Gene Symbol: phoE
Description: outer membrane phosphoporin protein E
Alias: ECK0242, JW0231, ompE
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Samartzidou H, Delcour A. Distinct sensitivities of OmpF and PhoE porins to charged modulators. FEBS Lett. 1999;444:65-70 pubmed
    The inhibition of the anion-selective PhoE porin by ATP and of the cation-selective OmpF porin by polyamines has been previously documented...
  2. de Cock H, Tommassen J. Lipopolysaccharides and divalent cations are involved in the formation of an assembly-competent intermediate of outer-membrane protein PhoE of E.coli. EMBO J. 1996;15:5567-73 pubmed
    ..outer-membrane proteins in Gram-negative bacteria, the sorting and assembly of the trimeric, pore-forming protein PhoE was studied in vitro...
  3. Struyvé M, Moons M, Tommassen J. Carboxy-terminal phenylalanine is essential for the correct assembly of a bacterial outer membrane protein. J Mol Biol. 1991;218:141-8 pubmed
    ..The last ten C-terminal amino acid residues of PhoE protein are supposed to form such a membrane-spanning segment...
  4. Adams H, Scotti P, de Cock H, Luirink J, Tommassen J. The presence of a helix breaker in the hydrophobic core of signal sequences of secretory proteins prevents recognition by the signal-recognition particle in Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:5564-71 pubmed
    ..In the precursor of the Escherichia coli outer-membrane protein PhoE, the glycine residue at position -10 (Gly-10) is thought to be responsible for the break in the alpha-helix...
  5. Lazim Z, Humphrey T, Rowbury R. Induction of the PhoE porin by NaCl as the basis for salt-induced acid sensitivity in Escherichia coli. Lett Appl Microbiol. 1996;23:269-72 pubmed
    ..The finding that sensitization did not occur in a phoE strain but did occur in a phoE+ derivative of it suggested that the response might result from PhoE induction, ..
  6. Rowbury R. Regulatory components, including integration host factor, CysB and H-NS, that influence pH responses in Escherichia coli. Lett Appl Microbiol. 1997;24:319-28 pubmed
    ..Acid tolerance induced at low pH in log-phase cells needs CysB and PhoE but not DNA gyrase; tolerance is reduced by NaCl but not affected by Fe3+, Fe2+, glucose/cAMP or by lrp, him, fur, ..
  7. Tommassen J, Lugtenberg B. Amino terminus of outer membrane PhoE protein: localization by use of a bla-phoE hybrid gene. J Bacteriol. 1984;157:327-9 pubmed
    Expression of a recently constructed bla-phoE hybrid gene results in synthesis and incorporation into the outer membrane of PhoE protein containing an amino-terminal extension of 158 amino acid residues of beta-lactamase (Tommassen et al...
  8. Tommassen J, Overduin P, Lugtenberg B, Bergmans H. Cloning of phoE, the structural gene for the Escherichia coli phosphate limitation-inducible outer membrane pore protein. J Bacteriol. 1982;149:668-72 pubmed
    ..from the Clarke and Carbon collection, which was known to carry the proA gene, was shown also to contain the phoE gene. In vitro recombination techniques were used to subclone a 4...
  9. Hayzer D. Sub-cloning of the wild-type proAB region of the Escherichia coli genome. J Gen Microbiol. 1983;129:3215-25 pubmed
    ..The pro operon is contiguous with the gene phoE. Hybridization experiments showed no homology between proAB of E. coli and the other regions of the E...

More Information


  1. Cowan S, Schirmer T, Rummel G, Steiert M, Ghosh R, Pauptit R, et al. Crystal structures explain functional properties of two E. coli porins. Nature. 1992;358:727-33 pubmed
    ..The structures explain at the molecular level functional characteristics and their alterations by known mutations. ..
  2. Tommassen J, Lugtenberg B. Localization of phoE, the structural gene for outer membrane protein e in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1981;147:118-23 pubmed electrophoretically altered protein e, in both an nmpA and an nmpB background, we conclude that the structural gene for protein e, designated as phoE, is localized at min 6 on the chromosomal map, the gene order being phoE proA argF.
  3. van Voorst F, Vereyken I, De Kruijff B. The high affinity ATP binding site modulates the SecA-precursor interaction. FEBS Lett. 2000;486:57-62 pubmed
    ..Examining SecA ATP binding site mutants demonstrated that ATP hydrolysis at the N-terminal high affinity binding site is responsible for the changed interaction with the preprotein. ..
