane in vivo demonstrate varied folding behavior in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:26748-58 pubmed publisher
    ..To rationalize the differences in folding efficiency, we performed kinetic and thermal denaturation experiments, the results of which demonstrated that OMPs employ different strategies to achieve the observed folding efficiency. ..