pfkA

Summary

Gene Symbol: pfkA
Description: 6-phosphofructokinase I
Alias: ECK3908, JW3887
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Peng L, Arauzo Bravo M, Shimizu K. Metabolic flux analysis for a ppc mutant Escherichia coli based on 13C-labelling experiments together with enzyme activity assays and intracellular metabolite measurements. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;235:17-23 pubmed
    ..9% of the carbon flux being channeled via the glyoxylate shunt. However, the flux of the pentose phosphate pathway significantly decreased in the ppc mutant. ..
  2. Ishii N, Suga Y, Hagiya A, Watanabe H, Mori H, Yoshino M, et al. Dynamic simulation of an in vitro multi-enzyme system. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:413-20 pubmed
    ..coli glycolytic enzymes. Thus, the results indicate that kinetic parameters can be determined without using an undesirable tuning process. ..
  3. Pham A, Janiak Spens F, Reinhart G. Persistent binding of MgADP to the E187A mutant of Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase in the absence of allosteric effects. Biochemistry. 2001;40:4140-9 pubmed
    ..These results clarified the mechanism of a three-ligand interaction and offered a nontraditional perspective on allosteric mechanism. ..
  4. Fenton A, Paricharttanakul N, Reinhart G. Identification of substrate contact residues important for the allosteric regulation of phosphofructokinase from Eschericia coli. Biochemistry. 2003;42:6453-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, the lack of correlation between mutations that decrease Fru-6-P affinity and those that abolish allosteric communications supports the independence of affinity and allosteric coupling. ..
  5. Fraenkel D, Kotlarz D, Buc H. Two fructose 6-phosphate kinase activities in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1973;248:4865-6 pubmed
  6. Kundrot C, Evans P. Designing an allosterically locked phosphofructokinase. Biochemistry. 1991;30:1478-84 pubmed
  7. Siddiquee K, Arauzo Bravo M, Shimizu K. Effect of a pyruvate kinase (pykF-gene) knockout mutation on the control of gene expression and metabolic fluxes in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;235:25-33 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR revealed that the glycolytic genes such as glk, pgi, pfkA and tpiA were down regulated, that ppc, pckA, maeB and mdh genes were strongly up-regulated, and that the oxidative ..
  8. Auzat I, Le Bras G, Garel J. Allosteric activation increases the maximum velocity of E. coli phosphofructokinase. J Mol Biol. 1997;267:476-80 pubmed
  9. Hellinga H, Evans P. Mutations in the active site of Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase. Nature. 1987;327:437-9 pubmed
    ..Changing Arg 171 to Ser reduced the turnover numbers by about 3.4, showing that this arginine has only a minor effect on the catalysis. ..

More Information

Publications78

  1. Schlessinger N, Robbins F. The psychoanalytic process: recurrent patterns of conflict and changes in ego functions. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 1975;23:761-82 pubmed
  2. Atkinson D, Walton G. KINETICS OF REGULATORY ENZYMES. ESCHERICHIA COLI PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE. J Biol Chem. 1965;240:757-63 pubmed
  3. Otsuka Y, Koga M, Iwamoto A, Yonesaki T. A role of RnlA in the RNase LS activity from Escherichia coli. Genes Genet Syst. 2007;82:291-9 pubmed
    ..Among these, triose phosphate isomerase exhibited a remarkable affinity to RnlA. These results suggest that RnlA plays a central role in RNase LS activity and that its activity is regulated by multiple components...
  4. Fenton A, Paricharttanakul N, Reinhart G. Disentangling the web of allosteric communication in a homotetramer: heterotropic activation in phosphofructokinase from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2004;43:14104-10 pubmed
    ..The free energies of the isolated interactions sum to 100% +/- 2% of the total. Therefore, the four unique interactions are all contributors to activation, are nonequivalent, and are additive. ..
