Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: pbpA
Description: penicillin-binding protein 2, transpeptidase involved in peptidoglycan synthesis
Alias: ECK0628, JW0630, pbpA
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
- Vinella D, D Ari R, Jaffe A, Bouloc P. Penicillin binding protein 2 is dispensable in Escherichia coli when ppGpp synthesis is induced. EMBO J. 1992;11:1493-501 pubmed..We conclude that ppGpp regulates the transcription of a gene whose product is involved in mecillinam sensitivity, possibly as part of a chain of interacting elements which coordinate ribosomal activity with that of the PBPs. ..
- Josephine H, Charlier P, Davies C, Nicholas R, Pratt R. Reactivity of penicillin-binding proteins with peptidoglycan-mimetic beta-lactams: what's wrong with these enzymes?. Biochemistry. 2006;45:15873-83 pubmed..That this question needs to be asked casts fascinating shadows on current studies of penicillin-binding proteins for new drug design. ..
- Botta G, Buffa D. Murein synthesis and beta-lactam antibiotic susceptibility during rod-to-sphere transition in a pbpA(Ts) mutant of Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1981;19:891-900 pubmed
- Bendezú F, de Boer P. Conditional lethality, division defects, membrane involution, and endocytosis in mre and mrd shape mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:1792-811 pubmed..Both FtsZ and MinD readily assembled on intracytoplasmic membrane surfaces, and we propose that this contributes significantly to the lethal division block seen in all shape mutants under nonpermissive conditions. ..
- Pas E, Einav M, Woldringh C, Zaritsky A. Perpendicular planes of FtsZ arcs in spheroidal Escherichia coli cells. Biochimie. 2001;83:121-4 pubmed..cell, were induced at all possible planes by transforming the cells to spheroids with mecillinam (inactivating PbpA)...
- Vinella D, Joseleau Petit D, Thevenet D, Bouloc P, D Ari R. Penicillin-binding protein 2 inactivation in Escherichia coli results in cell division inhibition, which is relieved by FtsZ overexpression. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:6704-10 pubmed..We constructed a leuS(Ts) delta (rodA-pbpA)::Kmr strain, in which the PBP2 structural gene is deleted...
- Begg K, Donachie W. Cell shape and division in Escherichia coli: experiments with shape and division mutants. J Bacteriol. 1985;163:615-22 pubmedDouble mutants which carry mutations in genes (rodA, pbpA) required for cell elongation (i.e., maintenance of rod shape) in combination with mutations in genes (ftsA, ftsI, ftsQ, or ftsZ) required for septation were constructed...
- Ishino F, Tamaki S, Spratt B, Matsuhashi M. A mecillinam-sensitive peptidoglycan crosslinking reaction in Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1982;109:689-96 pubmed
- Stoker N, Pratt J, Spratt B. Identification of the rodA gene product of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1983;155:854-9 pubmed..g., 37 degrees C) before sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Apparently the rodA gene product aggregates after being boiled in sodium dodecyl sulfate and fails to enter a polyacrylamide gel. ..
- Schmidt L, Botta G, Park J. Effects of furazlocillin, a beta-lactam antibiotic which binds selectively to penicillin-binding protein 3, on Escherichia coli mutants deficient in other penicillin-binding proteins. J Bacteriol. 1981;145:632-7 pubmed
- Sougakoff W, Jarlier V. Comparative potency of mecillinam and other beta-lactam antibiotics against Escherichia coli strains producing different beta-lactamases. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2000;46 Suppl 1:9-14; discussion 63-5 pubmed
- Santini C, Bernadac A, Zhang M, Chanal A, Ize B, Blanco C, et al. Translocation of jellyfish green fluorescent protein via the Tat system of Escherichia coli and change of its periplasmic localization in response to osmotic up-shock. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:8159-64 pubmed..to a periplasmic gathering at particular locations was also observed with spherical cells of the DeltarodA-pbpA mutant or of the wild type strain treated with lysozyme...
- Spratt B. Properties of the penicillin-binding proteins of Escherichia coli K12,. Eur J Biochem. 1977;72:341-52 pubmed..The binding properties of proteins 1, 3, and 4 correlate reasonably well with those expected for the above killing targets. ..
