Gene Symbol: phoP
Description: response regulator in two-component regulatory system with PhoQ
Alias: ECK1116, JW1116
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Minagawa S, Ogasawara H, Kato A, Yamamoto K, Eguchi Y, Oshima T, et al. Identification and molecular characterization of the Mg2+ stimulon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:3696-702 pubmed identify the member genes of the Mg(2+) stimulon that respond to the availability of external Mg(2+) in a PhoP/PhoQ two-component system-dependent manner...
  2. Groisman E, Heffron F, Solomon F. Molecular genetic analysis of the Escherichia coli phoP locus. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:486-91 pubmed
    We have cloned the Escherichia coli phoP gene, a member of the family of environmentally responsive two-component systems, and found its deduced amino acid sequence to be 93% identical to that of the Salmonella typhimurium homolog, which ..
  3. Coornaert A, Lu A, Mandin P, Springer M, Gottesman S, Guillier M. MicA sRNA links the PhoP regulon to cell envelope stress. Mol Microbiol. 2010;76:467-79 pubmed publisher
    ..MicA directly pairs with phoPQ mRNA in the translation initiation region of phoP and presumably inhibits translation by competing with ribosome binding...
  4. Moon K, Gottesman S. A PhoQ/P-regulated small RNA regulates sensitivity of Escherichia coli to antimicrobial peptides. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:1314-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of MgrR requires the PhoQ/PhoP two-component system; the PhoP response regulator is active under low Mg2+ concentrations and is an important ..
  5. Zwir I, Shin D, Kato A, Nishino K, Latifi T, Solomon F, et al. Dissecting the PhoP regulatory network of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2862-7 pubmed
    ..Here, we apply this method to probe the regulatory networks governed by the PhoP/PhoQ two-component system in the enteric bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica...
  6. Kato A, Tanabe H, Utsumi R. Molecular characterization of the PhoP-PhoQ two-component system in Escherichia coli K-12: identification of extracellular Mg2+-responsive promoters. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5516-20 pubmed
    ..Expression of these genes was induced by magnesium limitation and depended on PhoP and PhoQ...
  7. Eguchi Y, Okada T, Minagawa S, Oshima T, Mori H, Yamamoto K, et al. Signal transduction cascade between EvgA/EvgS and PhoP/PhoQ two-component systems of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3006-14 pubmed mutant of the EvgA/EvgS two-component system of Escherichia coli resulted in enhanced expression of 13 PhoP/PhoQ-regulated genes, crcA, hemL, mgtA, ompT, phoP, phoQ, proP, rstA, rstB, slyB, ybjG, yrbL, and mgrB...
  8. Bachhawat P, Stock A. Crystal structures of the receiver domain of the response regulator PhoP from Escherichia coli in the absence and presence of the phosphoryl analog beryllofluoride. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:5987-95 pubmed
    The response regulator PhoP is part of the PhoQ/PhoP two-component system involved in responses to depletion of extracellular Mg(2+)...
  9. Zwir I, Harari O, Groisman E. Gene promoter scan methodology for identifying and classifying coregulated promoters. Methods Enzymol. 2007;422:361-85 pubmed
    ..Application of this method to the PhoP/PhoQ two-component regulatory system of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica uncovered novel members of the ..

More Information


  1. Parkinson J. Signal transduction schemes of bacteria. Cell. 1993;73:857-71 pubmed
  2. Regelmann A, Lesley J, Mott C, Stokes L, Waldburger C. Mutational analysis of the Escherichia coli PhoQ sensor kinase: differences with the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium PhoQ protein and in the mechanism of Mg2+ and Ca2+ sensing. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:5468-78 pubmed
    The PhoP-PhoQ two-component system plays a role in Mg2+ homeostasis and/or the virulence properties of a number of bacterial species...
  3. Eguchi Y, Utsumi R. Introduction to bacterial signal transduction networks. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;631:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we introduce three such networks in Escherichia coli that were clarified using a DNA microarray: a PhoQ/PhoP system that senses extracellular Mg2+ and controls the gene expression for adaptation to environmental Mg2+ ..
  4. Kox L, Wösten M, Groisman E. A small protein that mediates the activation of a two-component system by another two-component system. EMBO J. 2000;19:1861-72 pubmed
    ..iron, but can also be promoted by growth in low magnesium in a process that requires another two-component system, PhoP-PhoQ. Here, we define the genetic basis for the interaction between the PhoP-PhoQ and PmrA-PmrB systems...