  4. Tommassen J, Koster M, Overduin P. Molecular analysis of the promoter region of the Escherichia coli K-12 phoE gene. Identification of an element, upstream from the promoter, required for efficient expression of phoE protein. J Mol Biol. 1987;198:633-41 pubmed
    The phoE gene of Escherichia coli codes for an outer membrane pore protein whose expression is induced under phosphate limitation...
  5. Van Gelder P, Saint N, van Boxtel R, Rosenbusch J, Tommassen J. Pore functioning of outer membrane protein PhoE of Escherichia coli: mutagenesis of the constriction loop L3. Protein Eng. 1997;10:699-706 pubmed
    Each monomer of the trimeric outer membrane porin PhoE of Escherichia coli consists of a 16-stranded beta-barrel with short turns at the periplasmic side and large loops at the cell surface...
  6. Angus B, Hancock R. Outer membrane porin proteins F, P, and D1 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and PhoE of Escherichia coli: chemical cross-linking to reveal native oligomers. J Bacteriol. 1983;155:1042-51 pubmed
    ..aeruginosa proteins F, D1 (glucose induced), and P (phosphate starvation induced) and E. coli protein PhoE (Ic) were also cross-linked to reveal dimers and trimers upon two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide ..
  7. Sumitomo T, Nagamune H, Maeda T, Kourai H. Correlation between the bacterioclastic action of a bis-quaternary ammonium compound and outer membrane proteins. Biocontrol Sci. 2006;11:115-24 pubmed
    ..bromide) (4DTBP-6,8) and the leakage of outer membrane pore protein E (OmpE) was investigated...
  8. Overbeeke N, Bergmans H, van Mansfeld F, Lugtenberg B. Complete nucleotide sequence of phoE, the structural gene for the phosphate limitation inducible outer membrane pore protein of Escherichia coli K12. J Mol Biol. 1983;163:513-32 pubmed
    The complete nucleotide sequence of the gene phoE, which codes for the phosphate limitation inducible outer membrane pore protein of Escherichia coli K12 was established...
  9. Benz R, Darveau R, Hancock R. Outer-membrane protein PhoE from Escherichia coli forms anion-selective pores in lipid-bilayer membranes. Eur J Biochem. 1984;140:319-24 pubmed
    Porin PhoE of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli was isolated and purified. Reconstitution experiments with lipid bilayer membranes showed that this protein formed pores which had a single channel conductance of 210 pS at 0.1 M KCl...
  10. Jap B, Walian P, Gehring K. Structural architecture of an outer membrane channel as determined by electron crystallography. Nature. 1991;350:167-70 pubmed
    ..They can exhibit slight selectivities for certain solutes; for example PhoE porin has some selectivity for anionic and phosphate-containing compounds...
  11. Navis G, de Zeeuw D, de Jong P. ACE-inhibitors: panacea for progressive renal disease. Lancet. 1997;349:1852-3 pubmed
  12. Henrich B, Plapp R. Locations of the genes from pepD through proA on the physical map of the Escherichia coli chromosome. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:7407-8 pubmed
  13. Bransburg Zabary S, Nachliel E, Gutman M. Gauging of the PhoE channel by a single freely diffusing proton. Biophys J. 2002;83:2987-3000 pubmed
    ..from a single pyranine molecule (8-hydroxypyrene-1,2,3-trisulfonate) bound by electrostatic forces inside the PhoE ionic channel of the Escherichia coli outer membrane...
  14. de Cock H, Overeem W, Tommassen J. Biogenesis of outer membrane protein PhoE of Escherichia coli. Evidence for multiple SecB-binding sites in the mature portion of the PhoE protein. J Mol Biol. 1992;224:369-79 pubmed
    Efficient in vivo translocation of the precursor of Escherichia coli outer membrane protein PhoE across the inner membrane is shown to depend on SecB protein...
  15. Sallmann F, Baveye Descamps S, Pattus F, Salmon V, Branza N, Spik G, et al. Porins OmpC and PhoE of Escherichia coli as specific cell-surface targets of human lactoferrin. Binding characteristics and biological effects. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:16107-14 pubmed
    ..We studied the interactions of human lactoferrin with the three major porins of Escherichia coli OmpC, OmpF, and PhoE. Binding experiments were performed on both purified porins and porin-deficient E. coli K12 isogenic mutants...
  16. Harms N, Koningstein G, Dontje W, Muller M, Oudega B, Luirink J, et al. The early interaction of the outer membrane protein phoe with the periplasmic chaperone Skp occurs at the cytoplasmic membrane. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:18804-11 pubmed
    Spheroplasts were used to study the early interactions of newly synthesized outer membrane protein PhoE with periplasmic proteins employing a protein cross-linking approach...
