Gene Symbol: pgaC
Description: biofilm PGA synthase PgaCD, catalytic subunit; poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine synthase
Alias: ECK1012, JW1007, hmsR, ycdQ
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Jones H, Lillard J, Perry R. HmsT, a protein essential for expression of the haemin storage (Hms+) phenotype of Yersinia pestis. Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 8):2117-28 pubmed publisher
    ..E. coli MG1655 contains homologues of hmsHFRST (ycdSRQPT) but has an Hms- phenotype. Only ycdQ and ycdP complement mutations in their respective homologues, hmsR and hmsS, in Y. pestis.
  2. Wang X, Dubey A, Suzuki K, Baker C, Babitzke P, Romeo T. CsrA post-transcriptionally represses pgaABCD, responsible for synthesis of a biofilm polysaccharide adhesin of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:1648-63 pubmed
    ..These studies define the crucial mechanisms, though not the only means, by which the Csr system influences biofilm formation. ..
  3. Itoh Y, Wang X, Hinnebusch B, Preston J, Romeo T. Depolymerization of beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine disrupts the integrity of diverse bacterial biofilms. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:382-7 pubmed
  4. Wang L, Li J, March J, Valdes J, Bentley W. luxS-dependent gene regulation in Escherichia coli K-12 revealed by genomic expression profiling. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:8350-60 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with the function of LuxS as an important metabolic enzyme but appear not to support the role of AI-2 as a true signal molecule for E. coli W3110 under the investigated conditions. ..
  5. Itoh Y, Rice J, Goller C, Pannuri A, Taylor J, Meisner J, et al. Roles of pgaABCD genes in synthesis, modification, and export of the Escherichia coli biofilm adhesin poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:3670-80 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PgaC is an apparent glycosyltransferase that is required for PGA synthesis...
  6. Wang X, Preston J, Romeo T. The pgaABCD locus of Escherichia coli promotes the synthesis of a polysaccharide adhesin required for biofilm formation. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:2724-34 pubmed
    ..The pgaABCD operon exhibits features of a horizontally transferred locus and is present in a variety of eubacteria. Therefore, we propose that PGA serves as an adhesin that stabilizes biofilms of E. coli and other bacteria. ..
  7. Agladze K, Wang X, Romeo T. Spatial periodicity of Escherichia coli K-12 biofilm microstructure initiates during a reversible, polar attachment phase of development and requires the polysaccharide adhesin PGA. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:8237-46 pubmed
    ..Thus, spatial periodicity of biofilm microstructure is genetically determined and evident during the formation of temporary cell surface attachments. ..
  8. Mercante J, Suzuki K, Cheng X, Babitzke P, Romeo T. Comprehensive alanine-scanning mutagenesis of Escherichia coli CsrA defines two subdomains of critical functional importance. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:31832-42 pubmed
    ..Given the symmetry of the CsrA dimer, these findings imply that two distinct RNA binding surfaces or functional subdomains lie on opposite sides of the protein. ..
  9. Goller C, Wang X, Itoh Y, Romeo T. The cation-responsive protein NhaR of Escherichia coli activates pgaABCD transcription, required for production of the biofilm adhesin poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:8022-32 pubmed
    ..These results define a novel mechanism for regulation of biofilm formation in response to environmental conditions and suggest an expanded role for NhaR in promoting bacterial survival. ..

More Information


  1. Cerca N, Jefferson K. Effect of growth conditions on poly-N-acetylglucosamine expression and biofilm formation in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;283:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The regulatory factor NhaR was required for NaCl-induced pga expression, whereas the effects of glucose and ethanol were independent of CsrA and NhaR. ..
  2. Steiner S, Lori C, Boehm A, Jenal U. Allosteric activation of exopolysaccharide synthesis through cyclic di-GMP-stimulated protein-protein interaction. EMBO J. 2013;32:354-68 pubmed publisher
    ..C-di-GMP binds directly to both PgaC and PgaD, the two inner membrane components of the poly-GlcNAc synthesis machinery to stimulate their ..