Gene Symbol: nrdD
Description: anaerobic ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase
Alias: ECK4233, JW4197
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     nrdD

Top Publications

  1. Harder J, Eliasson R, Pontis E, Ballinger M, Reichard P. Activation of the anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli by S-adenosylmethionine. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:25548-52 pubmed
    ..The activation of the anaerobic reductase shows a considerable similarity to that of pyruvate formate-lyase (Knappe, J., Neugebauer, F. A., Blaschkowski, H. P., and Gänzler, M. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81, 1332-1335). ..
  2. Gon S, Faulkner M, Beckwith J. In vivo requirement for glutaredoxins and thioredoxins in the reduction of the ribonucleotide reductases of Escherichia coli. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006;8:735-42 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate a role for these enzymes either for NrdDG reactivation or some other essential anaerobic process. ..
  3. Garriga X, Eliasson R, Torrents E, Jordan A, Barbe J, Gibert I, et al. nrdD and nrdG genes are essential for strict anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;229:189-92 pubmed
    ..We now show that knock-out mutants of either nrdD or nrdG cannot grow during strict anaerobiosis, achieved by inclusion of sodium sulfide in the medium...
  4. Bianchi V, Reichard P, Eliasson R, Pontis E, Krook M, Jornvall H, et al. Escherichia coli ferredoxin NADP+ reductase: activation of E. coli anaerobic ribonucleotide reduction, cloning of the gene (fpr), and overexpression of the protein. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:1590-5 pubmed
    ..Morimyo, J. Bacteriol. 170:2136-2142, 1988). We suggest that a frameshift introduced during isolation or sequencing of mvrA caused an error in the determination of its sequence. ..
  5. Frey M, Rothe M, Wagner A, Knappe J. Adenosylmethionine-dependent synthesis of the glycyl radical in pyruvate formate-lyase by abstraction of the glycine C-2 pro-S hydrogen atom. Studies of [2H]glycine-substituted enzyme and peptides homologous to the glycine 734 site. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:12432-7 pubmed
    ..Gly-734 is probably located in a beta-turn segment of the protein. ..
  6. Sun X, Eliasson R, Pontis E, Andersson J, Buist G, Sj berg B, et al. Generation of the glycyl radical of the anaerobic Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase requires a specific activating enzyme. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:2443-6 pubmed
    ..The radical is generated by an enzyme system present in E. coli. The reductase is coded for by the nrdD gene located at 96 min...
  7. Fontecave M, Eliasson R, Reichard P. Oxygen-sensitive ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase is present in anaerobic Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:2147-51 pubmed
    ..The anaerobic enzyme has interesting evolutionary aspects since it might reflect on an activity that in the absence of oxygen made possible the transition from an "RNA world" into a "DNA world." ..
  8. Hantke K. Characterization of an iron sensitive Mud1 mutant in E. coli lacking the ribonucleotide reductase subunit B2. Arch Microbiol. 1988;149:344-9 pubmed
    ..Since the strain was able to grow under anaerobic conditions on minimal medium lacking deoxyribonucleotides and additional pathway for the synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides is postulated. ..
  9. Tamarit J, Mulliez E, Meier C, Trautwein A, Fontecave M. The anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli. The small protein is an activating enzyme containing a [4fe-4s](2+) center. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:31291-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, protein beta has the potential to activate several molecules of protein alpha, suggesting that protein beta is an activating enzyme rather than a component of an alpha(2)beta(2) complex as previously claimed. ..

