phoB

Summary

Gene Symbol: phoB
Description: response regulator in two-component regulatory system with PhoR
Alias: ECK0393, JW0389, phoRc
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Wanner B. Gene regulation by phosphate in enteric bacteria. J Cell Biochem. 1993;51:47-54 pubmed
    ..Pi control of these genes requires the sensor PhoR, the response regulator PhoB, the binding protein-dependent Pi-specific transporter Pst, and the accessory protein PhoU...
  2. Bachhawat P, Swapna G, Montelione G, Stock A. Mechanism of activation for transcription factor PhoB suggested by different modes of dimerization in the inactive and active states. Structure. 2005;13:1353-63 pubmed
    ..We present crystallography and solution NMR data for the receiver domain of Escherichia coli PhoB which show distinct 2-fold symmetric dimers in the inactive and active states...
  3. Amemura M, Makino K, Shinagawa H, Nakata A. Cross talk to the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli by PhoM protein: PhoM is a histidine protein kinase and catalyzes phosphorylation of PhoB and PhoM-open reading frame 2. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:6300-7 pubmed
    Transcription of the genes in the phosphate regulon in Escherichia coli is activated by PhoB protein, which is phosphorylated by PhoR protein under phosphate-limiting conditions...
  4. Hoffer S, Westerhoff H, Hellingwerf K, Postma P, Tommassen J. Autoamplification of a two-component regulatory system results in "learning" behavior. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:4914-7 pubmed
  5. Sola M, Gomis Rüth F, Serrano L, Gonzalez A, Coll M. Three-dimensional crystal structure of the transcription factor PhoB receiver domain. J Mol Biol. 1999;285:675-87 pubmed
    b>PhoB is the response regulator of the two-component signal transduction system activated under phosphate starvation conditions...
  6. Heyde M, Portalier R. Isolation and characterization of a new type of Escherichia coli K12 phoB mutants. Mol Gen Genet. 1983;190:122-7 pubmed
    A new type of Escherichia coli K12 phoB mutant was isolated as 5-fluorouracil-plus-adenosine-resistant derivatives of a upp phoS,T strain...
  7. Pratt C, Torriani A. Complementation test between alkaline phosphatase regulatory mutations phoB and phoRc in Escherichia coli. Genetics. 1977;85:203-8 pubmed
    A phoRc and a phoB mutation belong to the same complementation group suggesting that there is a single positive control gene for alkaline phosphatase synthesis.
  8. Grillo Puertas M, Rintoul M, Rapisarda V. PhoB activation in non-limiting phosphate condition by the maintenance of high polyphosphate levels in the stationary phase inhibits biofilm formation in Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2016;162:1000-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcriptional-response regulator PhoB, which is activated under Pi limitation, is involved in the inhibition of biofilm formation in several bacterial ..
  9. Makino K, Shinagawa H, Amemura M, Kawamoto T, Yamada M, Nakata A. Signal transduction in the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli involves phosphotransfer between PhoR and PhoB proteins. J Mol Biol. 1989;210:551-9 pubmed
    b>PhoB protein is the transcriptional activator for genes in the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli, such as phoA and pstS, that are induced by phosphate deprivation...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Han J, Park J, Lee Y, Thony B, Hwang D. PhoB-dependent transcriptional activation of the iciA gene during starvation for phosphate in Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1999;262:448-52 pubmed
    ..Enhanced expression of iciA-lacZ was dependent upon the PhoB protein...
  2. Makino K, Shinagawa H, Amemura M, Kimura S, Nakata A, Ishihama A. Regulation of the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli. Activation of pstS transcription by PhoB protein in vitro. J Mol Biol. 1988;203:85-95 pubmed
    Expression of the genes in the phosphate regulon, including the pstS (phoS) and phoB genes, is positively regulated by PhoB protein when phosphate is limited...
  3. Kim S, Kimura S, Shinagawa H, Nakata A, Lee K, Wanner B, et al. Dual transcriptional regulation of the Escherichia coli phosphate-starvation-inducible psiE gene of the phosphate regulon by PhoB and the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein complex. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:5596-9 pubmed
    ..DNase I footprinting showed that the PhoB transcriptional-activator protein protects two predicted pho boxes lying upstream of and near the -35 promoter ..
