Gene Symbol: pck
Description: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [ATP]
Alias: ECK3390, JW3366, pckA
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Matte A, Goldie H, Sweet R, Delbaere L. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase: a new structural family with the P-loop nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase fold. J Mol Biol. 1996;256:126-43 pubmed
    ..C.; PCK) from Escherichia coli strain K12 has been determined using a combination of multiple isomorphous replacement, ..
  2. Bazaes S, Montecinos L, Krautwurst H, Goldie H, Cardemil E, Jabalquinto A. Identification of reactive conserved histidines in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinases from Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1337:166-74 pubmed
    ..The modified histidine residues occupy equivalent positions in these enzymes, and they are located in a highly conserved region of all ATP-dependent phospho enol pyruvate carboxykinases described so far. ..
  3. Kwon Y, Lee S, Kim P. A physiology study of Escherichia coli overexpressing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008;72:1138-41 pubmed
    ..intracellular ATP levels can be affected, Escherichia coli overexpressing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pck) or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (ppc) were grown in glucose minimal medium...
  4. Deguchi Y, Yamato I, Anraku Y. Nucleotide sequence of gltS, the Na+/glutamate symport carrier gene of Escherichia coli B. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:21704-8 pubmed
    ..coli, and the Na+/glucose co-transporters of rabbit and human intestines. We propose that this consensus sequence (or motif) may play an important role in cation recognition or binding in the Na+/solute symport reaction. ..
  5. Wright J, Sanwal B. Regulatory mechanisms involving nicotinamide adenine nucleotides as all teric effectors. II. Control of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. J Biol Chem. 1969;244:1838-45 pubmed
  6. Goldie A, Sanwal B. Genetic and physiological characterization of Escherichia coli mutants deficient in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity. J Bacteriol. 1980;141:1115-21 pubmed
    Mutants doubly deficient in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pck) and phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase (pps) were unable to grow with succinate as the sole carbon source...
  7. Sudom A, Prasad L, Goldie H, Delbaere L. The phosphoryl-transfer mechanism of Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from the use of AlF(3). J Mol Biol. 2001;314:83-92 pubmed
    ..of reversible transfer of the gamma-phosphate group of ATP by Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) on to its substrate is of great interest...
  8. Ramseier T, Bledig S, Michotey V, Feghali R, Saier M. The global regulatory protein FruR modulates the direction of carbon flow in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1995;16:1157-69 pubmed
  9. Nakano M, Ogasawara H, Shimada T, Yamamoto K, Ishihama A. Involvement of cAMP-CRP in transcription activation and repression of the pck gene encoding PEP carboxykinase, the key enzyme of gluconeogenesis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2014;355:93-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The regulatory role of downstream CRP site remains unsolved. Using the pck gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase as a model promoter, we analyzed the role of CRP-associated ..

More Information


  1. Chiang C, Chen P, Chao Y. Replicon-free and markerless methods for genomic insertion of DNAs in phage attachment sites and controlled expression of chromosomal genes in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008;101:985-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequently, it was illustrated by replacement of the native promoter of chromosomal pckA by the T7 promoter...
  2. Prost J, Cozzone A. Detection of an extended-10 element in the promoter region of the pckA gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in Escherichia coli. Biochimie. 1999;81:197-200 pubmed
    The regulation of transcription of the pckA gene coding for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in Escherichia coli was analysed by site-directed mutagenesis of the promoter region and measurement of in vitro transcription initiation...
  3. Krebs A, Bridger W. On the monomeric structure and proposed regulatory properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase of Escherichia coli. Can J Biochem. 1976;54:22-6 pubmed
    ..Replacement of Mg2+ by Mn2+ in the assay medium lowers the Km for phosphoenolpyruvate by an order of magnitude, but does not affect the characteristics of inhibition by NADH. ..
  4. Sabnis N, Yang H, Romeo T. Pleiotropic regulation of central carbohydrate metabolism in Escherichia coli via the gene csrA. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:29096-104 pubmed
    ..coli through its negative control of the expression of two glycogen biosynthetic operons and the gluconeogenic gene pckA (Romeo, T., Gong, M., Liu, M. Y., and Brun-Zinkernagel, A. M. (1993) J. Bacteriol. 175, 4744-4755)...
  5. Tari L, Matte A, Pugazhenthi U, Goldie H, Delbaere L. Snapshot of an enzyme reaction intermediate in the structure of the ATP-Mg2+-oxalate ternary complex of Escherichia coli PEP carboxykinase. Nat Struct Biol. 1996;3:355-63 pubmed
    ..8 A crystal structure of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-magnesium-oxalate bound phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) from Escherichia coli...
