narL

Summary

Gene Symbol: narL
Description: response regulator in two-component regulatory system with NarX
Alias: ECK1215, JW1212, frdR
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Noriega C, Lin H, Chen L, Williams S, Stewart V. Asymmetric cross-regulation between the nitrate-responsive NarX-NarL and NarQ-NarP two-component regulatory systems from Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Microbiol. 2010;75:394-412 pubmed publisher
    The NarX-NarL and NarQ-NarP sensor-response regulator pairs control Escherichia coli gene expression in response to nitrate and nitrite. Previous analysis suggests that the Nar two-component systems form a cross-regulation network in vivo...
  2. Squire D, Xu M, Cole J, Busby S, Browning D. Competition between NarL-dependent activation and Fis-dependent repression controls expression from the Escherichia coli yeaR and ogt promoters. Biochem J. 2009;420:249-57 pubmed publisher
    The Escherichia coli NarL protein is a global gene regulatory factor that activates transcription at many target promoters in response to nitrate and nitrite ions...
  3. Stewart V, Bledsoe P. Substitutions at auxiliary operator O3 enhance repression by nitrate-responsive regulator NarL at synthetic lac control regions in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:428-33 pubmed
    We constructed monocopy lac operon control regions in which the operators O1-lac and O3-lac were replaced by NarL and NarP binding sites from the nirB or napF operon control regions...
  4. Lin H, Bledsoe P, Stewart V. Activation of yeaR-yoaG operon transcription by the nitrate-responsive regulator NarL is independent of oxygen- responsive regulator Fnr in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:7539-48 pubmed
    ..Nitrate and nitrite regulate anaerobic respiratory gene expression through the NarX-NarL and NarQ-NarP two-component systems...
  5. Maris A, Kaczor Grzeskowiak M, Ma Z, Kopka M, Gunsalus R, Dickerson R. Primary and secondary modes of DNA recognition by the NarL two-component response regulator. Biochemistry. 2005;44:14538-52 pubmed
    b>NarL is a model response regulator for bacterial two-component signal transduction. The NarL C-terminal domain DNA binding domain alone (NarL(C)) contains all essential DNA binding determinants of the full-length NarL transcription factor...
  6. Stewart V, Bledsoe P. Fnr-, NarP- and NarL-dependent regulation of transcription initiation from the Haemophilus influenzae Rd napF (periplasmic nitrate reductase) promoter in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:6928-35 pubmed publisher
    ..coli napF operon control region is activated by phospho-NarP but antagonized by the orthologous protein, phospho-NarL. By contrast, expression from the H. influenzae napF-lacZ operon fusion in E...
  7. Stewart V, Bledsoe P. Synthetic lac operator substitutions for studying the nitrate- and nitrite-responsive NarX-NarL and NarQ-NarP two-component regulatory systems of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:2104-11 pubmed
    The NarX and NarQ sensor-histidine kinases control phosphorylation of the NarL and NarP response regulators in response to the respiratory oxidants nitrate and nitrite...
  8. Lamberg K, Kiley P. FNR-dependent activation of the class II dmsA and narG promoters of Escherichia coli requires FNR-activating regions 1 and 3. Mol Microbiol. 2000;38:817-27 pubmed
    ..As these growth conditions promote maximal activity of PnarG as a result of the combined function of NarL, IHF and FNR, these results suggest that the requirements for FNR-AR1 and FNR-AR3 are altered in the presence of ..
  9. Dong X, Li S, DeMoss J. Upstream sequence elements required for NarL-mediated activation of transcription from the narGHJI promoter of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:14122-8 pubmed
    ..of transcription occurs in the presence of nitrate and is dependent on activation of the transacting factor NarL and a cis-acting sequence (NarL box) located approximately 200 base pairs upstream from the transcription start ..

More Information

Publications54

  1. Baikalov I, Schröder I, Kaczor Grzeskowiak M, Cascio D, Gunsalus R, Dickerson R. NarL dimerization? Suggestive evidence from a new crystal form. Biochemistry. 1998;37:3665-76 pubmed
    The structure of the Escherichia coli response regulator NarL has been solved in a new, monoclinic space group, and compared with the earlier orthorhombic crystal structure...
  2. Baikalov I, Schr der I, Kaczor Grzeskowiak M, Grzeskowiak K, Gunsalus R, Dickerson R. Structure of the Escherichia coli response regulator NarL. Biochemistry. 1996;35:11053-61 pubmed publisher
    The crystal structure analysis of the NarL protein provides a first look at interactions between receiver and effector domains of a full-length bacterial response regulator...
