Gene Symbol: nrdG
Description: anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase activating protein
Alias: ECK4232, JW4196, yjgE
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     nrdG

Top Publications

  1. Tamarit J, Mulliez E, Meier C, Trautwein A, Fontecave M. The anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli. The small protein is an activating enzyme containing a [4fe-4s](2+) center. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:31291-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, protein beta has the potential to activate several molecules of protein alpha, suggesting that protein beta is an activating enzyme rather than a component of an alpha(2)beta(2) complex as previously claimed. ..
  2. Roca I, Ballana E, Panosa A, Torrents E, Gibert I. Fumarate and nitrate reduction (FNR) dependent activation of the Escherichia coli anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase nrdDG promoter. Int Microbiol. 2008;11:49-56 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the two sites have an additive effect in coordinating nrdDG expression in response to shifting oxygen concentrations. ..
  3. Mulliez E, Fontecave M, Gaillard J, Reichard P. An iron-sulfur center and a free radical in the active anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:2296-9 pubmed
    ..From other work it appears likely that the free radical is localized on glycine 681 of the polypeptide chain. ..
  4. Sofia H, Chen G, Hetzler B, Reyes Spindola J, Miller N. Radical SAM, a novel protein superfamily linking unresolved steps in familiar biosynthetic pathways with radical mechanisms: functional characterization using new analysis and information visualization methods. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001;29:1097-106 pubmed
    ..Two functional predictions for unknown proteins are made based on integrating other data types such as motif, domain, operon and biochemical pathway into an organized view of similarity relationships. ..
  5. Torrents E, Grinberg I, Gorovitz Harris B, Lundström H, Borovok I, Aharonowitz Y, et al. NrdR controls differential expression of the Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase genes. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:5012-21 pubmed
    ..The model assumes that differences in the positions of the NrdR binding sites, and in the sequences of the motifs themselves, determine the extent to which NrdR represses the transcription of each RNR operon. ..
  6. Wong K, Murray B, Lewisch S, Baxter M, Ridky T, Ulissi DeMario L, et al. Molecular properties of pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme. Biochemistry. 1993;32:14102-10 pubmed
    ..Fluorescent binding data revealed that the Kd for SAM binding to the activating enzyme alone was comparable to the Km for SAM in the PFL activation indicating that the binding site for SAM resides on AE.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  7. Bianchi V, Reichard P, Eliasson R, Pontis E, Krook M, Jornvall H, et al. Escherichia coli ferredoxin NADP+ reductase: activation of E. coli anaerobic ribonucleotide reduction, cloning of the gene (fpr), and overexpression of the protein. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:1590-5 pubmed
    ..Morimyo, J. Bacteriol. 170:2136-2142, 1988). We suggest that a frameshift introduced during isolation or sequencing of mvrA caused an error in the determination of its sequence. ..
  8. Garriga X, Eliasson R, Torrents E, Jordan A, Barbe J, Gibert I, et al. nrdD and nrdG genes are essential for strict anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;229:189-92 pubmed
    ..We now show that knock-out mutants of either nrdD or nrdG cannot grow during strict anaerobiosis, achieved by inclusion of sodium sulfide in the medium...
  9. Fontecave M, Mulliez E, Logan D. Deoxyribonucleotide synthesis in anaerobic microorganisms: the class III ribonucleotide reductase. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 2002;72:95-127 pubmed
    ..This review article describes their structural and mechanistic properties as well as their complex allosteric regulation. Their evolutionnary relationship to class I and class II ribonucleotide reductases is also discussed. ..

More Information


  1. Boston T, Atlung T. FNR-mediated oxygen-responsive regulation of the nrdDG operon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5310-3 pubmed
    ..Transcription of the other two nucleotide reductase operons, nrdAB and nrdEF, did not respond to oxygen conditions in a wild-type background, but nrdAB expression was increased in the fnr mutant under anaerobic conditions. ..
  2. Gon S, Faulkner M, Beckwith J. In vivo requirement for glutaredoxins and thioredoxins in the reduction of the ribonucleotide reductases of Escherichia coli. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006;8:735-42 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate a role for these enzymes either for NrdDG reactivation or some other essential anaerobic process. ..
  3. Sun X, Eliasson R, Pontis E, Andersson J, Buist G, Sj berg B, et al. Generation of the glycyl radical of the anaerobic Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase requires a specific activating enzyme. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:2443-6 pubmed
  4. Ollagnier S, Mulliez E, Schmidt P, Eliasson R, Gaillard J, Deronzier C, et al. Activation of the anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli. The essential role of the iron-sulfur center for S-adenosylmethionine reduction. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:24216-23 pubmed
    ..e redox catalysis, as recently proposed by others (Staples, R. C., Ameyibor, E., Fu, W., Gardet-Salvi, L., Stritt-Etter, A. L., Schürmann, P., Knaff, D. B., and Johnson, M. K. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 11425-11434). ..
  5. Tamarit J, Gerez C, Meier C, Mulliez E, Trautwein A, Fontecave M. The activating component of the anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli. An iron-sulfur center with only three cysteines. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:15669-75 pubmed
    ..Mutation of the two other cysteines of the protein did not result in inactivation. We thus conclude that the (4Fe-4S) cluster has, in the wild type protein, only three cysteine ligands and a fourth still unidentified ligand. ..