  4. Mart nez Hackert E, Stock A. The DNA-binding domain of OmpR: crystal structures of a winged helix transcription factor. Structure. 1997;5:109-24 pubmed
    ..The structure of OmpRc could be useful in helping to define the positioning of the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase in relation to transcriptional activators that are bound to DNA...
  5. Makino K, Amemura M, Kawamoto T, Kimura S, Shinagawa H, Nakata A, et al. DNA binding of PhoB and its interaction with RNA polymerase. J Mol Biol. 1996;259:15-26 pubmed
    We have identified the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of an Escherichia coli activator protein PhoB as its C-terminal 91 residues...
  6. Makino K, Amemura M, Kim S, Nakata A, Shinagawa H. Role of the sigma 70 subunit of RNA polymerase in transcriptional activation by activator protein PhoB in Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 1993;7:149-60 pubmed
    ..regulon in Escherichia coli, which are induced by phosphate starvation, requires the specific activator protein PhoB in addition to the RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing the major sigma-factor sigma 70...
  7. Wanner B, Latterell P. Mutants affected in alkaline phosphatase, expression: evidence for multiple positive regulators of the phosphate regulon in Escherichia coli. Genetics. 1980;96:353-66 pubmed
    ..the product of the phoA gene) in Escherichia coli is believed to be subject to both positive control by the phoB gene product and negative control by the phoR gene product...
  8. McCleary W. No phobias about PhoB activation. Structure. 2005;13:1238-9 pubmed
    Structures of the inactive and activated forms of the receiver domain of PhoB reported in this issue of Structure (Bachhawat et al...
  9. Hadley R, Hu M, Timmons M, Yun K, Deonier R. A partial restriction map of the proA-purE region of the Escherichia coli K12 chromosome. Gene. 1983;22:281-7 pubmed
    ..75% of these fragments have been located relative to proA, B, argF, lac, proC, purE, and various insertion sequence elements normally present in this region. BglII and BamHI maps for the regions near argF and purE are also provided. ..
  10. Boidol W, Simonis M, Töpert M, Siewert G. Recombinant plasmids with genes for the biosynthesis of alkaline phosphatase of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1982;185:510-2 pubmed
    ..coli K12 chromosome 35,000 bp in size with the genes phoA, proC and phoB were prepared...
  11. Creager Allen R, Silversmith R, Bourret R. A link between dimerization and autophosphorylation of the response regulator PhoB. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:21755-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We characterized autophosphorylation of the response regulator PhoB, known to dimerize upon phosphorylation...
  12. Wanner B, Wilmes Riesenberg M. Involvement of phosphotransacetylase, acetate kinase, and acetyl phosphate synthesis in control of the phosphate regulon in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2124-30 pubmed
    ..of the phosphate (PHO) regulon require sensor proteins that are protein kinases that phosphorylate the regulator, PhoB, which in turn activates transcription only when phosphorylated...
  13. Tommassen J, Lugtenberg B. Localization of phoE, the structural gene for outer membrane protein e in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1981;147:118-23 pubmed
    ..Three classes of TC45-resistant strains were found: (i) mutants in phoB, a regulatory gene for protein e, (ii) mutants with an altered lipopolysaccharide, and (iii) mutants unaltered in ..
  14. Pao G, Saier M. Response regulators of bacterial signal transduction systems: selective domain shuffling during evolution. J Mol Evol. 1995;40:136-54 pubmed
    ..Sequence data were correlated with structure/function when such information was available.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  15. Gao R, Tao Y, Stock A. System-level mapping of Escherichia coli response regulator dimerization with FRET hybrids. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:1358-72 pubmed publisher
    ..It is especially demanding for members of the OmpR/PhoB subfamily, the largest RR subfamily, which share a conserved dimerization interface for phosphorylation-mediated ..