  3. Stewart V, Parales J. Identification and expression of genes narL and narX of the nar (nitrate reductase) locus in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:1589-97 pubmed
    Previous studies have shown that narL+ is required for nitrate induction of nitrate reductase synthesis and for nitrate inhibition of fumarate reductase synthesis in Escherichia coli. We cloned narL on a 5.1-kilobase HindIII fragment...
  4. McLaughlin W, Berman H. Statistical models for discerning protein structures containing the DNA-binding helix-turn-helix motif. J Mol Biol. 2003;330:43-55 pubmed
  5. Katsir G, Jarvis M, Phillips M, Ma Z, Gunsalus R. The Escherichia coli NarL receiver domain regulates transcription through promoter specific functions. BMC Microbiol. 2015;15:174 pubmed publisher
    The Escherichia coli response regulator NarL controls transcription of genes involved in nitrate respiration during anaerobiosis. NarL consists of two domains joined by a linker that wraps around the interdomain interface...
  6. Xu M, Busby S, Browning D. Activation and repression at the Escherichia coli ynfEFGHI operon promoter. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:3172-6 pubmed publisher
    ..study, we show that the global transcription factor FNR is a class II activator at the ynfEFGHI promoter and that NarL represses activation by binding to a single target that overlaps the promoter -10 element...
  7. Gao R, Tao Y, Stock A. System-level mapping of Escherichia coli response regulator dimerization with FRET hybrids. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:1358-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Weak hetero-pair interactions were also identified between several different RRs, suggesting potential cross-regulation between distinct pathways. ..
  8. Partridge J, Browning D, Xu M, Newnham L, Scott C, Roberts R, et al. Characterization of the Escherichia coli K-12 ydhYVWXUT operon: regulation by FNR, NarL and NarP. Microbiology. 2008;154:608-18 pubmed publisher
    ..the DNA sequence of the ydhY promoter region (PydhY) revealed the presence of four heptameric sequences similar to NarL/P binding sites centred at -42, -16, +6 and +15...
  9. Hirakawa H, Nishino K, Yamada J, Hirata T, Yamaguchi A. Beta-lactam resistance modulated by the overexpression of response regulators of two-component signal transduction systems in Escherichia coli. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;52:576-82 pubmed
    ..Thirteen response regulators out of 32 genes, namely baeR, cheY, cpxR, creB, evgA, fimZ, narL, ompR, rcsB, rstA, yedW, yehT and dcuR, conferred increased beta-lactam resistance...
  10. Wang H, Gunsalus R. Coordinate regulation of the Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase fdnGHI and fdhF genes in response to nitrate, nitrite, and formate: roles for NarL and NarP. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5076-85 pubmed
    ..Consistent with prior reports, NarL was able to induce fdnG-lacZ expression...
  11. Stewart V, Parales J, Merkel S. Structure of genes narL and narX of the nar (nitrate reductase) locus in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:2229-34 pubmed
    b>narL and narX mediate nitrate induction of nitrate reductase synthesis and nitrate repression of fumarate reductase synthesis. We report here the nucleotide sequences of narL and narX...
  12. Parkinson J. Signal transduction schemes of bacteria. Cell. 1993;73:857-71 pubmed
  13. Eggertsson G, Soll D. Transfer ribonucleic acid-mediated suppression of termination codons in Escherichia coli. Microbiol Rev. 1988;52:354-74 pubmed
  14. Darwin A, Stewart V. Expression of the narX, narL, narP, and narQ genes of Escherichia coli K-12: regulation of the regulators. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:3865-9 pubmed
    The products of four Escherichia coli genes (narX, narL, narQ, and narP) regulate anaerobic respiratory gene expression in response to nitrate and nitrite...
  15. Browning D, Cole J, Busby S. Transcription activation by remodelling of a nucleoprotein assembly: the role of NarL at the FNR-dependent Escherichia coli nir promoter. Mol Microbiol. 2004;53:203-15 pubmed
    ..coli nir promoter is co-dependent on both the FNR protein (an anaerobically triggered transcription activator) and NarL or NarP proteins (transcription activators triggered by nitrite and nitrate)...
  16. Lin E, Iuchi S. Regulation of gene expression in fermentative and respiratory systems in Escherichia coli and related bacteria. Annu Rev Genet. 1991;25:361-87 pubmed
  17. Kalman L, Gunsalus R. The frdR gene of Escherichia coli globally regulates several operons involved in anaerobic growth in response to nitrate. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:623-9 pubmed
    ..The frdR mutant was also derepressed for nitrate control of the trimethylamine-N-oxide reductase and alcohol dehydrogenase ..