- Adachi H, Ishiguro M, Imajoh S, Ohta T, Matsuzawa H. Active-site residues of the transpeptidase domain of penicillin-binding protein 2 from Escherichia coli: similarity in catalytic mechanism to class A beta-lactamases. Biochemistry. 1992;31:430-7 pubmed
- Begg K, Takasuga A, Edwards D, Dewar S, Spratt B, Adachi H, et al. The balance between different peptidoglycan precursors determines whether Escherichia coli cells will elongate or divide. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:6697-703 pubmed..A change in the proportions of different kinds of peptide side chain in the peptidoglycan can therefore determine whether cells will divide. ..
- Ogura T, Bouloc P, Niki H, D Ari R, Hiraga S, Jaffe A. Penicillin-binding protein 2 is essential in wild-type Escherichia coli but not in lov or cya mutants. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:3025-30 pubmed..In a cya mutant lacking PBP2, the restoration of a Cya+ phenotype by addition of cyclic AMP caused lethality and a block in cell division. These results show that in wild-type cells, PBP2 is essential for growth and division. ..
- Bouloc P, Jaffe A, D Ari R. Preliminary physiologic characterization and genetic analysis of a new Escherichia coli mutant, lov, resistant to mecillinam. Rev Infect Dis. 1988;10:905-10 pubmed..The mutation, called lov, lies at 41 minutes on the E. coli genetic map. The phenotype is partially suppressed by the P1-mediated transduction of an rpsL ribosomal mutation conferring streptomycin resistance. ..
- Adachi H, Ohta T, Matsuzawa H. A water-soluble form of penicillin-binding protein 2 of Escherichia coli constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. FEBS Lett. 1987;226:150-4 pubmed..this indicates that the removed hydrophobic segment is an uncleaved signal sequence required for translocation of PBP2 across the cytoplasmic membrane, and also suggests that the segment anchors the protein to the membrane. ..
- Matsuzawa H, Asoh S, Kunai K, Muraiso K, Takasuga A, Ohta T. Nucleotide sequence of the rodA gene, responsible for the rod shape of Escherichia coli: rodA and the pbpA gene, encoding penicillin-binding protein 2, constitute the rodA operon. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:558-60 pubmed..for the rod shape of Escherichia coli, was located 5 nucleotides downstream of another rod-shape-determining gene, pbpA, encoding penicillin-binding protein 2. The coding region for the RodA protein was 1,110 base pairs in length...
- Shiomi D, Toyoda A, Aizu T, Ejima F, Fujiyama A, Shini T, et al. Mutations in cell elongation genes mreB, mrdA and mrdB suppress the shape defect of RodZ-deficient cells. Mol Microbiol. 2013;87:1029-44 pubmed publisher..Thus, we found that mutations in domain IA of MreB and in the periplasmic domain of PBP2 and RodA can restore growth and rod shape to ?rodZ cells, possibly by changing the requirements of MreB in the process. ..
- Philippe N, Pelosi L, Lenski R, Schneider D. Evolution of penicillin-binding protein 2 concentration and cell shape during a long-term experiment with Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:909-21 pubmed publisher..We previously identified mutations in the pbpA operon in one-half of these populations; this operon encodes PBP2 and RodA proteins that are involved in cell wall ..
- Bylund J, Haines M, Walsh K, Bouloc P, D Ari R, Higgins M. Buoyant density studies of several mecillinam-resistant and division mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:5396-402 pubmed..A pattern similar to that of lov mutant cells was observed in cells carrying the mecillinam-resistant mutations pbpA(Ts) and rodA(Ts) and the division mutation ftsI(Ts) at nonpermissive temperatures as well as in wild-type cells ..
- Legaree B, Adams C, Clarke A. Overproduction of penicillin-binding protein 2 and its inactive variants causes morphological changes and lysis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:4975-83 pubmed..aeruginosa PBP 2, we observed that E. coli was sensitive to the overexpression of its gene, pbpA. In this study, we examined E. coli overproducing both P. aeruginosa and E. coli PBP 2...
- Khattar M, Bazzi S, Kogan J, Talhouk R. Bacterial cell shape-dependent inflammatory response in mammary epithelial cells. Curr Microbiol. 2006;52:424-9 pubmed..production by SCp2 cells was further investigated by shifting GC7378Tn10 morphology to rod through introducing the pbpA gene by transduction and transformation...
