Gene Symbol: nfsA
Description: nitroreductase A, NADPH-dependent, FMN-dependent
Alias: ECK0842, JW0835, mda18, mdaA, snrA, ybjB
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Gonzalez Pérez M, van Dillewijn P, Wittich R, Ramos J. Escherichia coli has multiple enzymes that attack TNT and release nitrogen for growth. Environ Microbiol. 2007;9:1535-40 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, NemA, together with NfsA and NfsB reduce the nitro groups on the aromatic ring to the corresponding hydroxylamino derivatives, which ..
  2. Sandegren L, Lindqvist A, Kahlmeter G, Andersson D. Nitrofurantoin resistance mechanism and fitness cost in Escherichia coli. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62:495-503 pubmed publisher
    ..coli in the absence of antibiotic. In the presence of therapeutic levels of nitrofurantoin, even resistant mutants are so disturbed in growth that they are probably unable to become enriched and establish an infection. ..
  3. Nokhbeh M, Boroumandi S, Pokorny N, Koziarz P, Paterson E, Lambert I. Identification and characterization of SnrA, an inducible oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium TA1535. Mutat Res. 2002;508:59-70 pubmed
    ..In the current study, we have cloned a nitroreductase gene, Salmonella typhimurium nitroreductase A (snrA), from S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain TA1535, and characterized the purified gene product...
  4. Valle A, Le Borgne S, Bolivar J, Cabrera G, Cantero D. Study of the role played by NfsA, NfsB nitroreductase and NemA flavin reductase from Escherichia coli in the conversion of ethyl 2-(2'-nitrophenoxy)acetate to 4-hydroxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (D-DIBOA), a benzohydroxamic acid with interesting . Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;94:163-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The NfsA and NfsB nitroreductases and the NemA xenobiotic reductase of E...
  5. Bhushan B, Halasz A, Hawari J. Nitroreductase catalyzed biotransformation of CL-20. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;322:271-6 pubmed
    ..Carbon and nitrogen products gave mass-balances of 60% and 81%, respectively. A comparative study between native-, deflavo-, and reconstituted-nitroreductase showed that FMN-site was possibly involved in the biotransformation of CL-20. ..
  6. Ackerley D, Gonzalez C, Keyhan M, Blake R, Matin A. Mechanism of chromate reduction by the Escherichia coli protein, NfsA, and the role of different chromate reductases in minimizing oxidative stress during chromate reduction. Environ Microbiol. 2004;6:851-60 pubmed
    Chromate [Cr(VI)] is a serious environmental pollutant, which is amenable to bacterial bioremediation. NfsA, the major oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase of Escherichia coli, is a flavoprotein that is able to reduce chromate to less ..
  7. Hu L, Yu C, Jiang Y, Han J, Li Z, Browne P, et al. Nitroaryl phosphoramides as novel prodrugs for E. coli nitroreductase activation in enzyme prodrug therapy. J Med Chem. 2003;46:4818-21 pubmed
    ..The superior activity was attributed to its better substrate activity (k(cat)/K(m) 19x better than 1) and/or excellent cytotoxicity of phosphoramide mustard released. ..
  8. Kobori T, Lee W, Akagi T, Sasaki H, Zenno S, Saigo K, et al. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of major nitroreductase from Escherichia coli. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 1999;55:1901-2 pubmed
    NADPH:nitrocompound oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli, NfsA, has been crystallized in the presence of FMN by the vapor-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol 6000 as a precipitant...
  9. Benov L, Fridovich I. Induction of the soxRS regulon of Escherichia coli by glycolaldehyde. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002;407:45-8 pubmed
    ..All of these suggest that superoxide radicals produced by the oxidation of glycolaldehyde played a key role in the induction. ..

More Information


  1. Breeze A, Obaseiki Ebor E. Mutations to nitrofurantoin and nitrofurazone resistance in Escherichia coli K12. J Gen Microbiol. 1983;129:99-103 pubmed
    ..This mechanism is in addition to that which also confers resistance to nitrofurazone. ..
  2. Zenno S, Kobori T, Tanokura M, Saigo K. Conversion of NfsA, the major Escherichia coli nitroreductase, to a flavin reductase with an activity similar to that of Frp, a flavin reductase in Vibrio harveyi, by a single amino acid substitution. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:422-5 pubmed
    b>NfsA is the major oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase of Escherichia coli, similar in amino acid sequence to Frp, a flavin reductase of Vibrio harveyi...
  3. Kobori T, Sasaki H, Lee W, Zenno S, Saigo K, Murphy M, et al. Structure and site-directed mutagenesis of a flavoprotein from Escherichia coli that reduces nitrocompounds: alteration of pyridine nucleotide binding by a single amino acid substitution. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:2816-23 pubmed
    The crystal structure of a major oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase (NfsA) from Escherichia coli has been solved by the molecular replacement method at 1.7-A resolution...
  4. Rau J, Stolz A. Oxygen-insensitive nitroreductases NfsA and NfsB of Escherichia coli function under anaerobic conditions as lawsone-dependent Azo reductases. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:3448-55 pubmed
    ..In addition it was proven that also a second oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase of E. coli (NfsA) is able to reduce lawsone and thus to function under adequate conditions as quinone-dependent azo reductase.
  5. Valiauga B, Williams E, Ackerley D, Cenas N. Reduction of quinones and nitroaromatic compounds by Escherichia coli nitroreductase A (NfsA): Characterization of kinetics and substrate specificity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2017;614:14-22 pubmed publisher
    b>NfsA, a major FMN-associated nitroreductase of E. coli, reduces nitroaromatic compounds via consecutive two-electron transfers. NfsA has potential applications in the biodegradation of nitroaromatic environment pollutants, e.g...