  6. Lee B, Yen J, Yang L, Liao J. Incorporating qualitative knowledge in enzyme kinetic models using fuzzy logic. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1999;62:722-9 pubmed
    ..The resulting models, even though they do not provide additional physical meaning in enzyme mechanisms, allow the model to incorporate semiquantitative information in metabolic pathway models. ..
  7. Chao Y, Lai Z, Chen P, Chern J. Enhanced conversion rate of L-phenylalanine by coupling reactions of aminotransferases and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in Escherichia coli K-12. Biotechnol Prog. 1999;15:453-8 pubmed
    ..With an additional introduction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (encoded by pck) into the transamination reactions, the conversion yields were improved to 93% from 70% and to 75% from 55% in a ..
  8. Bustos P, Gajardo M, Gomez C, Goldie H, Cardemil E, Jabalquinto A. Woodward's reagent K reacts with histidine and cysteine residues in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinases. J Protein Chem. 1996;15:467-72 pubmed
    ..These results caution against claims of glutamic or aspartic acid modification by WRK based on the absorption at 340 nm of protein- WRK adducts. ..
  9. Fischer E, Sauer U. A novel metabolic cycle catalyzes glucose oxidation and anaplerosis in hungry Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:46446-51 pubmed
  10. Hou S, Chao Y, Liao J. A mutant phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in Escherichia coli conferring oxaloacetate decarboxylase activity. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:1620-3 pubmed
    The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in Escherichia coli (encoded by pck) catalyzes the conversion from oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate under gluconeogenic conditions...
  11. Delbaere L, Sudom A, Prasad L, Leduc Y, Goldie H. Structure/function studies of phosphoryl transfer by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1697:271-8 pubmed
    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) catalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA) to PEP and carbon dioxide with the subsequent conversion of nucleoside triphosphate to nucleoside diphosphate (NDP). The 1...
  12. Siddiquee K, Arauzo Bravo M, Shimizu K. Effect of a pyruvate kinase (pykF-gene) knockout mutation on the control of gene expression and metabolic fluxes in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;235:25-33 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR revealed that the glycolytic genes such as glk, pgi, pfkA and tpiA were down regulated, that ppc, pckA, maeB and mdh genes were strongly up-regulated, and that the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway genes such as zwf ..
  13. Goldie H, Medina V. Physical and genetic analysis of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pckA) locus from Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1990;220:191-6 pubmed
    ..An 8 kb BamHI fragment of the Escherichia coli K12 chromosome has been cloned which complemented the pheotype of CRM+ pckA mutants with inactive phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase...
  14. Sudom A, Walters R, Pastushok L, Goldie D, Prasad L, Delbaere L, et al. Mechanisms of activation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from Escherichia coli by Ca2+ and of desensitization by trypsin. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:4233-42 pubmed
    ..structure of the ATP-Mg(2+)-Ca(2+)-pyruvate quinary complex of Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) is isomorphous to the published complex ATP-Mg(2+)-Mn(2+)-pyruvate-PCK, except for the Ca(2+) and Mn(2+) binding ..
  15. Encinas M, Gonzalez Nilo F, Goldie H, Cardemil E. Ligand interactions and protein conformational changes of phosphopyridoxyl-labeled Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase determined by fluorescence spectroscopy. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:4960-8 pubmed
  16. Fong S, Palsson B. Metabolic gene-deletion strains of Escherichia coli evolve to computationally predicted growth phenotypes. Nat Genet. 2004;36:1056-8 pubmed
    ..These results show that computational models can be used to predict the eventual effects of genetic modifications. ..
  17. Cotelesage J, Puttick J, Goldie H, Rajabi B, Novakovski B, Delbaere L. How does an enzyme recognize CO2?. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39:1204-10 pubmed
    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) reversibly catalyzes the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate to oxaloacetate. Carbon dioxide, and not bicarbonate ion, is the substrate utilized...
  18. Encinas M, Rojas M, Goldie H, Cardemil E. Comparative steady-state fluorescence studies of cytosolic rat liver (GTP), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATP) and Escherichia coli (ATP) phospho enol pyruvate carboxykinases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993;1162:195-202 pubmed
    ..5 microM, 6.7 +/- 0.4 microM and 10.1 +/- 1.7 microM. A comparison of the dissociation constants obtained in this work with those reported for other PEP carboxykinases is presented. ..