- Asoh S, Matsuzawa H, Ishino F, Strominger J, Matsuhashi M, Ohta T. Nucleotide sequence of the pbpA gene and characteristics of the deduced amino acid sequence of penicillin-binding protein 2 of Escherichia coli K12. Eur J Biochem. 1986;160:231-8 pubmedWe have determined the nucleotide sequence of the pbpA gene encoding penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2 of Escherichia coli...
- Schneider D, Duperchy E, Coursange E, Lenski R, Blot M. Long-term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. IX. Characterization of insertion sequence-mediated mutations and rearrangements. Genetics. 2000;156:477-88 pubmed..are involved in central metabolism (knockouts of pykF and nadR), cell wall synthesis (adjacent to the promoter of pbpA-rodA), and ill-defined functions (knockouts of hokB-sokB and yfcU)...
- Navarro F, Robin A, D Ari R, Joseleau Petit D. Analysis of the effect of ppGpp on the ftsQAZ operon in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:815-23 pubmed..We are currently trying to identify those targets that, at intermediate ppGpp levels, allow cells to divide as spheres in the absence of PBP2. ..
- Georgopapadakou N, Smith S, Sykes R. Mode of action of azthreonam. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1982;21:950-6 pubmed..coli. It is concluded that azthreonam, although of novel structure, has a mode of action similar to that of cephalosporins, affecting specifically septation in E. coli and most likely other gram-negative bacteria. ..
- Signoretto C, Di Stefano F, Canepari P. Modified peptidoglycan chemical composition in shape-altered Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 1996;142 ( Pt 8):1919-26 pubmed..the lov-1 mutation and in which the coccal shape was obtained either by mecillinam treatment or by transferring a pbpA mutation (penicillin-binding protein 2- phenotype), as compared to normal rods and non-dividing cocci...
- von Rechenberg M, Ursinus A, Holtje J. Affinity chromatography as a means to study multienzyme complexes involved in murein synthesis. Microb Drug Resist. 1996;2:155-7 pubmed..It is speculated that the lytic transglycosylases assemble a multienzyme complex consisting of hydrolases and synthases, which is involved in growth of the stress-bearing murein sacculus. ..
- Iwaya M, Jones C, Khorana J, Strominger J. Mapping of the mecillinam-resistant, round morphological mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1978;133:196-202 pubmed..Westling-Häggström and S. Normark, J. Bacteriol. 123:75-82, 1975). This suggests that mecillinam can be used very efficiently to select for found morphological mutants of rodA and envB after nitrosoguanidine treatment. ..
- Suzuki H, Nishimura Y, Hirota Y. On the process of cellular division in Escherichia coli: a series of mutants of E. coli altered in the penicillin-binding proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978;75:664-8 pubmed..With the series of mutants, the chromosomal locus of the gene for each PBC was mapped: ponA (PBC-1a) 73.5 min, ponB (PBC-1b) 3.3 min, rodA (PBC-2) 14.4 min, ftsI (PBC-3) 1.8 min, dacB (PBC-4) 68 min, and dacA (PBC-5/6) 13.7 min. ..
- Spratt B, Pardee A. Penicillin-binding proteins and cell shape in E. coli. Nature. 1975;254:516-7 pubmed
- Karczmarek A, Martínez Arteaga R, Baselga R, Alexeeva S, Hansen F, Vicente M, et al. DNA and origin region segregation are not affected by the transition from rod to sphere after inhibition of Escherichia coli MreB by A22. Mol Microbiol. 2007;65:51-63 pubmed..Additionally, flow cytometric analyses showed that A22 and mecillinam treatment gave essentially the same chromosome segregation pattern. We conclude that MreB is not directly involved in DNA segregation of E. coli. ..
- Wientjes F, Nanninga N. On the role of the high molecular weight penicillin-binding proteins in the cell cycle of Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 1991;142:333-44 pubmed..Rather, they seem to have a general activity on the basis of which the other synthesizing PBP perform their special tasks. This interpretation is formulated as a "primer model of peptidoglycan synthesis". ..
