Gene Symbol: phoR
Description: sensory histidine kinase in two-component regulatory system with PhoB
Alias: ECK0394, JW0390, R1pho, nmpB, phoR1
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Yamada M, Makino K, Shinagawa H, Nakata A. Regulation of the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli: properties of phoR deletion mutants and subcellular localization of PhoR protein. Mol Gen Genet. 1990;220:366-72 pubmed
    The phoR gene is a bifunctional regulatory gene for the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli...
  2. Scholten M, Tommassen J. Topology of the PhoR protein of Escherichia coli and functional analysis of internal deletion mutants. Mol Microbiol. 1993;8:269-75 pubmed
    The PhoR protein of Escherichia coli K-12 belongs to a family of structurally related sensor-kinases that regulate responses to environmental stimuli...
  3. Makino K, Shinagawa H, Amemura M, Kawamoto T, Yamada M, Nakata A. Signal transduction in the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli involves phosphotransfer between PhoR and PhoB proteins. J Mol Biol. 1989;210:551-9 pubmed
    ..b>PhoR protein activates PhoB when phosphate is limiting and inactivates it when phosphate is in excess...
  4. Wanner B, Chang B. The phoBR operon in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:5569-74 pubmed
    The phoB and phoR genes encode a transcription activator and a sensory protein of the phosphate regulon, respectively. It is shown here that they were transcribed as an operon in which the phoB gene was promoter proximal...
  5. Ruiz N, Silhavy T. Constitutive activation of the Escherichia coli Pho regulon upregulates rpoS translation in an Hfq-dependent fashion. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5984-92 pubmed
    ..This upregulation of rpoS translation is Hfq dependent, suggesting the involvement of a small regulatory RNA (sRNA). The transcription of this yet-to-be-identified sRNA is regulated by the PhoBR two-component system...
  6. Cox G, Webb D, Godovac Zimmermann J, Rosenberg H. Arg-220 of the PstA protein is required for phosphate transport through the phosphate-specific transport system in Escherichia coli but not for alkaline phosphatase repression. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:2283-6 pubmed
    ..Neither the Arg-170----Gln nor the Glu-173----Gln mutation affected phosphate transport. The results are discussed in relation to a proposed structure of the PstA protein. ..
  7. Ashenberg O, Keating A, Laub M. Helix bundle loops determine whether histidine kinases autophosphorylate in cis or in trans. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:1198-209 pubmed publisher
    ..model by replacing the loop from Escherichia coli EnvZ, which autophosphorylates in trans, with the loop from three PhoR orthologs that autophosphorylate in cis...
  8. Willsky G, Bennett R, Malamy M. Inorganic phosphate transport in Escherichia coli: involvement of two genes which play a role in alkaline phosphatase regulation. J Bacteriol. 1973;113:529-39 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the phoS and phoT genes are primarily involved in P(i) transport and, as a result of this function, play a role in the regulation of alkaline phosphatase synthesis. ..
  9. Baek J, Lee S. Transcriptome analysis of phosphate starvation response in Escherichia coli. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;17:244-52 pubmed
    Escherichia coli has a PhoR-PhoB two-component regulatory system to detect and respond to the changes of environmental phosphate concentration. For the E...

More Information


  1. Wanner B, Latterell P. Mutants affected in alkaline phosphatase, expression: evidence for multiple positive regulators of the phosphate regulon in Escherichia coli. Genetics. 1980;96:353-66 pubmed
    ..coli is believed to be subject to both positive control by the phoB gene product and negative control by the phoR gene product. We have isolated a large number of PhoA- mutants in the phoR- genetic background...
  2. Haldimann A, Daniels L, Wanner B. Use of new methods for construction of tightly regulated arabinose and rhamnose promoter fusions in studies of the Escherichia coli phosphate regulon. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1277-86 pubmed
    ..synthesis is under autogenous control, including response regulator PhoB, its partner, histidine sensor kinase PhoR, all four components of the Pi-specific transport (Pst) system (PstA, PstB, PstC, and PstS), and a protein of ..