  5. Babul J, Robinson J, Fraenkel D. Are the aerobic and anaerobic phosphofructokinases of Escherichia coli different?. Eur J Biochem. 1977;74:533-7 pubmed
    ..fructose 6-phosphate concentration, activation by ADP, and inhibition by phosphoenolpyruvate. Findings [e.g. Doelle (1975) Eur. J. Biochem, 50, 335-342] of quite different enzymes in aerobic and anaerobic cells were not confirmed. ..
  6. Deville Bonne D, Bourgain F, Garel J. pH dependence of the kinetic properties of allosteric phosphofructokinase from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1991;30:5750-4 pubmed
    ..The presence of GDP shifts the pK of the critical group which controls kcat from 7 to 6.6.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  7. Kotlarz D, Buc H. Two Escherichia coli fructose-6-phosphate kinases. Preparative purification, oligomeric structure and immunological studies. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1977;484:35-48 pubmed
    ..Antisera have been produced against both isoenzymes. The antiserum against one isoenzyme does not cross-react with the other. Discrepancies between our results and those of other workers are discussed. ..
  8. Kimata K, Tanaka Y, Inada T, Aiba H. Expression of the glucose transporter gene, ptsG, is regulated at the mRNA degradation step in response to glycolytic flux in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 2001;20:3587-95 pubmed
    ..level of IICB(Glc) is markedly reduced when the glycolytic pathway is blocked by a mutation in either the pgi or pfkA gene encoding phosphoglucose isomerase or phosphofructokinase, respectively...
  9. Babul J. Phosphofructokinases from Escherichia coli. Purification and characterization of the nonallosteric isozyme. J Biol Chem. 1978;253:4350-5 pubmed
    ..The main phosphofructokinase of Escherichia coli (PFK I) is an extensively studied allosteric enzyme specified by the pfkA gene. A nonallosteric phosphofructokinase was reported (Fraenkel, D.G., Kotlarz, D., and Bluc, H. (1973) J. Biol...
  10. Lau F, Fersht A. Conversion of allosteric inhibition to activation in phosphofructokinase by protein engineering. Nature. 1987;326:811-2 pubmed
    ..The classical Monod-Wyman-Changeux two-state model is too simple to account for the properties of the mutant enzyme. ..
  11. Daldal F. Molecular cloning of the gene for phosphofructokinase-2 of Escherichia coli and the nature of a mutation, pfkB1, causing a high level of the enzyme. J Mol Biol. 1983;168:285-305 pubmed
    ..Pfk-2 so that it adequately substitutes for mutational loss of the major phosphofructokinase, Pfk-1 (specified by pfkA); and another closely linked mutation, pfkB10, affects the structure of Pfk-2...
  12. Pham A, Reinhart G. MgATP-dependent activation by phosphoenolpyruvate of the E187A mutant of Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase. Biochemistry. 2001;40:4150-8 pubmed
    ..The present study examines the role of Glu 187 at the allosteric site in the binding of Fru-6-P and offers a more complex explanation of the mechanism than that described by traditional allosteric mechanistic models. ..
  13. Doelle H. ATP-sensitive and ATP-insensitive phosphofructokinase in Escherichia coli K-12. Eur J Biochem. 1975;50:335-42 pubmed
    ..The kinetic characteristics together with the effect of metabolites on these phosphofructokinase types are described and discussed in the light of their importance for the regulatory mechanism of the Pasteur effect. ..
  14. Deville Bonne D, Garel J. A conformational transition involved in antagonistic substrate binding to the allosteric phosphofructokinase from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1992;31:1695-700 pubmed
    ..1968). This discrepancy suggests that the allosteric properties of phosphofructokinase are due in part to ligand binding and in part to the kinetics of the enzymatic reaction. ..
  15. Johnson J, Reinhart G. Influence of substrates and MgADP on the time-resolved intrinsic fluorescence of phosphofructokinase from Escherichia coli. Correlation of tryptophan dynamics to coupling entropy. Biochemistry. 1994;33:2644-50 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  16. Peskov K, Goryanin I, Demin O. Kinetic model of phosphofructokinase-1 from Escherichia coli. J Bioinform Comput Biol. 2008;6:843-67 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the model developed can be used in the kinetic modeling of biochemical pathways containing phosphofructokinase-1. ..