  5. Gao R, Tao Y, Stock A. System-level mapping of Escherichia coli response regulator dimerization with FRET hybrids. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:1358-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Weak hetero-pair interactions were also identified between several different RRs, suggesting potential cross-regulation between distinct pathways. ..
  6. Kasahara M, Nakata A, Shinagawa H. Molecular analysis of the Escherichia coli phoP-phoQ operon. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:492-8 pubmed
    The phoP-phoQ operon of Salmonella typhimurium is a member of the family of two-component regulatory systems and controls expression of the phoN gene that codes for nonspecific acid phosphatase and the genes involved in the pathogenicity ..
  7. Castelli M, Cauerhff A, Amongero M, Soncini F, Véscovi E. The H box-harboring domain is key to the function of the Salmonella enterica PhoQ Mg2+-sensor in the recognition of its partner PhoP. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:23579-85 pubmed
    ..subdomains and examined by in vivo and in vitro assays its interaction with the associated response regulator PhoP. This signal transduction system allows Salmonella to withstand environmental Mg2+ limitation by triggering gene ..
  8. Groisman E, Parra Lopez C, Salcedo M, Lipps C, Heffron F. Resistance to host antimicrobial peptides is necessary for Salmonella virulence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:11939-43 pubmed
    ..of the mutants showed that one had a defective lipopolysaccharide and another mutant harbored a mutation in phoP, a locus previously shown to control expression of Salmonella virulence genes...
  9. Miyashiro T, Goulian M. High stimulus unmasks positive feedback in an autoregulated bacterial signaling circuit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:17457-62 pubmed publisher
    We examined the effect of positive autoregulation on the steady-state behavior of the PhoQ/PhoP two-component signaling system in Escherichia coli...
  10. Coornaert A, Chiaruttini C, Springer M, Guillier M. Post-transcriptional control of the Escherichia coli PhoQ-PhoP two-component system by multiple sRNAs involves a novel pairing region of GcvB. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003156 pubmed publisher
    PhoQ/PhoP is a central two-component system involved in magnesium homeostasis, pathogenicity, cell envelope composition, and acid resistance in several bacterial species...
  11. Miyashiro T, Goulian M. Stimulus-dependent differential regulation in the Escherichia coli PhoQ PhoP system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:16305-10 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and related bacteria, the PhoQ-PhoP system regulates the expression of a large collection of genes in response to conditions of low magnesium or to the presence of certain antimicrobial peptides...
  12. Harari O, Del Val C, Romero Zaliz R, Shin D, Huang H, Groisman E, et al. Identifying promoter features of co-regulated genes with similar network motifs. BMC Bioinformatics. 2009;10 Suppl 4:S1 pubmed publisher
    ..We applied our approach to characterize network motifs controlled by the PhoP/PhoQ regulatory system of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium...
  13. Lesley J, Waldburger C. Repression of Escherichia coli PhoP-PhoQ signaling by acetate reveals a regulatory role for acetyl coenzyme A. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:2563-70 pubmed
    The PhoP-PhoQ two-component system regulates the transcription of numerous genes in response to changes in extracellular divalent cation concentration and pH...
  14. Collier J, Binet E, Bouloc P. Competition between SsrA tagging and translational termination at weak stop codons in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2002;45:745-54 pubmed
    ..We observed that SsrA tagging of ribokinase was inversely correlated with RF2 activity, revealing a dynamic competition between translational termination and SsrA tagging. ..
  15. Parkinson J, Kofoid E. Communication modules in bacterial signaling proteins. Annu Rev Genet. 1992;26:71-112 pubmed
  16. Lippa A, Goulian M. Perturbation of the oxidizing environment of the periplasm stimulates the PhoQ/PhoP system in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:1457-63 pubmed publisher
    The PhoQ/PhoP two-component system is repressed by divalent cations, such as Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), in the growth medium and stimulated by low pH and certain cationic antimicrobial peptides...
  17. Pérez A, Angarica V, Collado Vides J, Vasconcelos A. From sequence to dynamics: the effects of transcription factor and polymerase concentration changes on activated and repressed promoters. BMC Mol Biol. 2009;10:92 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our results show that the effects of TF concentration fluctuations on promoter occupancy are constrained by RNAP concentrations. ..