- de Pedro M, Donachie W, Holtje J, Schwarz H. Constitutive septal murein synthesis in Escherichia coli with impaired activity of the morphogenetic proteins RodA and penicillin-binding protein 2. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:4115-26 pubmed..Inactivation of these proteins either by amdinocillin treatment or by mutations in the corresponding genes, pbpA and rodA, respectively, leads to the generation of round, osmotically stable cells...
- Joseleau Petit D, Thevenet D, D Ari R. ppGpp concentration, growth without PBP2 activity, and growth-rate control in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1994;13:911-7 pubmed..We conclude that, for E. coli growing in poor media, the concentration of the nucleotide ppGpp is not the major growth rate determinant. ..
- Holtje J. Molecular interplay of murein synthases and murein hydrolases in Escherichia coli. Microb Drug Resist. 1996;2:99-103 pubmed
- Schiffer G, Holtje J. Cloning and characterization of PBP 1C, a third member of the multimodular class A penicillin-binding proteins of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:32031-9 pubmed..Deletion of PBP1C resulted in an altered mode of murein synthesis. It is suggested that PBP1C functions in vivo as a transglycosylase only. ..
- Uehara T, Park J. Role of the murein precursor UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-L-Ala-gamma-D-Glu-meso-diaminopimelic acid-D-Ala-D-Ala in repression of beta-lactamase induction in cell division mutants. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4233-9 pubmed..Hence, in both cases, a high ratio of repressor to inducer presumably prevents induction. ..
- Takasuga A, Adachi H, Ishino F, Matsuhashi M, Ohta T, Matsuzawa H. Identification of the penicillin-binding active site of penicillin-binding protein 2 of Escherichia coli. J Biochem. 1988;104:822-6 pubmed..residues 321-334) of PBP 2, which was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the pbpA gene encoding PBP 2...
- Jamieson C, Lambert P, Simpson I. In vitro and in vivo activities of AM-112, a novel oxapenem. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:1652-7 pubmed..pneumoniae SHV-5 was reduced from >100 and 160 mg/kg of body weight to 2 and 33.6 mg/kg, respectively, when it was combined with AM-112 at a 1:1 ratio. AM-112 demonstrates potential as a new beta-lactamase inhibitor. ..
- Varma A, Young K. In Escherichia coli, MreB and FtsZ direct the synthesis of lateral cell wall via independent pathways that require PBP 2. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:3526-33 pubmed publisher..However, cell shape was determined only by the presence or absence of MreB and not by the even distribution of new wall material as directed by FtsZ. ..
- Denome S, Elf P, Henderson T, Nelson D, Young K. Escherichia coli mutants lacking all possible combinations of eight penicillin binding proteins: viability, characteristics, and implications for peptidoglycan synthesis. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:3981-93 pubmed..In addition, members of the set of PBP mutants will provide excellent starting points for answering fundamental questions about other aspects of cell wall metabolism. ..
- Yokota T, Suzuki E, Arai K. Cefpodoxime proxetil, its in vitro antibacterial activity, affinity to bacterial penicillin-binding proteins, and synergy of bactericidal activity with serum complement and mouse-cultured macrophages. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1988;14:495-500 pubmed..aureus 209P were well engulfed and rapidly digested by mouse-cultured macrophages in the presence of greater than 1/8 MIC of R-3746. Good clinical efficacy can be expected of CS-807 provided its pharmacokinetics prove to be good. ..
- Stoker N, Broome Smith J, Edelman A, Spratt B. Organization and subcloning of the dacA-rodA-pbpA cluster of cell shape genes in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1983;155:847-53 pubmed..lambda pBS10 carries a small cluster of Escherichia coli penicillin-binding protein/cell shape genes, including pbpA, rodA, and dacA...
- Garcia del Portillo F, de Pedro M. Penicillin-binding protein 2 is essential for the integrity of growing cells of Escherichia coli ponB strains. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:4530-2 pubmedAnalysis of Escherichia coli pbpA(Ts) or rodA(Ts) strains defective for penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 1A or PBP 1B indicated that the activity of PBP 2 is essential to prevent cell lysis in PBP 1B(-) strains and suggested that PBP 2 is ..
- Sougakoff -, Jarlier -. Comparative potency of mecillinam and other beta-lactam antibiotics against Escherichia coli strains producing different beta-lactamases. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2000;46 Suppl A:9-14 pubmed
- Bryan S, Moses R. Map location of the pcbA mutation and physiology of the mutant. J Bacteriol. 1984;158:216-21 pubmed..At restrictive temperature, these mutants display a normal response to UV irradiation but show increased sensitivity to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate. We have located pcbA linked to dnaA. ..