  17. Taschner N, Yagil E, Spira B. A differential effect of sigmaS on the expression of the PHO regulon genes of Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2004;150:2985-92 pubmed
    ..Other PHO genes such as phoE and ugpB are likewise affected by sigma(S)...
  18. Struyvé M, Visser J, Adriaanse H, Benz R, Tommassen J. Topology of PhoE porin: the 'eyelet' region. Mol Microbiol. 1993;7:131-40 pubmed
    A model for the topology of the PhoE porin has been proposed according to which the polypeptide traverses the outer membrane sixteen times mostly as amphipathic beta-sheets, thereby exposing eight loops at the cell surface...
  19. Huang X, Zhang X, Zhou Y, Zhang Z, Cass A. Directed evolution of the 5'-untranslated region of the phoA gene in Escherichia coli simultaneously yields a stronger promoter and a stronger Shine-Dalgarno sequence. Biotechnol J. 2006;1:1275-82 pubmed
    ..coli alkaline phosphatase expression at the translational level; moreover, a stronger Shine-Dalgarno sequence was generated. ..
  20. Andrä J, de Cock H, Garidel P, Howe J, Brandenburg K. Investigation into the interaction of the phosphoporin PhoE with outer membrane lipids: physicochemical characterization and biological activity. Med Chem. 2005;1:537-46 pubmed
    Outer membrane pore proteins such as phosphoporin (PhoE) are important constituents of Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli...
  21. Kang M, Lee Y, Yoon S, Kim J, Ock S, Jung K, et al. Identification of genes affecting lycopene accumulation in Escherichia coli using a shot-gun method. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2005;91:636-42 pubmed
    ..The co-expression of appY with dxs produced eight times the amount of lycopene (4.7 mg/g DCW) that was produced without expression of both genes (0.6 mg/g DCW). ..
  22. Faure D, Frederick R, Włoch D, Portier P, Blot M, Adams J. Genomic changes arising in long-term stab cultures of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6437-42 pubmed
    ..It is speculated that the loss of the crl locus is responsible for the selective advantage of the deletions. ..
  23. Deutch A, Rushlow K, Smith C. Analysis of the Escherichia coli proBA locus by DNA and protein sequencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984;12:6337-55 pubmed
    ..The contiguous nature of the proB and proA genes suggests that the two genes constitute an operon in which proB precedes proA. ..
  24. Yamada M, Makino K, Amemura M, Shinagawa H, Nakata A. Regulation of the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli: analysis of mutant phoB and phoR genes causing different phenotypes. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:5601-6 pubmed
    ..We quantitatively compared the levels of expression of the phoA, phoB, phoE, and pstS genes in several phoB mutants with different phenotypes by constructing operon fusions of these genes ..
  25. Jeanteur D, Lakey J, Pattus F. The bacterial porin superfamily: sequence alignment and structure prediction. Mol Microbiol. 1991;5:2153-64 pubmed
    ..Using the constraints of beta-sheet structure these porins are predicted to contain 16 membrane-spanning strands, 14 of which are common to the two (enteric and the neisserial) porin subfamilies. ..
  26. Tommassen J, van Tol H, Lugtenberg B. The ultimate localization of an outer membrane protein of Escherichia coli K-12 is not determined by the signal sequence. EMBO J. 1983;2:1275-9 pubmed
    ..role of the signal sequences in the biogenesis of outer membrane proteins, we have constructed two hybrid genes: a phoE-ompF hybrid gene, which encodes the signal sequence of outer membrane PhoE protein and the structural sequence of ..
  27. Phoenix D. On the targeting and membrane assembly of the Escherichia coli outer membrane porin, PhoE. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 1996;16:77-82 pubmed
    ..Understanding the targeting and membrane assembly of these proteins is therefore of importance and this mini review aims to discuss this process in light of present knowledge. ..
  28. Knowles T, Jeeves M, Bobat S, Dancea F, McClelland D, Palmer T, et al. Fold and function of polypeptide transport-associated domains responsible for delivering unfolded proteins to membranes. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:1216-27 pubmed publisher
    ..NMR titration studies show that strands from YaeT's canonical folding substrate, PhoE, bind non-specifically along alternating sides of its mixed beta sheets, thus providing an ideal platform for ..
  29. Nikaido H. Porins and specific channels of bacterial outer membranes. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:435-42 pubmed
    ..Although lipopolysaccharides seem to play a significant role in the final assembly of the trimeric porins, the details of the targeting process still remain to be elucidated. ..