  6. Yang J, Zhan J, Bai J, Liu P, Xue Y, Yang Q. Residue Phe42 is critical for the catalytic activity of Escherichia coli major nitroreductase NfsA. Biotechnol Lett. 2013;35:1693-700 pubmed publisher
    The major O2-insensitive nitroreductase (NfsA) of Escherichia coli shares low sequence homology but similar biochemical and structural features with NfsB, the E. coli minor O2-insensitive nitroreductase...
  7. Barak Y, Thorne S, Ackerley D, Lynch S, Contag C, Matin A. New enzyme for reductive cancer chemotherapy, YieF, and its improvement by directed evolution. Mol Cancer Ther. 2006;5:97-103 pubmed
    ..enzyme, Y6, killed HeLa spinner cells with >or=5-fold efficiency than the wild-type enzymes, YieF and NfsA, at a variety of drug and enzyme concentrations and incubation times...
  8. Paterson E, Boucher S, Lambert I. Regulation of the nfsA Gene in Escherichia coli by SoxS. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:51-8 pubmed
    ..One member of the soxRS regulon, nfsA, encodes the major oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase in Escherichia coli which catalyzes the reduction of ..
  9. Liochev S, Hausladen A, Fridovich I. Nitroreductase A is regulated as a member of the soxRS regulon of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:3537-9 pubmed
  10. Race P, Lovering A, Green R, Ossor A, White S, Searle P, et al. Structural and mechanistic studies of Escherichia coli nitroreductase with the antibiotic nitrofurazone. Reversed binding orientations in different redox states of the enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:13256-64 pubmed
    ..We propose that the charge distribution on the FMN rings, which alters upon reduction, is an important determinant of substrate binding and reactivity in flavoproteins with broad substrate specificity. ..
  11. Prosser G, Copp J, Syddall S, Williams E, Smaill J, Wilson W, et al. Discovery and evaluation of Escherichia coli nitroreductases that activate the anti-cancer prodrug CB1954. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;79:678-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify the major E. coli NTR, NfsA, as 10-fold more efficient than NfsB in activating CB1954 as purified protein (k(cat)/K(m)) and when over-expressed ..
  12. Carroll C, Warnakulasuriyarachchi D, Nokhbeh M, Lambert I. Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity tester strains that overexpress oxygen-insensitive nitroreductases nfsA and nfsB. Mutat Res. 2002;501:79-98 pubmed
    ..and constructed a series of plasmids that contain the major and/or minor Escherichia coli nitroreductase genes, nfsA and nfsB, in different combinations with R plasmid mucA/B genes and the Salmonella typhimurium OAT gene...
  13. Zenno S, Koike H, Kumar A, Jayaraman R, Tanokura M, Saigo K. Biochemical characterization of NfsA, the Escherichia coli major nitroreductase exhibiting a high amino acid sequence homology to Frp, a Vibrio harveyi flavin oxidoreductase. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:4508-14 pubmed
    We identified the nfsA gene, encoding the major oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase in Escherichia coli, and determined its position on the E. coli map to be 19 min. We also purified its gene product, NfsA, to homogeneity...
  14. Chatterjee P, Sternberg N. A general genetic approach in Escherichia coli for determining the mechanism(s) of action of tumoricidal agents: application to DMP 840, a tumoricidal agent. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:8950-4 pubmed
    ..By using DMP 840 to model the system, we have identified two genes, designated mdaA and mdaB, that impart resistance to DMP 840 when they are expressed at elevated levels. mdaB maps to E...
  15. Kang W, Icho T, Isono S, Kitakawa M, Isono K. Characterization of the gene rimK responsible for the addition of glutamic acid residues to the C-terminus of ribosomal protein S6 in Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;217:281-8 pubmed
    ..This indicates that the RimK modification system requires the wild-type amino acid sequence at least in the C-terminal region of ribosomal protein S6. ..
  16. McCalla D, Kaiser C, Green M. Genetics of nitrofurazone resistance in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1978;133:10-6 pubmed
    ..We designated the genes that control reductase activity "nitrofuran sensitivity genes" (nfsA and nfsB). Thus, wild-type strains are nfsA(+)nfsB(+), and the resistant double mutants are nfsA nfsB...
  17. Kwak Y, Lee D, Kim H. Vibrio harveyi nitroreductase is also a chromate reductase. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:4390-5 pubmed
    ..A fusion between glutathione S-transferase (GST) and E. coli DH5alpha NfsA (GST-EcNfsA), a fusion between GST and E. coli DH5alpha NfsB (GST-EcNfsB), and a fusion between GST and V...
  18. Lightfoot R, Shuman D, Ischiropoulos H. Oxygen-insensitive nitroreductases of Escherichia coli do not reduce 3-nitrotyrosine. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000;28:1132-6 pubmed
    The oxygen-insensitive nitroreductases nfsA and nfsB are known to reduce para-nitrated aromatic compounds...
  19. Whiteway J, Koziarz P, Veall J, Sandhu N, Kumar P, Hoecher B, et al. Oxygen-insensitive nitroreductases: analysis of the roles of nfsA and nfsB in development of resistance to 5-nitrofuran derivatives in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:5529-39 pubmed
    ..We have characterized the nfsA and nfsB genes of a large number of nitrofuran-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli and have correlated mutation ..