  17. Johnson J, Reinhart G. Failure of a two-state model to describe the influence of phospho(enol)pyruvate on phosphofructokinase from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1997;36:12814-22 pubmed
    ..Though an equilibrium mixture of two conformations of ternary complex cannot therefore be formally ruled out, no evidence obtained to date requires the presumption of this mechanistic complication. ..
  18. Auzat I, Le Bras G, Garel J. The cooperativity and allosteric inhibition of Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase depend on the interaction between threonine-125 and ATP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:5242-6 pubmed
    ..This interaction could be a hydrogen bond between the neutral oxygen of the gamma-phosphate of ATP and the hydroxyl group of Thr-125. ..
  19. Itoh A, Ohashi Y, Soga T, Mori H, Nishioka T, Tomita M. Application of capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry to synthetic in vitro glycolysis studies. Electrophoresis. 2004;25:1996-2002 pubmed
    ..This approach is likely useful for the synthesis of natural products requiring complex sequential biocatalytic reactions. ..
  20. Lengeler J. Analysis of mutations affecting the dissmilation of galactitol (dulcitol) in Escherichia coli K 12. Mol Gen Genet. 1977;152:83-91 pubmed
  21. Diaz Ricci J. ADP modulates the dynamic behavior of the glycolytic pathway of Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;271:244-9 pubmed
    ..However, when PEP or F6P is constant, the system evolves toward the formation of stable limit cycles with periods ranging from 0.2 min to hours. ..
  22. Johnson J, Reinhart G. MgATP and fructose 6-phosphate interactions with phosphofructokinase from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1992;31:11510-8 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  23. Morita T, El Kazzaz W, Tanaka Y, Inada T, Aiba H. Accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate or fructose 6-phosphate is responsible for destabilization of glucose transporter mRNA in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:15608-14 pubmed
    Previously we found that a mutation in either pgi or pfkA, encoding phosphoglucose isomerase or phosphofructokinase A, respectively, facilitates degradation of the ptsG mRNA in an RNase E-dependent manner in Escherichia coli (1)...
  24. Berger S, Evans P. Steady-state fluorescence of Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase reveals a regulatory role for ATP. Biochemistry. 1991;30:8477-80 pubmed
    ..coli PFK exists in a state with high affinity for Fru6P ("R" state). This state can be altered to a low affinity ("T" state) by PEP binding to the allosteric site or by ATP binding to the enzyme. ..
  25. Kotlarz D, Garreau H, Buc H. Regulation of the amount and of the activity of phosphofructokinases and pyruvate kinases in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975;381:257-68 pubmed
    ..Kinetics of depression after a shift to anaerobiosis have been followed and found to be of the order of the doubling time. ..
  26. Johnson J, Lasagna M, Reinhart G. Influence of a sulfhydryl cross-link across the allosteric-site interface of E. coli phosphofructokinase. Protein Sci. 2001;10:2186-94 pubmed
    ..Allosteric influence, therefore, is not correlated to subunit-subunit affinity, and does not involve substantial interfacial rearrangement. ..
  27. Fenton A, Reinhart G. Mechanism of substrate inhibition in Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase. Biochemistry. 2003;42:12676-81 pubmed
    ..The data presented are consistent with an allosteric antagonism between MgATP in one active site and Fru-6-P in a second active site. ..
  28. Lau F, Fersht A, Hellinga H, Evans P. Site-directed mutagenesis in the effector site of Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase. Biochemistry. 1987;26:4143-8 pubmed
    ..A 5.5-fold increase in the dissociation constant of GDP on the mutation of Tyr-55----Gly-55 suggests a small hydrophobic interaction of the aromatic ring of the tyrosine residue with guanine of GDP. ..