  18. Montero M, Eydallin G, Viale A, Almagro G, Muñoz F, Rahimpour M, et al. Escherichia coli glycogen metabolism is controlled by the PhoP-PhoQ regulatory system at submillimolar environmental Mg2+ concentrations, and is highly interconnected with a wide variety of cellular processes. Biochem J. 2009;424:129-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the mutants identified in the study, Delta mgtA, Delta phoP and Delta phoQ cells, all lacking genes that are induced under low extracellular Mg2+ conditions, displayed ..
  19. Hall B. Adaptive mutagenesis at ebgR is regulated by PhoPQ. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:2862-5 pubmed
    ..Here I show that disruption of phoP or phoQ by Tn10dCam significantly reduces the adaptive mutation rate to ebgR, indicating that the adaptive ..
  20. Eguchi Y, Itou J, Yamane M, Demizu R, Yamato F, Okada A, et al. B1500, a small membrane protein, connects the two-component systems EvgS/EvgA and PhoQ/PhoP in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:18712-7 pubmed
    ..of such a network in Escherichia coli is the signal transduction cascade from the EvgS/EvgA system to the PhoQ/PhoP system, where activation of the EvgS/EvgA system promotes expression of PhoP-activated genes...
  21. Bochner B, Gadzinski P, Panomitros E. Phenotype microarrays for high-throughput phenotypic testing and assay of gene function. Genome Res. 2001;11:1246-55 pubmed
    ..Here, we provide data on phenotypic analysis of six strains and show that we can detect expected phenotypes as well as, in some cases, unexpected phenotypes. ..
  22. Minagawa S, Okura R, Tsuchitani H, Hirao K, Yamamoto K, Utsumi R. Isolation and molecular characterization of the locked-on mutant of Mg2+ sensor PhoQ in Escherichia coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005;69:1281-7 pubmed
    ..PhoQ-PhoP regulon genes, phoPQ, mgtA and mgrB transcriptions were repressed at a high Mg(2+) concentration in WQ3007 (phoQ-..
  23. Zheng Y, Roberts R, Kasif S. Genomic functional annotation using co-evolution profiles of gene clusters. Genome Biol. 2002;3:RESEARCH0060 pubmed
    ..We show that the gene-pair phylogenetic profile is more accurate than the single-gene phylogenetic profiles. ..
  24. Castelli M, García Véscovi E, Soncini F. The phosphatase activity is the target for Mg2+ regulation of the sensor protein PhoQ in Salmonella. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:22948-54 pubmed
    The PhoP/PhoQ two-component system controls the expression of essential virulence traits in the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium...
  25. Pao G, Saier M. Response regulators of bacterial signal transduction systems: selective domain shuffling during evolution. J Mol Evol. 1995;40:136-54 pubmed
    ..Sequence data were correlated with structure/function when such information was available.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  26. Eguchi Y, Oshima T, Mori H, Aono R, Yamamoto K, Ishihama A, et al. Transcriptional regulation of drug efflux genes by EvgAS, a two-component system in Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2003;149:2819-28 pubmed
    ..both EvgAS and PhoPQ (Mg(2+)-responsive two-component system), in agreement with the presence of the binding site (PhoP box) for the regulator PhoP in the tolC promoter region...
  27. Waldburger C, Sauer R. Signal detection by the PhoQ sensor-transmitter. Characterization of the sensor domain and a response-impaired mutant that identifies ligand-binding determinants. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:26630-6 pubmed
    The PhoP-PhoQ two-component system is required for virulence and/or regulatory stress responses in enteric bacteria...
  28. Yamamoto K, Ogasawara H, Fujita N, Utsumi R, Ishihama A. Novel mode of transcription regulation of divergently overlapping promoters by PhoP, the regulator of two-component system sensing external magnesium availability. Mol Microbiol. 2002;45:423-38 pubmed
    b>PhoP is a response regulator of the PhoQ-PhoP two-component system controlling a set of the Mg(II)-response genes in Escherichia coli...
  29. Stock J, Stock A, Mottonen J. Signal transduction in bacteria. Nature. 1990;344:395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..This phosphotransfer network couples environmental signals to an array of response elements that control cell motility and regulate gene expression...
  30. He B, Smith J, Zalkin H. Escherichia coli purB gene: cloning, nucleotide sequence, and regulation by purR. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:130-6 pubmed
    ..subtilis. Gene phoP is 232 bp downstream of purB. Gene purB is regulated threefold by the purine pool and purR...