nusG

Summary

Gene Symbol: nusG
Description: transcription termination factor
Alias: ECK3973, JW3945
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Harinarayanan R, Gowrishankar J. Host factor titration by chromosomal R-loops as a mechanism for runaway plasmid replication in transcription termination-defective mutants of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2003;332:31-46 pubmed
    ..several links between rnhA, recG, and R-loop-dependent plasmid replication on the one hand, and genes rho and nusG involved in factor-dependent transcription termination on the other...
  2. Burns C, Nowatzke W, Richardson J. Activation of Rho-dependent transcription termination by NusG. Dependence on terminator location and acceleration of RNA release. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:5245-51 pubmed
    ..limitation to Rho function at the first intragenic terminator in the lacZ gene (tiZ1) which can be overcome by NusG: Rho can terminate transcription with slowly moving, but not rapidly moving, RNA polymerase unless NusG is also ..
  3. Sullivan S, Ward D, Gottesman M. Effect of Escherichia coli nusG function on lambda N-mediated transcription antitermination. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:1339-44 pubmed
    ..coli chromosome and shown to represent a point mutation near the 3' end of the nusG gene. The nusG4 mutation also suppressed nusE71 but not nusASal, nusB5, nusC60 (rpoB60), or nusD026 (rho026)...
  4. Anupama K, Leela J, Gowrishankar J. Two pathways for RNase E action in Escherichia coli in vivo and bypass of its essentiality in mutants defective for Rho-dependent transcription termination. Mol Microbiol. 2011;82:1330-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the RNase E-?CTH ?RppH combination is lethal, and that the lethality is suppressed by rho or nusG mutations impairing Rho-dependent transcription termination...
  5. Li J, Horwitz R, McCracken S, Greenblatt J. NusG, a new Escherichia coli elongation factor involved in transcriptional antitermination by the N protein of phage lambda. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:6012-9 pubmed
    ..This required the isolation of NusG, a newly identified Escherichia coli transcription elongation factor. NusG is encoded by an E...
  6. Saxena S, Gowrishankar J. Compromised factor-dependent transcription termination in a nusA mutant of Escherichia coli: spectrum of termination efficiencies generated by perturbations of Rho, NusG, NusA, and H-NS family proteins. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:3842-50 pubmed publisher
    The proteins NusA and NusG, which are essential for the viability of wild-type Escherichia coli, participate in various postinitiation steps of transcription including elongation, antitermination, and termination...
  7. Chow J, Dennis P. Coupling between mRNA synthesis and mRNA stability in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1994;11:919-31 pubmed
    ..in a one- to twofold and a greater than 10-fold stabilization of five mRNA sequences from within the secE, nusG, L11-L1, L10 and beta encoding cistrons...
  8. Burova E, Hung S, Sagitov V, Stitt B, Gottesman M. Escherichia coli NusG protein stimulates transcription elongation rates in vivo and in vitro. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:1388-92 pubmed
    The rate of transcription elongation in Escherichia coli was reduced when cells were depleted of NusG. In a purified in vitro system, NusG accelerated the transcription elongation rate...
  9. Turtola M, Belogurov G. NusG inhibits RNA polymerase backtracking by stabilizing the minimal transcription bubble. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    Universally conserved factors from NusG family bind at the upstream fork junction of transcription elongation complexes and modulate RNA synthesis in response to translation, processing, and folding of the nascent RNA...

More Information

Publications46

  1. Burmann B, Schweimer K, Luo X, Wahl M, Stitt B, Gottesman M, et al. A NusE:NusG complex links transcription and translation. Science. 2010;328:501-4 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial NusG is a highly conserved transcription factor that is required for most Rho activity in vivo...
  2. Ray Soni A, Bellecourt M, Landick R. Mechanisms of Bacterial Transcription Termination: All Good Things Must End. Annu Rev Biochem. 2016;85:319-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe current knowledge, discuss key outstanding questions, and highlight the importance of defining the structural rearrangements of RNAP that are involved in the two mechanisms of transcript termination. ..