  18. Browning D, Grainger D, Beatty C, Wolfe A, Cole J, Busby S. Integration of three signals at the Escherichia coli nrf promoter: a role for Fis protein in catabolite repression. Mol Microbiol. 2005;57:496-510 pubmed
    ..anaerobically triggered transcription factor, FNR, and by the nitrate/nitrite ion-controlled response regulators, NarL or NarP, but is repressed by the IHF and Fis proteins...
  19. Stewart V. Requirement of Fnr and NarL functions for nitrate reductase expression in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1982;151:1320-5 pubmed
    ..A NarL- mutant apparently lacks a nitrate-specific positive regulatory component...
  20. Kalman L, Gunsalus R. Identification of a second gene involved in global regulation of fumarate reductase and other nitrate-controlled genes for anaerobic respiration in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:3810-6 pubmed
    ..A second class of frdR mutants was identified and shown to correspond to a previously described gene, narL (frdR2)...
  21. Bearson S, Albrecht J, Gunsalus R. Oxygen and nitrate-dependent regulation of dmsABC operon expression in Escherichia coli: sites for Fnr and NarL protein interactions. BMC Microbiol. 2002;2:13 pubmed
    ..reductase is positively regulated during anaerobic conditions by the Fnr protein and negatively regulated by the NarL protein when nitrate is present...
  22. Gunsalus R, Kalman L, Stewart R. Nucleotide sequence of the narL gene that is involved in global regulation of nitrate controlled respiratory genes of Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:1965-75 pubmed
    The DNA sequence was determined for the narL gene of Escherichia coli...
  23. Li J, Kustu S, Stewart V. In vitro interaction of nitrate-responsive regulatory protein NarL with DNA target sequences in the fdnG, narG, narK and frdA operon control regions of Escherichia coli K-12. J Mol Biol. 1994;241:150-65 pubmed
    The narL gene product is a nitrate-responsive activator and repressor of anaerobic respiratory gene expression...
  24. Rabin R, Stewart V. Dual response regulators (NarL and NarP) interact with dual sensors (NarX and NarQ) to control nitrate- and nitrite-regulated gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:3259-68 pubmed
    ..Either of these sensors is sufficient to signal the presence of nitrate to the response regulator protein, NarL, a transcriptional activator and repressor...
  25. Aiso T, Ohki R. Instability of sensory histidine kinase mRNAs in Escherichia coli. Genes Cells. 2003;8:179-87 pubmed
    ..Monocistronic transcripts of the cognate response regulator genes, arcA, rcsB, narP and narL have a half-life of 1.5-3.4 min. mRNAs of the six histidine kinase genes in E...
  26. Pao G, Saier M. Response regulators of bacterial signal transduction systems: selective domain shuffling during evolution. J Mol Evol. 1995;40:136-54 pubmed
    ..Sequence data were correlated with structure/function when such information was available.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  27. Li S, DeMoss J. Promoter region of the nar operon of Escherichia coli: nucleotide sequence and transcription initiation signals. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:4614-20 pubmed
    ..to positive induction by the fnr gene product under anaerobic conditions and to positive induction by the narL gene product in the presence of nitrate (S.F. Li, T. Rabi, and J.A. DeMoss, J. Bacteriol. 164:25-32)...
  28. Leonardo M, Clark D. Locations of genes in the nar-adhE region of the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:1574-5 pubmed
  29. Whitehead R, Cole J. Different responses to nitrate and nitrite by the model organism Escherichia coli and the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006;34:111-4 pubmed
    ..electron acceptors during anaerobic growth is mediated by the dual-acting two-component regulatory systems NarX-NarL and NarQ-NarP. In contrast, Neisseria gonorrhoeae responds only to nitrite: it expresses only NarQ-NarP...
  30. Constantinidou C, Hobman J, Griffiths L, Patel M, Penn C, Cole J, et al. A reassessment of the FNR regulon and transcriptomic analysis of the effects of nitrate, nitrite, NarXL, and NarQP as Escherichia coli K12 adapts from aerobic to anaerobic growth. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:4802-15 pubmed
    ..and a narXL deletion mutant revealed that transcription of 51 operons is activated, directly or indirectly, by NarL, and a further 41 operons are repressed...
  31. Shaw D, Guest J. Molecular cloning of the fnr gene of Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;181:95-100 pubmed
    ..EcoRI targets and had inserted with the same orientation relative to the phage. A physical map of the fnr region was constructed by restriction analysis and flanking fragments were identified by DNA : DNA hybridization. ..
  32. Stock J, Stock A, Mottonen J. Signal transduction in bacteria. Nature. 1990;344:395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..This phosphotransfer network couples environmental signals to an array of response elements that control cell motility and regulate gene expression...