  16. Mack T, Gao R, Stock A. Probing the roles of the two different dimers mediated by the receiver domain of the response regulator PhoB. J Mol Biol. 2009;389:349-64 pubmed publisher
    Structural analysis of the Escherichia coli response regulator transcription factor PhoB indicates that the protein dimerizes in two different orientations that are both mediated by the receiver domain...
  17. Stock J, Stock A, Mottonen J. Signal transduction in bacteria. Nature. 1990;344:395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..This phosphotransfer network couples environmental signals to an array of response elements that control cell motility and regulate gene expression...
  18. Volz K. Tandem DNA binding of E. coli's transactivator PhoB. Structure. 2002;10:602-3 pubmed
    ..describe the first structure of a two-component response regulator effector domain bound to its target DNA, showing novel tandem binding to successive direct repeat sequences of pho boxes from the phoA operon promotor. ..
  19. Baek J, Kang Y, Lee S. Transcript and protein level analyses of the interactions among PhoB, PhoR, PhoU and CreC in response to phosphate starvation in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;277:254-9 pubmed
    The responses to phosphate starvation by PhoR-PhoB two-component regulatory system are also affected by other regulatory systems in Escherichia coli...
  20. Okamura H, Hanaoka S, Nagadoi A, Makino K, Nishimura Y. Structural comparison of the PhoB and OmpR DNA-binding/transactivation domains and the arrangement of PhoB molecules on the phosphate box. J Mol Biol. 2000;295:1225-36 pubmed
    b>PhoB is a transcriptional activator that binds to the phosphate box in the promoters of the phosphate genes of Escherichia coli...
  21. Smith M, Payne J. Expression of periplasmic binding proteins for peptide transport is subject to negative regulation by phosphate limitation in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992;100:183-90 pubmed
    ..regulon; genes controlled by this mechanism lack efficient -35 promoter regions, and instead, an activator protein, PhoB, binds to a specific 'Pho box' sequence, ten bases upstream from a -10 promoter, thereby facilitating binding of ..
  22. Shinagawa H, Makino K, Nakata A. Regulation of the pho regulon in Escherichia coli K-12. Genetic and physiological regulation of the positive regulatory gene phoB. J Mol Biol. 1983;168:477-88 pubmed
    b>phoB is a positive regulatory gene for phoA, which codes for alkaline phosphatase, as well as for other genes belonging to the phosphate (pho) regulon whose expression is inducible by phosphate limitation in Escherichia coli...
  23. Ruiz N, Silhavy T. Constitutive activation of the Escherichia coli Pho regulon upregulates rpoS translation in an Hfq-dependent fashion. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5984-92 pubmed
    ..This upregulation of rpoS translation is Hfq dependent, suggesting the involvement of a small regulatory RNA (sRNA). The transcription of this yet-to-be-identified sRNA is regulated by the PhoBR two-component system...
  24. Haldimann A, Daniels L, Wanner B. Use of new methods for construction of tightly regulated arabinose and rhamnose promoter fusions in studies of the Escherichia coli phosphate regulon. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1277-86 pubmed
    ..This regulation requires seven proteins, whose synthesis is under autogenous control, including response regulator PhoB, its partner, histidine sensor kinase PhoR, all four components of the Pi-specific transport (Pst) system (PstA, ..
  25. Rao N, Liu S, Kornberg A. Inorganic polyphosphate in Escherichia coli: the phosphate regulon and the stringent response. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:2186-93 pubmed
    ..Mutants which lack PhoB, the response regulator of the phosphate regulon, do not accumulate polyP even though they develop wild-type levels ..
  26. Ritzefeld M, Walhorn V, Kleineberg C, Bieker A, Kock K, Herrmann C, et al. Cooperative binding of PhoB(DBD) to its cognate DNA sequence-a combined application of single-molecule and ensemble methods. Biochemistry. 2013;52:8177-86 pubmed publisher
    ..the mechanism of protein-DNA complex formation and the impact of protein dimerization of the DNA-binding domain of PhoB (PhoB(DBD)). These insights can be translated to related members of the family of winged helix-turn-helix proteins...
  27. Wanner B, Chang B. The phoBR operon in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:5569-74 pubmed
    The phoB and phoR genes encode a transcription activator and a sensory protein of the phosphate regulon, respectively. It is shown here that they were transcribed as an operon in which the phoB gene was promoter proximal...