  3. Chalissery J, Banerjee S, Bandey I, Sen R. Transcription termination defective mutants of Rho: role of different functions of Rho in releasing RNA from the elongation complex. J Mol Biol. 2007;371:855-72 pubmed
    ..The rate of ATP hydrolysis regulates the processivity of translocation along the RNA and is directly correlated with the efficiency of RNA release. NusG improves the speed of RNA release and is not involved in any other step.
  4. Bubunenko M, Baker T, Court D. Essentiality of ribosomal and transcription antitermination proteins analyzed by systematic gene replacement in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:2844-53 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, although most 30S ribosomal proteins were essential, the knockouts of six ribosomal protein genes, rpsF (S6), rpsI (S9), rpsM (S13), rpsO (S15), rpsQ (S17), and rpsT (S20), were viable. ..
  5. Artsimovitch I, Landick R. Pausing by bacterial RNA polymerase is mediated by mechanistically distinct classes of signals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:7090-5 pubmed
    ..in their responses to antisense oligonucleotides, pyrophosphate, GreA, and general elongation factors NusA and NusG. In contrast, substitutions in RNA polymerase that increase or decrease the rate of RNA synthesis affect both pause ..
  6. Cardinale C, Washburn R, Tadigotla V, Brown L, Gottesman M, Nudler E. Termination factor Rho and its cofactors NusA and NusG silence foreign DNA in E. coli. Science. 2008;320:935-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although rho remains essential, such reduced-genome bacteria no longer require Rho cofactors NusA and NusG. Deletion of the cryptic rac prophage in wild-type E...
  7. Burova E, Hung S, Chen J, Court D, Zhou J, Mogilnitskiy G, et al. Escherichia coli nusG mutations that block transcription termination by coliphage HK022 Nun protein. Mol Microbiol. 1999;31:1783-93 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli nusG gene product is required for transcription termination by phage HK022 Nun protein at the lambda nutR site in vivo. We show that it is also essential for Nun termination at lambda nutL...
  8. Chalissery J, Muteeb G, Kalarickal N, Mohan S, Jisha V, Sen R. Interaction surface of the transcription terminator Rho required to form a complex with the C-terminal domain of the antiterminator NusG. J Mol Biol. 2011;405:49-64 pubmed publisher
    ..transcription termination in bacteria requires an interaction between the terminator Rho and the antiterminator NusG. The interaction surface of the Rho-NusG complex is unknown...
  9. Estevenon A, Lemonnier M, Rouquette C, Lane D. Genetic basis of the MbrC "ploidy" phenotype in Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1997;256:291-7 pubmed
    ..indicated that the mbrC17 mutation is closely linked to rpoB, and allele exchange showed it to lie within the secE-nusG operon...
  10. Torres M, Condon C, Balada J, Squires C, Squires C. Ribosomal protein S4 is a transcription factor with properties remarkably similar to NusA, a protein involved in both non-ribosomal and ribosomal RNA antitermination. EMBO J. 2001;20:3811-20 pubmed publisher
    ..High concentrations of NusG showed reduced antitermination by S4...
  11. Burova E, Gottesman M. NusG overexpression inhibits Rho-dependent termination in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1995;17:633-41 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli NusG protein binds Rho in vitro and is required for efficient Rho-dependent transcription termination in vivo. In this work we examine transcription termination in cells that over-express NusG...
  12. Torres M, Balada J, Zellars M, Squires C, Squires C. In vivo effect of NusB and NusG on rRNA transcription antitermination. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:1304-10 pubmed
    ..We have therefore analyzed the in vivo role of NusB and NusG in rRNA transcription antitermination and have established that both are essential for it...
  13. Li J, Mason S, Greenblatt J. Elongation factor NusG interacts with termination factor rho to regulate termination and antitermination of transcription. Genes Dev. 1993;7:161-72 pubmed
    b>NusG is a transcriptional elongation factor in Escherichia coli that aids transcriptional antitermination by the phage lambda N protein...
  14. Strauß M, Vitiello C, Schweimer K, Gottesman M, Rosch P, Knauer S. Transcription is regulated by NusA:NusG interaction. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:5971-82 pubmed publisher
    NusA and NusG are major regulators of bacterial transcription elongation, which act either in concert or antagonistically. Both bind to RNA polymerase (RNAP), regulating pausing as well as intrinsic and Rho-dependent termination...