  29. Lovingshimer M, Siegele D, Reinhart G. Construction of an inducible, pfkA and pfkB deficient strain of Escherichia coli for the expression and purification of phosphofructokinase from bacterial sources. Protein Expr Purif. 2006;46:475-82 pubmed
    ..The resulting strain has been designated RL257. In addition to having both pfkA and pfkB deleted, RL257 contains the lacI(q) allele, which allows for inducible expression when coupled with an ..
  30. Roehl R, Vinopal R. Lack of glucose phosphotransferase function in phosphofructokinase mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1976;126:852-60 pubmed
    Phosphofructokinase (pfkA) mutants of Escherichia coli are impaired in growth on all carbon sources entering glycolysis at or above the level of fructose 6-phosphate (nonpermissive carbon sources), but growth is particularly slow on ..
  31. Auzat I, Gawlita E, Garel J. Slow ligand-induced transitions in the allosteric phosphofructokinase from Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1995;249:478-92 pubmed
    ..These results show that steady-state measurements are not sufficient to analyze the regulatory properties of E. coli phosphofructokinase. ..
  32. Rypniewski W, Evans P. Crystal structure of unliganded phosphofructokinase from Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1989;207:805-21 pubmed
    ..However, this structure does identify the conformational changes involved in binding of the allosteric effectors. ..
  33. Wang X, Kemp R. Identification of residues of Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase that contribute to nucleotide binding and specificity. Biochemistry. 1999;38:4313-8 pubmed
    ..Activities with ITP, CTP, and UTP are also higher than with the wild type enzyme. Arginine residues at positions 82 and 111 are important dictators of nucleoside triphosphate preference. ..
  34. Auzat I, Byrnes W, Garel J, Chang S. Role of residue 161 in the allosteric transitions of two bacterial phosphofructokinases. Biochemistry. 1995;34:7062-8 pubmed
  35. Blangy D. Phosphofructokinase from E. Coli: Evidence for a tetrameric structure of the enzyme. FEBS Lett. 1968;2:109-111 pubmed
  36. Morrissey A, Fraenkel D. Selection of fructose 6-phosphate kinase mutants in Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1968;32:467-73 pubmed
  37. Fenton A, Reinhart G. Isolation of a single activating allosteric interaction in phosphofructokinase from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2002;41:13410-6 pubmed
    ..56 kcal/mol under these conditions, indicating that the effects of MgADP are diminished by a homotropic activation equal to -1.3 kcal/mol. These data are not consistent with a concerted allosteric mechanism. ..
  38. Pham A, Reinhart G. Quantification of allosteric influence of Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase by frequency domain fluorescence. Biophys J. 2003;85:656-66 pubmed
    ..Coupling interactions giving rise to positive entropy components are manifested by increasing flexibility of the ternary complexes rather than the binary complexes. ..
  39. Fenton A, Reinhart G. Disentangling the web of allosteric communication in a homotetramer: heterotropic inhibition in phosphofructokinase from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2009;48:12323-8 pubmed publisher
  40. Auzat I, Garel J. pH dependence of the reverse reaction catalyzed by phosphofructokinase I from Escherichia coli: implications for the role of Asp 127. Protein Sci. 1992;1:254-8 pubmed
    ..amp; Evans, P.R., 1988, J. Mol. Biol. 204, 973-994). The same interpretation would also explain the much higher affinity of the enzyme for fructose-1,6-bisphosphate when Asp 127 is protonated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  41. Blangy D. [Allosteric properties of phosphofructokinase of E. coli. Study of the ligand binding by equilibrium dialysis]. Biochimie. 1971;53:135-44 pubmed
  42. Roehl R, Vinopal R. New maltose Blu mutations in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1979;139:683-5 pubmed
    Mutations in the genes pgi, pfkA, and ptsG resulted in a maltose Blu phenotype in Escherichia coli K-12, bringing the number of known Blu alleles to six...