- Davies T, Page M, Shang W, Andrew T, Kania M, Bush K. Binding of ceftobiprole and comparators to the penicillin-binding proteins of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:2621-4 pubmed..aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ceftobiprole also bound well to PBP2 in the latter organisms, contributing to the broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. ..
- Asoh S, Matsuzawa H, Matsuhashi M, Ohta T. Molecular cloning and characterization of the genes (pbpA and rodA) responsible for the rod shape of Escherichia coli K-12: analysis of gene expression with transposon Tn5 mutagenesis and protein synthesis directed by constructed plasmids. J Bacteriol. 1983;154:10-6 pubmedTwo cell shape-determining genes of Escherichia coli K-12, pbpA, the structural gene for penicillin-binding protein 2, and rodA, whose protein is unknown, were subcloned into plasmid vectors from the transducing phage lambda MAd lip24, ..
- Bouloc P, Jaffe A, D Ari R. The Escherichia coli lov gene product connects peptidoglycan synthesis, ribosomes and growth rate. EMBO J. 1989;8:317-23 pubmed
- Pradel N, Santini C, Bernadac A, Shih Y, Goldberg M, Wu L. Polar positional information in Escherichia coli spherical cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;353:493-500 pubmed..GFP displayed zonal fluorescence in both mreB and rodA-pbpA spherical E. coli cells, indicating an uneven periplasmic space...
- Vinella D, Cashel M, D Ari R. Selected amplification of the cell division genes ftsQ-ftsA-ftsZ in Escherichia coli. Genetics. 2000;156:1483-92 pubmed..The structure of the duplications suggests a general method for constructing directed duplications of precise sequences. ..
- Vinella D, Albrecht C, Cashel M, D Ari R. Iron limitation induces SpoT-dependent accumulation of ppGpp in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:958-70 pubmed
- Bernhardt T, de Boer P. Screening for synthetic lethal mutants in Escherichia coli and identification of EnvC (YibP) as a periplasmic septal ring factor with murein hydrolase activity. Mol Microbiol. 2004;52:1255-69 pubmed..By uncovering genetic interactions, the synthetic lethal screen described here provides an attractive new tool for studying gene function in E. coli. ..
- D Ari R, Jaffe A, Bouloc P, Robin A. Cyclic AMP and cell division in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:65-70 pubmed
- Buchnik D, Woldringh C, Zaritsky A. Effects of temperature inactivation of penicillin-binding protein 2 on envelope growth in Escherichia coli. Ann Inst Pasteur Microbiol. 1987;138:537-47 pubmed..spheroidal cells was studied in a temperature-sensitive strain (SP45) of Escherichia coli K12, carrying a mutation (pbpA) in the gene coding for penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP-2)...
- Tamaki S, Matsuzawa H, Matsuhashi M. Cluster of mrdA and mrdB genes responsible for the rod shape and mecillinam sensitivity of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1980;141:52-7 pubmed..P1 transduction suggested that the most plausible gene order is leuS-mrdA-mrdB-lip. The rodA mutation reported previously seems to be similar to the mrdB murations, but the identities of the two have not yet been proven. ..
- von Rechenberg M, Blake B, Ho Y, Zhen Y, Chepanoske C, Richardson B, et al. Ampicillin/penicillin-binding protein interactions as a model drug-target system to optimize affinity pull-down and mass spectrometric strategies for target and pathway identification. Proteomics. 2005;5:1764-73 pubmed..The combination of drug affinity pull-down assays with in situ digestion and 2-D LC-MS/MS analysis is a useful tool in obtaining complex information about a primary drug target as well as its protein interactors. ..
- Spratt B, Boyd A, Stoker N. Defective and plaque-forming lambda transducing bacteriophage carrying penicillin-binding protein-cell shape genes: genetic and physical mapping and identification of gene products from the lip-dacA-rodA-pbpA-leuS region of the Escherichia coli chrom. J Bacteriol. 1980;143:569-81 pubmed..The phage defined the gene order as lac---lip-dacA-rodA-pbpA-leuS---gal...