  28. Makino K, Shinagawa H, Amemura M, Nakata A. Nucleotide sequence of the phoB gene, the positive regulatory gene for the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli K-12. J Mol Biol. 1986;190:37-44 pubmed
    b>phoB encodes a positive regulator for a number of the genes belonging to the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli, including phoA, phoS, phoE and ugpAB...
  29. Sola M, Drew D, Blanco A, Gomis Ruth F, Coll M. The cofactor-induced pre-active conformation in PhoB. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2006;62:1046-57 pubmed
    b>PhoB is an Escherichia coli transcription factor from a two-component signal transduction system that is sensitive to limiting environmental phosphate conditions...
  30. Zuckier G, Ingenito E, Torriani A. Pleiotropic effects of alkaline phosphatase regulatory mutations phoB and phoT on anaerobic growth of and polyphosphate synthesis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1980;143:934-41 pubmed
    The appearance during anaerobiosis of spontaneous phoT phoB double mutants in a phoT background is described. During both exponential growth and stationary phase, selection against the phoT mutants relative to the wild type was evident...
  31. Shindoh K, Maenaka K, Akiba T, Okamura H, Nishimura Y, Makino K, et al. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies on the DNA-binding domain of the transcriptional activator protein PhoB from Escherichia coli. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2002;58:1862-4 pubmed
    b>PhoB is a transcriptional factor that activates more than 30 genes of the pho regulon in response to phosphate starvation. Crystals of its C-terminal domain (PhoBC) were obtained in two forms...
  32. Gao R, Stock A. Temporal hierarchy of gene expression mediated by transcription factor binding affinity and activation dynamics. MBio. 2015;6:e00686-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report how the binding affinity of the PhoB two-component response regulator (RR) to target promoters impacts the level and timing of expression of PhoB-..
  33. Wanner B. Signal transduction in the control of phosphate-regulated genes of Escherichia coli. Kidney Int. 1996;49:964-7 pubmed
  34. Parkinson J. Signal transduction schemes of bacteria. Cell. 1993;73:857-71 pubmed
  35. Martinez Hackert E, Stock A. Structural relationships in the OmpR family of winged-helix transcription factors. J Mol Biol. 1997;269:301-12 pubmed
    ..Mutagenesis studies performed on several members of this family, OmpR, PhoB, ToxR and VirG, can now be interpreted with respect to the structure.
  36. Wollschläger K, Gaus K, Körnig A, Eckel R, Wilking S, McIntosh M, et al. Single-molecule experiments to elucidate the minimal requirement for DNA recognition by transcription factor epitopes. Small. 2009;5:484-95 pubmed publisher
    ..As a model system, peptide and protein epitopes of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of the transcription factor PhoB from Escherichia coli are analyzed with respect to DNA binding at the single-molecule level...
  37. Sol M, Gomis Ruth F, Guasch A, Serrano L, Coll M. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the receiver domain of PhoB. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 1998;54:1460-3 pubmed
    b>PhoB is the response regulator of the E. coli two-component signal transduction system for phosphate regulation. It is a transcription factor that activates more than 30 genes of the pho regulon...
  38. Ellison D, McCleary W. The unphosphorylated receiver domain of PhoB silences the activity of its output domain. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:6592-7 pubmed
    b>PhoB is the response regulator of the Pho regulon...
  39. Blanco A, Sola M, Gomis Ruth F, Coll M. Tandem DNA recognition by PhoB, a two-component signal transduction transcriptional activator. Structure. 2002;10:701-13 pubmed
    b>PhoB is a signal transduction response regulator that activates nearly 40 genes in phosphate depletion conditions in E. coli and closely related bacteria...
  40. Baek J, Lee S. Novel gene members in the Pho regulon of Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;264:104-9 pubmed
    The transcriptome profiles of the wild-type and the phoB mutant strains were compared at the time point showing the highest expression levels of the phoB and phoR genes under a P-limiting condition...