  15. Sullivan S, Gottesman M. Requirement for E. coli NusG protein in factor-dependent transcription termination. Cell. 1992;68:989-94 pubmed
    The 21 kd NusG protein is essential for E. coli viability. Cells depleted for NusG were defective for factor-dependent transcription termination...
  16. Downing W, Sullivan S, Gottesman M, Dennis P. Sequence and transcriptional pattern of the essential Escherichia coli secE-nusG operon. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:1621-7 pubmed
    Two genes, secE and nusG, situated between the tufB and ribosomal protein rplKAJL operons in the rif region at 90 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome, have been sequenced and characterized...
  17. Nehrke K, Zalatan F, Platt T. NusG alters rho-dependent termination of transcription in vitro independent of kinetic coupling. Gene Expr. 1993;3:119-33 pubmed
    To complement the recent discovery that rho-dependent termination in E. coli requires nusG protein in vivo, we have tested the effect of purified nusG protein on rho-dependent termination in vitro...
  18. Nehrke K, Platt T. A quaternary transcription termination complex. Reciprocal stabilization by Rho factor and NusG protein. J Mol Biol. 1994;243:830-9 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli protein NusG is known to modulate Rho-dependent transcription termination in vivo...
  19. Valabhoju V, Agrawal S, Sen R. Molecular Basis of NusG-mediated Regulation of Rho-dependent Transcription Termination in Bacteria. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:22386-22403 pubmed
    The bacterial transcription elongation factor NusG stimulates the Rho-dependent transcription termination through a direct interaction with Rho. The mechanistic basis of NusG dependence of the Rho function is not known...
  20. Knowlton J, Bubunenko M, Andrykovitch M, Guo W, Routzahn K, Waugh D, et al. A spring-loaded state of NusG in its functional cycle is suggested by X-ray crystallography and supported by site-directed mutants. Biochemistry. 2003;42:2275-81 pubmed publisher
    Transcription factor NusG is present in all prokaryotes, and orthologous proteins have also been identified in yeast and humans. NusG contains a 27-residue KOW motif, found in ribosomal protein L24 where it interacts with rRNA...
  21. Linn T, Greenblatt J. The NusA and NusG proteins of Escherichia coli increase the in vitro readthrough frequency of a transcriptional attenuator preceding the gene for the beta subunit of RNA polymerase. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:1449-54 pubmed
    ..Both NusA and NusG increase the frequency of transcriptional readthrough at the attenuator whereas NusB, S10, and Rho had no ..
  22. Burns C, Richardson L, Richardson J. Combinatorial effects of NusA and NusG on transcription elongation and Rho-dependent termination in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1998;278:307-16 pubmed
    The transcription factors NusA and NusG from Escherichia coli are modulators of the RNA polymerase elongation reaction and Rho-dependent transcription termination...
  23. Belogurov G, Mooney R, Svetlov V, Landick R, Artsimovitch I. Functional specialization of transcription elongation factors. EMBO J. 2009;28:112-22 pubmed publisher
    Elongation factors NusG and RfaH evolved from a common ancestor and utilize the same binding site on RNA polymerase (RNAP) to modulate transcription...
  24. Moyse K, Knight J, Richardson J. Phenotypic characterization of a comprehensive set of bicyclomycin-resistant mutants. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1520:223-33 pubmed
    ..termination by RhoL208R and RhoS266A is defective at the lambda tR1 terminator, but can be enhanced by NusG. These functionally defective Rho mutations have been located near the putative catalytic site on a model of Rho ..
  25. Herbert K, Zhou J, Mooney R, Porta A, Landick R, Block S. E. coli NusG inhibits backtracking and accelerates pause-free transcription by promoting forward translocation of RNA polymerase. J Mol Biol. 2010;399:17-30 pubmed publisher
    b>NusG is an essential transcription factor in Escherichia coli that is capable of increasing the overall rate of transcription...