  33. Goh E, Bledsoe P, Chen L, Gyaneshwar P, Stewart V, Igo M. Hierarchical control of anaerobic gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12: the nitrate-responsive NarX-NarL regulatory system represses synthesis of the fumarate-responsive DcuS-DcuR regulatory system. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:4890-9 pubmed
    ..Nitrate regulation is mediated by the NarX-NarL two-component system, which activates the transcription of operons encoding nitrate respiration enzymes and ..
  34. Egan S, Stewart V. Mutational analysis of nitrate regulatory gene narL in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:4424-32 pubmed
    The narL gene product, NarL, is the nitrate-responsive regulator of anaerobic respiratory gene expression. We used genetic analysis of narL mutants to better understand the mechanism of NarL-mediated gene regulation...
  35. Darwin A, Stewart V. Nitrate and nitrite regulation of the Fnr-dependent aeg-46.5 promoter of Escherichia coli K-12 is mediated by competition between homologous response regulators (NarL and NarP) for a common DNA-binding site. J Mol Biol. 1995;251:15-29 pubmed
    The NarL and NarP proteins are homologous response regulators that function to regulate anaerobic respiratory gene expression in response to nitrate and nitrite in Escherichia coli. Expression of the aeg-46...
  36. Nohno T, Noji S, Taniguchi S, Saito T. The narX and narL genes encoding the nitrate-sensing regulators of Escherichia coli are homologous to a family of prokaryotic two-component regulatory genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:2947-57 pubmed
    ..The narX and narL genes encode proteins of molecular weight 67,275 and 23,927, respectively, and are transcribed from a common ..
  37. Kaiser M, Sawers G. Nitrate repression of the Escherichia coli pfl operon is mediated by the dual sensors NarQ and NarX and the dual regulators NarL and NarP. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:3647-55 pubmed
    ..Regulation of pfl expression by nitrate was dependent on the NarL, NarP, NarQ, and NarX proteins but independent of FNR, ArcA, and integration host factor, which are additional ..
  38. Huynh T, Chen L, Stewart V. Sensor-response regulator interactions in a cross-regulated signal transduction network. Microbiology. 2015;161:1504-15 pubmed publisher
    ..represent a paradigm for a cross-regulation network, in which the paralogous sensor-response regulator pairs, NarX-NarL and NarQ-NarP, exhibit both cognate (e.g. NarX-NarL) and non-cognate (e.g...
  39. Lin A, Stewart V. Functional roles for the GerE-family carboxyl-terminal domains of nitrate response regulators NarL and NarP of Escherichia coli K-12. Microbiology. 2010;156:2933-43 pubmed publisher
    b>NarL and NarP are paralogous response regulators that control anaerobic gene expression in response to the favoured electron acceptors nitrate and nitrite...
  40. Parkinson J, Kofoid E. Communication modules in bacterial signaling proteins. Annu Rev Genet. 1992;26:71-112 pubmed
  41. Iuchi S, Lin E. The narL gene product activates the nitrate reductase operon and represses the fumarate reductase and trimethylamine N-oxide reductase operons in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:3901-5 pubmed
    ..Under anaerobic conditions the narL gene product, in the presence of nitrate, is known to activate transcription of the narC operon, which encodes ..
  42. Filenko N, Spiro S, Browning D, Squire D, Overton T, Cole J, et al. The NsrR regulon of Escherichia coli K-12 includes genes encoding the hybrid cluster protein and the periplasmic, respiratory nitrite reductase. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:4410-7 pubmed
    ..Gel retardation assays were used to show that both FNR and NarL bind to the hcp promoter. The expression of hcp and the contiguous gene hcr is not induced by hydroxylamine...
  43. Browning D, Lee D, Wolfe A, Cole J, Busby S. The Escherichia coli K-12 NarL and NarP proteins insulate the nrf promoter from the effects of integration host factor. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:7449-56 pubmed
    ..by integration host factor (IHF) binding at position -54, and this suppression is counteracted by binding of the NarL or NarP response regulator at position -74.5. The E...
  44. Page L, Griffiths L, Cole J. Different physiological roles of two independent pathways for nitrite reduction to ammonia by enteric bacteria. Arch Microbiol. 1990;154:349-54 pubmed
    ..Mutants defective in the NarL protein, which induces transcription of nitrate reductase genes but represses fumarate reductase genes in the ..
  45. Tyson K, Cole J, Busby S. Nitrite and nitrate regulation at the promoters of two Escherichia coli operons encoding nitrite reductase: identification of common target heptamers for both NarP- and NarL-dependent regulation. Mol Microbiol. 1994;13:1045-55 pubmed
    ..the Escherichia coli nir and nrf promoters is dependent on anaerobic induction by FNR but is further regulated by NarL and NarP in response to the presence of nitrite and nitrate in the growth medium...