  19. Mizuno T, Wurtzel E, Inouye M. Osmoregulation of gene expression. II. DNA sequence of the envZ gene of the ompB operon of Escherichia coli and characterization of its gene product. J Biol Chem. 1982;257:13692-8 pubmed
  20. Tari L, Matte A, Goldie H, Delbaere L. Mg(2+)-Mn2+ clusters in enzyme-catalyzed phosphoryl-transfer reactions. Nat Struct Biol. 1997;4:990-4 pubmed
  21. Zhang X, Jantama K, Moore J, Jarboe L, Shanmugam K, Ingram L. Metabolic evolution of energy-conserving pathways for succinate production in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20180-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The energy-conserving phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase (pck), which normally functions in the reverse direction (gluconeogenesis; glucose repressed) during the oxidative ..
  22. Yang C, Hua Q, Baba T, Mori H, Shimizu K. Analysis of Escherichia coli anaplerotic metabolism and its regulation mechanisms from the metabolic responses to altered dilution rates and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase knockout. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2003;84:129-44 pubmed
    ..2% of the total energy flux. Flux analysis of pck deletion mutant revealed that abolishment of PEP carboxykinase activity resulted in a remarkably reduced flux ..
  23. Goldie A, Sanwal B. Temperature-sensitive mutation affecting synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1981;148:720-3 pubmed
    ..Since phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase had a monomeric structure, the mutation probably affects the synthesis, rather than the structure or assembly, of the enzyme. ..
  24. Krebs A, Bridger W. The kinetic properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase of Escherichia coli. Can J Biochem. 1980;58:309-18 pubmed
    ..The requirement for ATP in promoting this exchange may be rationalized in terms of substrate synergism, with occupation of the ATP binding site a requisite for its catalysis. ..
  25. Peng L, Arauzo Bravo M, Shimizu K. Metabolic flux analysis for a ppc mutant Escherichia coli based on 13C-labelling experiments together with enzyme activity assays and intracellular metabolite measurements. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;235:17-23 pubmed
    ..9% of the carbon flux being channeled via the glyoxylate shunt. However, the flux of the pentose phosphate pathway significantly decreased in the ppc mutant. ..
  26. Goldie A, Sanwal B. Allosteric control by calcium and mechanism of desensitization of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1980;255:1399-405 pubmed
  27. Encinas M, Evangelio J, Andreu J, Goldie H, Cardemil E. Stability of Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase against urea-induced unfolding and ligand effects. Eur J Biochem. 1998;255:439-45 pubmed
    ..Total recovery of tertiary structure and activity was obtained only from samples denatured at urea concentrations lower than those where the intermediate accumulates. ..
  28. Millard C, Chao Y, Liao J, Donnelly M. Enhanced production of succinic acid by overexpression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1996;62:1808-10 pubmed
    ..Under optimized conditions, induction of the carboxylase resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in the concentration of succinic acid, making succinic acid the major fermentation product by weight. ..
  29. Phue J, Noronha S, Hattacharyya R, Wolfe A, Shiloach J. Glucose metabolism at high density growth of E. coli B and E. coli K: differences in metabolic pathways are responsible for efficient glucose utilization in E. coli B as determined by microarrays and Northern blot analyses. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2005;90:805-20 pubmed
    ..The gluconeogenesis pathway (fbp, pckA, and ppsA) which leads to glycogen accumulation is constitutively active in E...
  30. Chao Y, Patnaik R, Roof W, Young R, Liao J. Control of gluconeogenic growth by pps and pck in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:6939-44 pubmed
    ..To investigate this problem further, we varied the expression levels of pck, encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck), and pps, encoding phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (Pps)...
  31. Pai E. Familiar jaws with new twists. Nat Struct Biol. 1996;3:307-9 pubmed
  32. Hansen E, Juni E. Two routes for synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate from C4-dicarboxylic acids in Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1974;59:1204-10 pubmed
  33. Medina V, Pontarollo R, Glaeske D, Tabel H, Goldie H. Sequence of the pckA gene of Escherichia coli K-12: relevance to genetic and allosteric regulation and homology of E. coli phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase with the enzymes from Trypanosoma brucei and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:7151-6 pubmed
    The sequence of the pckA gene coding for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in Escherichia coli K-12 and previous molecular weight determinations indicate that this allosteric enzyme is a monomer of Mr 51,316...