  30. de Cock H, Hendriks R, de Vrije T, Tommassen J. Assembly of an in vitro synthesized Escherichia coli outer membrane porin into its stable trimeric configuration. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:4646-51 pubmed
    The folding of in vitro synthesized outer membrane protein PhoE of Escherichia coli was studied in immunoprecipitation experiments with monoclonal antibodies which recognize cell surface-exposed conformational epitopes...
  31. Rigal A, Bouveret E, Lloubes R, Lazdunski C, Benedetti H. The TolB protein interacts with the porins of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:7274-9 pubmed
    ..TolB interacted with the trimeric porins OmpF, OmpC, PhoE, and LamB but not with their denatured monomeric forms or OmpA...
  32. de Cock H, Pasveer M, Tommassen J, Bouveret E. Identification of phospholipids as new components that assist in the in vitro trimerization of a bacterial pore protein. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:865-75 pubmed
    The in vitro trimerization of folded monomers of the bacterial pore protein PhoE, into its native-like, heat- and SDS-stable form requires incubations with isolated cell envelopes and Triton X-100...
  33. Meyer S, Granett S, Jung J, Villarejo M. Osmotic regulation of PhoE porin synthesis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:5501-2 pubmed
    ..The amount of PhoE porin, which is normally induced by phosphate deprivation, was greatly reduced in cells adapted to high-osmolarity ..
  34. Hagge S, de Cock H, Gutsmann T, Beckers F, Seydel U, Wiese A. Pore formation and function of phosphoporin PhoE of Escherichia coli are determined by the core sugar moiety of lipopolysaccharide. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:34247-53 pubmed
    ..We found that pore formation by PhoE trimers that were added to the phospholipid side of the bilayers increased with the increasing length of the ..
  35. de Cock H, Brandenburg K, Wiese A, Holst O, Seydel U. Non-lamellar structure and negative charges of lipopolysaccharides required for efficient folding of outer membrane protein PhoE of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:5114-9 pubmed
    ..Recently, an early role for LPS in the folding of outer membrane porin PhoE was demonstrated in vitro...
  36. Jansen C, Heutink M, Tommassen J, de Cock H. The assembly pathway of outer membrane protein PhoE of Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:3792-800 pubmed
    The assembly of the wild-type and several mutant forms of the trimeric outer membrane porin PhoE of Escherichia coli was investigated in vitro and in vivo...
  37. Ullers R, Houben E, Brunner J, Oudega B, Harms N, Luirink J. Sequence-specific interactions of nascent Escherichia coli polypeptides with trigger factor and signal recognition particle. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:13999-4005 pubmed
    ..Importantly and in contrast to published data, the SRP appears perfectly capable of distinguishing SA sequences from signal sequences in secretory proteins at this early stage in biogenesis. ..
  38. Nuesch J, Schumperli D. Structural and functional organization of the gpt gene region of Escherichia coli. Gene. 1984;32:243-9 pubmed
    ..9-kDal XGPRT) with respect to other genes in this region, notably phoE. Genes gpt and phoE are pointing towards each other and are separated by about 1840 bp...
  39. Van Gelder P, Tommassen J. Demonstration of a folded monomeric form of porin PhoE of Escherichia coli in vivo. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:5320-2 pubmed
    ..A folded monomeric form of the Escherichia coli porin PhoE, with a higher electrophoretic mobility than that of the denatured protein, has recently been detected in in vitro ..
  40. Rao N, Torriani A. Molecular aspects of phosphate transport in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1990;4:1083-90 pubmed
    ..25 microM. An outer-membrane porin, PhoE, with a Km of about 1 microM is also induced...
  41. Korteland J, Tommassen J, Lugtenberg B. PhoE protein pore of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli K12 is a particularly efficient channel for organic and inorganic phosphate. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1982;690:282-9 pubmed
    This study was undertaken to investigate the proposed in vivo pore function of PhoE protein, an Escherichia coli K12 outer membrane protein induced by growth under phosphate limitation and to compare it with those of the constitutive pore ..
  42. Henning U, Schmidmayr W, Hindennach I. Major proteins of the outer cell envelope membrane of Escherichia coli K-12: multiple species of protein I. Mol Gen Genet. 1977;154:293-8 pubmed
  43. de Cock H, Struyvé M, Kleerebezem M, Van der Krift T, Tommassen J. Role of the carboxy-terminal phenylalanine in the biogenesis of outer membrane protein PhoE of Escherichia coli K-12. J Mol Biol. 1997;269:473-8 pubmed
    ..It has been shown that this residue has an important role in the efficient and correct assembly of PhoE protein into the Escherichia coli outer membrane, since its substitution or deletion resulted in the accumulation ..