More Information


  1. Luttringer F, Mulliez E, Dublet B, Lemaire D, Fontecave M. The Zn center of the anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase from E. coli. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2009;14:923-33 pubmed publisher
    ..However, they are necessary for obtaining high turnover numbers, suggesting that they intervene in radical transfer steps subsequent to the formation of the glycyl radical. ..
  2. Roca I, Ballana E, Panosa A, Torrents E, Gibert I. Fumarate and nitrate reduction (FNR) dependent activation of the Escherichia coli anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase nrdDG promoter. Int Microbiol. 2008;11:49-56 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the two sites have an additive effect in coordinating nrdDG expression in response to shifting oxygen concentrations. ..
  3. Sun X, Harder J, Krook M, Jornvall H, Sjoberg B, Reichard P. A possible glycine radical in anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli: nucleotide sequence of the cloned nrdD gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:577-81 pubmed
    ..F. V., Frey, M., Neugebauer, F. A., Schäfer, W. & Knappe, J. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 996-1000]. The gene for the anaerobic reductase is located at a position around 96 min on the E. coli genomic map. ..
  4. Eliasson R, Reichard P, Mulliez E, Ollagnier S, Fontecave M, Liepinsh E, et al. The mechanism of the anaerobic Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase investigated with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;214:28-35 pubmed
    ..Class I and II enzymes catalyze identical reactions. Members of the three classes of reductases apparently use the same chemical mechanism in spite of having completely different protein structures. ..
  5. Rimmele M, Boos W. Trehalose-6-phosphate hydrolase of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:5654-64 pubmed
    ..This report corrects our previous view on the function of the treC gene product as an amylotrehalase, which was based on the analysis of the metabolic products of trehalose metabolism in whole cells. ..
  6. Mulliez E, Padovani D, Atta M, Alcouffe C, Fontecave M. Activation of class III ribonucleotide reductase by flavodoxin: a protein radical-driven electron transfer to the iron-sulfur center. Biochemistry. 2001;40:3730-6 pubmed
    ..The second reaction plays the major role on the basis that a Gly-to-Ala mutation results in a greatly decreased production of methionine. ..
  7. Padovani D, Thomas F, Trautwein A, Mulliez E, Fontecave M. Activation of class III ribonucleotide reductase from E. coli. The electron transfer from the iron-sulfur center to S-adenosylmethionine. Biochemistry. 2001;40:6713-9 pubmed
  8. Fontecave M, Mulliez E, Logan D. Deoxyribonucleotide synthesis in anaerobic microorganisms: the class III ribonucleotide reductase. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 2002;72:95-127 pubmed
    ..This review article describes their structural and mechanistic properties as well as their complex allosteric regulation. Their evolutionnary relationship to class I and class II ribonucleotide reductases is also discussed. ..
  9. Logan D, Mulliez E, Larsson K, Bodevin S, Atta M, Garnaud P, et al. A metal-binding site in the catalytic subunit of anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:3826-31 pubmed
    ..The possible roles of the metal center are discussed in relationship to the currently proposed reaction mechanism for generation of the glycyl radical in class III RNRs. ..
  10. Boston T, Atlung T. FNR-mediated oxygen-responsive regulation of the nrdDG operon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5310-3 pubmed
    ..The nrdD transcript start site was mapped to a position immediately downstream of two FNR binding sites...
  11. Eliasson R, Pontis E, Fontecave M, Gerez C, Harder J, Jornvall H, et al. Characterization of components of the anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase system from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:25541-7 pubmed
    ..Micromolar concentrations of several chelators inhibit CTP reduction completely, suggesting the involvement of (a) transition metal(s). ..
  12. Torrents E, Grinberg I, Gorovitz Harris B, Lundström H, Borovok I, Aharonowitz Y, et al. NrdR controls differential expression of the Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase genes. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:5012-21 pubmed
    ..The model assumes that differences in the positions of the NrdR binding sites, and in the sequences of the motifs themselves, determine the extent to which NrdR represses the transcription of each RNR operon. ..
  13. Eliasson R, Pontis E, Eckstein F, Reichard P. Interactions of 2'-modified azido- and haloanalogs of deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate with the anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:26116-20 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the chemistry at the nucleotide level for the reduction of ribose by class III enzymes is similar to the chemistry employed by class I and II enzymes. ..
  14. Eliasson R, Pontis E, Sun X, Reichard P. Allosteric control of the substrate specificity of the anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:26052-7 pubmed
    ..The similarity of a highly sophisticated control mechanism for the aerobic and anaerobic enzymes suggests that both arose by divergent evolution from a common ancestor, in spite of their different structures. ..
  15. Ollagnier S, Mulliez E, Schmidt P, Eliasson R, Gaillard J, Deronzier C, et al. Activation of the anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli. The essential role of the iron-sulfur center for S-adenosylmethionine reduction. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:24216-23 pubmed
    ..e redox catalysis, as recently proposed by others (Staples, R. C., Ameyibor, E., Fu, W., Gardet-Salvi, L., Stritt-Etter, A. L., Schürmann, P., Knaff, D. B., and Johnson, M. K. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 11425-11434). ..