  41. Kim S, Makino K, Amemura M, Nakata A, Shinagawa H. Mutational analysis of the role of the first helix of region 4.2 of the sigma 70 subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase in transcriptional activation by activator protein PhoB. Mol Gen Genet. 1995;248:1-8 pubmed
    ..of the genes belonging to the phosphate (pho) regulon in Escherichia coli requires the specific activator protein PhoB, in addition to RNA polymerase containing the major sigma factor, sigma 70, which is encoded by rpoD...
  42. VanBogelen R, Olson E, Wanner B, Neidhardt F. Global analysis of proteins synthesized during phosphorus restriction in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:4344-66 pubmed
    ..of the proteins with induced or repressed synthesis contained sequences which resembled the consensus sequence for PhoB binding...
  43. Wanner B, Wieder S, McSharry R. Use of bacteriophage transposon Mu d1 to determine the orientation for three proC-linked phosphate-starvation-inducible (psi) genes in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1981;146:93-101 pubmed
    ..The gene order (clockwise) is phoA psiF proC psiG phoB phoR...
  44. Allen M, Zumbrennen K, McCleary W. Genetic evidence that the alpha5 helix of the receiver domain of PhoB is involved in interdomain interactions. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:2204-11 pubmed
    ..To address this question for the PhoB protein from Escherichia coli, we have employed two separate genetic approaches, deletion analysis and domain ..
  45. Saier M. Bacterial sensor kinase/response regulator systems: an introduction. Res Microbiol. 1994;145:349-55 pubmed
  46. Kimura S, Makino K, Shinagawa H, Amemura M, Nakata A. Regulation of the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli: characterization of the promoter of the pstS gene. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;215:374-80 pubmed
    ..to the phosphate regulon whose expression is induced by phosphate starvation and regulated positively by the PhoB protein...
  47. Brynildsen M, Liao J. An integrated network approach identifies the isobutanol response network of Escherichia coli. Mol Syst Biol. 2009;5:277 pubmed publisher
    ..Quinone/quinol malfunction was postulated to activate ArcA, Fur, and PhoB in this study...
  48. Parkinson J, Kofoid E. Communication modules in bacterial signaling proteins. Annu Rev Genet. 1992;26:71-112 pubmed
  49. Makino K, Shinagawa H, Nakata A. Regulation of the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli K-12: regulation and role of the regulatory gene phoR. J Mol Biol. 1985;184:231-40 pubmed
    ..The genetic and physiological regulation of phoR expression was found to be very similar to that of phoB, a positive regulatory gene for the pho regulon, and phoA, the structural gene for alkaline phosphatase, both of ..
  50. Arribas Bosacoma R, Kim S, Ferrer Orta C, Blanco A, Pereira P, Gomis Ruth F, et al. The X-ray crystal structures of two constitutively active mutants of the Escherichia coli PhoB receiver domain give insights into activation. J Mol Biol. 2007;366:626-41 pubmed
    The PhoR/PhoB two-component system is a key regulatory protein network enabling Escherichia coli to respond to inorganic phosphate (Pi) starvation conditions by turning on Pho regulon genes for more efficient Pi uptake and use of ..
  51. Verhamme D, Arents J, Postma P, Crielaard W, Hellingwerf K. Investigation of in vivo cross-talk between key two-component systems of Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2002;148:69-78 pubmed
    ..UhpT expression was demonstrated when cells were grown on pyruvate, through non-cognate phosphorylation of UhpA by acetyl phosphate. ..
  52. Blanco A, Canals A, Bernues J, Sola M, Coll M. The structure of a transcription activation subcomplex reveals how ?(70) is recruited to PhoB promoters. EMBO J. 2011;30:3776-85 pubmed publisher
    b>PhoB is a two-component response regulator that activates transcription by interacting with the ?(70) subunit of the E. coli RNA polymerase in promoters in which the -35 ?(70)-recognition element is replaced by the pho box...
  53. Tommassen J, De Geus P, Lugtenberg B, Hackett J, Reeves P. Regulation of the pho regulon of Escherichia coli K-12. Cloning of the regulatory genes phoB and phoR and identification of their gene products. J Mol Biol. 1982;157:265-74 pubmed