  3. Bracha M, Yagil E. Genetic mapping of the phoR regulator gene of alkaline phosphatase in Escherichia coli. J Gen Microbiol. 1969;59:77-81 pubmed
  4. L ttmann D, G pel Y, G rke B. The phosphotransferase protein EIIA(Ntr) modulates the phosphate starvation response through interaction with histidine kinase PhoR in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2012;86:96-110 pubmed publisher
    ..The pho regulon, which comprises more than 30 genes, is activated by the two-component system PhoR/PhoB under conditions of phosphate starvation...
  5. Carmany D, Hollingsworth K, McCleary W. Genetic and biochemical studies of phosphatase activity of PhoR. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:1112-5 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, PhoR is the histidine kinase of the phosphate regulon. It has been postulated that PhoR may function as a phospho-PhoB phosphatase...
  6. Gardner S, Johns K, Tanner R, McCleary W. The PhoU protein from Escherichia coli interacts with PhoR, PstB, and metals to form a phosphate-signaling complex at the membrane. J Bacteriol. 2014;196:1741-52 pubmed publisher
    ..along with the high-affinity, Pi-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter PstSCAB and the two-component proteins PhoR and PhoB, is absolutely required for Pi signaling in Escherichia coli...
  7. Baek J, Kang Y, Lee S. Transcript and protein level analyses of the interactions among PhoB, PhoR, PhoU and CreC in response to phosphate starvation in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;277:254-9 pubmed
    The responses to phosphate starvation by PhoR-PhoB two-component regulatory system are also affected by other regulatory systems in Escherichia coli...
  8. Hoffer S, Westerhoff H, Hellingwerf K, Postma P, Tommassen J. Autoamplification of a two-component regulatory system results in "learning" behavior. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:4914-7 pubmed
  9. Makino K, Shinagawa H, Amemura M, Nakata A. Nucleotide sequence of the phoR gene, a regulatory gene for the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1986;192:549-56 pubmed
    Genes in the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli are positively regulated by the products of the phoB and phoR genes with limited phosphate, and negatively regulated by the product of the phoR gene with excess phosphate...
  10. Verhamme D, Arents J, Postma P, Crielaard W, Hellingwerf K. Investigation of in vivo cross-talk between key two-component systems of Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2002;148:69-78 pubmed
    ..reporting Arc activation), upon activation of the Pho system, appeared to be independent of signalling through PhoR. Cross-talk towards NtrC did occur, however, in a ntrB deletion strain, upon joint activation of Pho, Ntr and Uhp...
  11. Wanner B. Gene regulation by phosphate in enteric bacteria. J Cell Biochem. 1993;51:47-54 pubmed
    ..Pi control of these genes requires the sensor PhoR, the response regulator PhoB, the binding protein-dependent Pi-specific transporter Pst, and the accessory protein ..
  12. Tommassen J, Lugtenberg B. Outer membrane protein e of Escherichia coli K-12 is co-regulated with alkaline phosphatase. J Bacteriol. 1980;143:151-7 pubmed
    ..nmpA and nmpB mutants, which synthesize protein e constitutively, are shown also to produce the periplasmic enzyme alkaline ..
  13. Shinagawa H, Makino K, Nakata A. Regulation of the pho regulon in Escherichia coli K-12. Genetic and physiological regulation of the positive regulatory gene phoB. J Mol Biol. 1983;168:477-88 pubmed
    ..Expression of both genes was induced by phosphate starvation. Both genes were constitutively expressed in phoR, phoS, phoT and phoU mutants and were not expressed in a phoR-phoM double mutant...
  14. Makino K, Shinagawa H, Nakata A. Regulation of the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli K-12: regulation and role of the regulatory gene phoR. J Mol Biol. 1985;184:231-40 pubmed
    The phoR gene product functions as a negative regulator with excess of phosphate and as a positive regulator with limited phosphate for the phosphate-starvation-inducible pho regulon of Escherichia coli...
  15. Tommassen J, De Geus P, Lugtenberg B, Hackett J, Reeves P. Regulation of the pho regulon of Escherichia coli K-12. Cloning of the regulatory genes phoB and phoR and identification of their gene products. J Mol Biol. 1982;157:265-74 pubmed