  43. Zheng R, Kemp R. Site-directed mutagenesis of two highly conserved residues near the active site of phosphofructo-1-kinase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;199:577-81 pubmed
    ..A computer graphics analysis of the three-dimensional structure suggests that the mutations effect the orientation of Arg-252, a residue important both for fructose 6-P binding and for catalysis. ..
  44. Zheng R, Kemp R. The mechanism of ATP inhibition of wild type and mutant phosphofructo-1-kinase from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:23640-5 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that ATP inhibition results from substrate antagonism coupled with a steady state random mechanism wherein the high rate of catalysis does not permit equilibration of substrates. ..
  45. Lau F, Fersht A. Dissection of the effector-binding site and complementation studies of Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase using site-directed mutagenesis. Biochemistry. 1989;28:6841-7 pubmed
    ..In particular, Arg21 and Lys213 in each site are from different subunits. Mutations of either one of these residues abolishes activation by GDP of the homotetramer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  46. Wang X, Kemp R. Reaction path of phosphofructo-1-kinase is altered by mutagenesis and alternative substrates. Biochemistry. 2001;40:3938-42 pubmed
    ..These unusual kinetic patterns could be interpreted within the random, steady-state model as reflecting changes in the rates of particular binding and catalytic events. ..
  47. Vinopal R, Clifton D, Fraenkel D. PfkA locus of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1975;122:1162-71 pubmed
    b>pfkA was know, on the basis of three mutants, as the likely locus of phosphofructokinase in Escherichia coli, and the unlinked pfkB1 mutation suppressed these mutations by restoring some enzyme activity (Morrissey and Fraenkel, 1972)...
  48. Zheng R, Kemp R. Phosphofructo-1-kinase: role of charge neutralization in the active site. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;214:765-70 pubmed
  49. Le Bras G, Garel J. A proteolyzed derivative of Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase is no longer sensitive to allosteric effectors and still shows cooperativity in substrate binding. Biochemistry. 1982;21:6656-60 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that phosphofructokinase may function as a dimer of dimers, in which homotropic and heterotropic allosteric effects are not mediated by the same sets of quaternary interactions. ..
  50. Thomson J, Gerstenberger P, Goldberg D, Gociar E, Orozco de Silva A, Fraenkel D. ColE1 hybrid plasmids for Escherichia coli genes of glycolysis and the hexose monophosphate shunt. J Bacteriol. 1979;137:502-6 pubmed
    ..Plasmids were identified for phosphofructokinase (pfkA), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), phosphoglucose isomerase (pgi), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (zwf), ..
  51. Hellinga H, Evans P. Nucleotide sequence and high-level expression of the major Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase. Eur J Biochem. 1985;149:363-73 pubmed
    The gene for the major phosphofructokinase enzyme in Escherichia coli, pfkA, has been sequenced...
  52. Pham A, Reinhart G. Pre-steady state quantification of the allosteric influence of Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:34388-95 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, both phosphoenolpyruvate and MgADP act by influencing the fast complex formation step while leaving the slower enzyme isomerization step essentially unchanged. ..
  53. Thomas A, Doelle H, Westwood A, Gordon G. Effect of oxygen on several enzymes involved in the aerobic and anaerobic utilization of glucose in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1972;112:1099-105 pubmed
    ..A mechanism is proposed for the change from aerobiosis to anaerobiosis together with the occurring change in glucose regulation. ..
  54. Wang X, Deng Z, Kemp R. An essential methionine residue involved in substrate binding by phosphofructokinases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;250:466-8 pubmed
    ..Methionine provides a highly specific interaction with fructose 6-P for binding and for transition state stabilization. ..
  55. Auzat I, Le Bras G, Branny P, de la Torre F, Theunissen B, Garel J. The role of Glu187 in the regulation of phosphofructokinase by phosphoenolpyruvate. J Mol Biol. 1994;235:68-72 pubmed
    ..This requirement of a negative charge for ADP binding could explain the striking conservation of an aspartate residue at position 187 in all the eukaryotic phosphofructokinases. ..