  26. Pasman Z, von Hippel P. Regulation of rho-dependent transcription termination by NusG is specific to the Escherichia coli elongation complex. Biochemistry. 2000;39:5573-85 pubmed
    ..In the context of this model, NusG, which is an essential E...
  27. Zellars M, Squires C. Antiterminator-dependent modulation of transcription elongation rates by NusB and NusG. Mol Microbiol. 1999;32:1296-304 pubmed
    ..several Nus factors have been implicated in rrn antitermination, we have examined the role of NusB, NusE and NusG in controlling the rate of rrn boxA-mediated transcript elongation...
  28. Rabhi M, Espeli O, Schwartz A, Cayrol B, Rahmouni A, Arluison V, et al. The Sm-like RNA chaperone Hfq mediates transcription antitermination at Rho-dependent terminators. EMBO J. 2011;30:2805-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Antitermination is modulated by trans-acting factors (NusG or nucleic acid competitors) that affect Hfq association with Rho or RNA...
  29. Peters J, Mooney R, Grass J, Jessen E, Tran F, Landick R. Rho and NusG suppress pervasive antisense transcription in Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 2012;26:2621-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that a major function of the Escherichia coli termination factor Rho and its cofactor, NusG, is suppression of ubiquitous antisense transcription genome-wide...
  30. Zhou Y, Filter J, Court D, Gottesman M, Friedman D. Requirement for NusG for transcription antitermination in vivo by the lambda N protein. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:3416-8 pubmed
    Transcription antitermination by the bacteriophage lambda N protein is stimulated in vitro by the Escherichia coli NusG protein. Earlier work suggested that NusG was not required for N activity in vivo...
  31. Shi D, Svetlov D, Abagyan R, Artsimovitch I. Flipping states: a few key residues decide the winning conformation of the only universally conserved transcription factor. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:8835-8843 pubmed publisher
    Transcription factors from the NusG family bind to the elongating RNA polymerase to enable synthesis of long RNAs in all domains of life...
  32. Mooney R, Davis S, Peters J, Rowland J, Ansari A, Landick R. Regulator trafficking on bacterial transcription units in vivo. Mol Cell. 2009;33:97-108 pubmed publisher
    The trafficking patterns of the bacterial regulators of transcript elongation sigma(70), rho, NusA, and NusG on genes in vivo and the explanation for promoter-proximal peaks of RNA polymerase (RNAP) are unknown. Genome-wide, E...
  33. Richardson L, Richardson J. Identification of a structural element that is essential for two functions of transcription factor NusG. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1729:135-40 pubmed
    The transcription factor NusG from Escherichia coli modulates the rate of transcript elongation by RNA polymerase and the efficiency of Rho-dependent transcript termination...
  34. Mooney R, Schweimer K, Rosch P, Gottesman M, Landick R. Two structurally independent domains of E. coli NusG create regulatory plasticity via distinct interactions with RNA polymerase and regulators. J Mol Biol. 2009;391:341-58 pubmed publisher
    b>NusG is a conserved regulatory protein that interacts with elongation complexes (ECs) of RNA polymerase, DNA, and RNA to modulate transcription in multiple and sometimes opposite ways...
  35. Burns C, Richardson J. NusG is required to overcome a kinetic limitation to Rho function at an intragenic terminator. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:4738-42 pubmed
    Rho-dependent transcription termination at certain terminators in Escherichia coli also depends on the presence of NusG [Sullivan, S. L. & Gottesman, M. E. (1992) Cell 68, 989-994]...
  36. Mason S, Greenblatt J. Assembly of transcription elongation complexes containing the N protein of phage lambda and the Escherichia coli elongation factors NusA, NusB, NusG, and S10. Genes Dev. 1991;5:1504-12 pubmed
    ..protein, N, of bacteriophage lambda; the Escherichia coli elongation factors NusA, NusB, ribosomal protein S10, and NusG; and a DNA template containing a lambda nut (N-ututilization) site are necessary and sufficient for the highly ..
  37. Das A. How the phage lambda N gene product suppresses transcription termination: communication of RNA polymerase with regulatory proteins mediated by signals in nascent RNA. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:6711-6 pubmed