  56. Martel A, Garel J. Renaturation of the allosteric phosphofructokinase from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:4917-21 pubmed
    ..This interpretation is compatible with the known three-dimensional structure of another bacterial phosphofructokinase, that from Bacillus stearothermophilus. ..
  57. Laine R, Deville Bonne D, Auzat I, Garel J. Interaction between the carboxyl groups of Asp127 and Asp129 in the active site of Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase. Eur J Biochem. 1992;207:1109-14 pubmed
    ..The pH dependence of phosphofructokinase activity involves one other ionizable group with a pK of approximately 6 which does not belong to the side chains of Asp127 or Asp129. ..
  58. Zheng R, Kemp R. Identification of interactions that stabilize the transition state in Escherichia coli phosphofructo-1-kinase. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:18475-9 pubmed
    ..The data support an associative mechanism with a transition state stabilized by the interaction between the negative charge on the phosphoryl group being transferred and the arginyl residue at position 72 on the enzyme. ..
  59. Berger S, Evans P. Active-site mutants altering the cooperativity of E. coli phosphofructokinase. Nature. 1990;343:575-6 pubmed
    ..These results show that each of the three arginines contributes to cooperativity and to the transmission of allosteric signals between the four subunit of the enzyme. ..
  60. Berger S, Evans P. Site-directed mutagenesis identifies catalytic residues in the active site of Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase. Biochemistry. 1992;31:9237-42 pubmed
    ..These results extend the number of active site residues known to participate in the catalytic process and help to define the mechanisms behind catalysis and homotropic and heterotropic allostery. ..
  61. Johnson J, Reinhart G. Influence of MgADP on phosphofructokinase from Escherichia coli. Elucidation of coupling interactions with both substrates. Biochemistry. 1994;33:2635-43 pubmed
    ..For both activating and inhibitory couplings, the enthalpy and entropy terms have the same sign as the coupling free energy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  62. Serre M, Garel J. Role of the C-terminal region in the allosteric properties of Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase-1. Eur J Biochem. 1990;189:487-92 pubmed
    ..The carboxy-terminal segment also appears to contribute to the stability of the interactions between subunits: the mutant protein is less stable than the wild type towards denaturation by heat or guanidinium hydrochloride. ..
  63. Shirakihara Y, Evans P. Crystal structure of the complex of phosphofructokinase from Escherichia coli with its reaction products. J Mol Biol. 1988;204:973-94 pubmed
    ..However, this structure gives a clearer picture of the active site, and of the interactions between the enzyme and its reaction products. ..
  64. Emmerling M, Bailey J, Sauer U. Glucose catabolism of Escherichia coli strains with increased activity and altered regulation of key glycolytic enzymes. Metab Eng. 1999;1:117-27 pubmed
    ..The flux data demonstrate that overexpression of even single enzymes early in a central pathway can increase the fluxes to a particular metabolic product, although it may not affect the glucose uptake rate. ..
  65. Griffin C, Houck B, Brand L. Purification of Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1967;27:287-93 pubmed
  66. Park J, Lee K, Kim T, Lee S. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of L-valine based on transcriptome analysis and in silico gene knockout simulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7797-802 pubmed
    ..Further improvement was achieved by using in silico gene knockout simulation, which identified the aceF, mdh, and pfkA genes as knockout targets...
  67. Blangy D, Buc H. [Allosteric transitions of phosphofructokinase of E. coli and phosphorylase B of rabbitmuscle]. Bull Soc Chim Biol (Paris). 1967;49:1473-8 pubmed
  68. Auzat I, Le Bras G, Garel J. Hypercooperativity induced by interface mutations in the phosphofructokinase from Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1995;246:248-53 pubmed
  69. Ogawa T, Mori H, Tomita M, Yoshino M. Inhibitory effect of phosphoenolpyruvate on glycolytic enzymes in Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 2007;158:159-63 pubmed
    ..PEP, a potent inhibitor of E. coli glucokinase, unlike most eukaryotic hexokinases, can act as a signal molecule controlling glucose uptake and glycolytic flux in cells. ..