Gene Symbol: mutL
Description: methyl-directed mismatch repair protein
Alias: ECK4166, JW4128
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     mutL

Top Publications

  1. Spampinato C, Modrich P. The MutL ATPase is required for mismatch repair. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:9863-9 pubmed
    Members of the MutL family contain a novel nucleotide binding motif near their amino terminus, and the Escherichia coli protein has been found to be a weak ATPase (Ban, C., and Yang, W. (1998) Cell 95, 541-552)...
  2. Bende S, Grafstrom R. The DNA binding properties of the MutL protein isolated from Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:1549-55 pubmed
    The mutL gene of Escherichia coli, which is involved in the repair of mispaired and unpaired nucleotides in DNA, has been independently cloned and the gene product purified...
  3. Galan J, Turrientes M, Baquero M, Rodríguez Alcayna M, Martínez Amado J, Martinez J, et al. Mutation rate is reduced by increased dosage of mutL gene in Escherichia coli K-12. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;275:263-9 pubmed
    ..Changes in E. coli mutation frequencies derived from the gene-copy effect of mutS, mutL, mutH, uvrD, mutT, mutY, mutM, mutA, dnaE, dnaQ, and rpoS are explored...
  4. Ahrends R, Kosinski J, Kirsch D, Manelyte L, Giron Monzon L, Hummerich L, et al. Identifying an interaction site between MutH and the C-terminal domain of MutL by crosslinking, affinity purification, chemical coding and mass spectrometry. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:3169-80 pubmed
    ..the feasibility of the method using a single-cysteine variant of the homodimeric DNA mismatch repair protein MutL. Moreover, we successfully applied this method to identify the photocrosslink formed between the single-cysteine ..
  5. Acharya S, Foster P, Brooks P, Fishel R. The coordinated functions of the E. coli MutS and MutL proteins in mismatch repair. Mol Cell. 2003;12:233-46 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli MutS and MutL proteins have been conserved throughout evolution, although their combined functions in mismatch repair (MMR) are poorly understood...
  6. Thomas E, Pingoud A, Friedhoff P. An efficient method for the preparation of long heteroduplex DNA as substrate for mismatch repair by the Escherichia coli MutHLS system. Biol Chem. 2002;383:1459-62 pubmed
    ..The application of this procedure is demonstrated for the analysis of the Escherichia coli MutHLS system. ..
  7. Ban C, Yang W. Crystal structure and ATPase activity of MutL: implications for DNA repair and mutagenesis. Cell. 1998;95:541-52 pubmed
    b>MutL and its homologs are essential for DNA mismatch repair. Mutations in genes encoding human homologs of MutL cause multiorgan cancer susceptibility. We have determined the crystal structure of a 40 kDa N-terminal fragment of E...
  8. López de Saro F, Marinus M, Modrich P, O Donnell M. The beta sliding clamp binds to multiple sites within MutL and MutS. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:14340-9 pubmed
    The MutL and MutS proteins are the central components of the DNA repair machinery that corrects mismatches generated by DNA polymerases during synthesis...
  9. Li G. Mechanisms and functions of DNA mismatch repair. Cell Res. 2008;18:85-98 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli MutS and MutL and their eukaryotic homologs, MutSalpha and MutLalpha, respectively, are key players in MMR-associated genome ..

More Information


  1. Rayssiguier C, Thaler D, Radman M. The barrier to recombination between Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium is disrupted in mismatch-repair mutants. Nature. 1989;342:396-401 pubmed
    The requirement for DNA sequence homology in generalized genetic recombination is greatly relaxed in bacterial mutL, mutS and mutH mutants deficient in mismatch repair...
  2. Monastiriakos S, Doiron K, Siponen M, Cupples C. Functional interactions between the MutL and Vsr proteins of Escherichia coli are dependent on the N-terminus of Vsr. DNA Repair (Amst). 2004;3:639-47 pubmed
    ..activity is considerably reduced and, in contrast to that of the wild type protein, cannot be stimulated by MutL. We had shown previously that excess Vsr in vivo causes mutagenesis, probably by inhibiting the participation of ..
  3. Grilley M, Griffith J, Modrich P. Bidirectional excision in methyl-directed mismatch repair. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:11830-7 pubmed
    ..The extent of excision is therefore controlled by one or more components of the repair system. ..
  4. Elez M, Radman M, Matic I. The frequency and structure of recombinant products is determined by the cellular level of MutL. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:8935-40 pubmed
    ..Although the MutS protein binds to base pair mismatches in heteroduplex DNA, the role of the MutL protein in preventing recombination is unknown...
  5. Welsh K, Lu A, Clark S, Modrich P. Isolation and characterization of the Escherichia coli mutH gene product. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:15624-9 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the mutH product functions at the strand discrimination stage of mismatch correction and that this stage of the reaction involves scission of the unmethylated DNA strand. ..
  6. Bhagwat A, Lieb M. Cooperation and competition in mismatch repair: very short-patch repair and methyl-directed mismatch repair in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2002;44:1421-8 pubmed
    ..VSP repair and MMR share two proteins, MutS and MutL, and although the two repair pathways are not equally dependent on these proteins, their dual use creates a ..
  7. Giron Monzon L, Manelyte L, Ahrends R, Kirsch D, Spengler B, Friedhoff P. Mapping protein-protein interactions between MutL and MutH by cross-linking. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:49338-45 pubmed
    Strand discrimination in Escherichia coli DNA mismatch repair requires the activation of the endonuclease MutH by MutL. There is evidence that MutH binds to the N-terminal domain of MutL in an ATP-dependent manner; however, the ..
  8. Calmann M, Marinus M. MutS inhibits RecA-mediated strand exchange with platinated DNA substrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14174-9 pubmed
    ..b>MutL addition was without effect even in the presence of MutS...
  9. Hall M, Matson S. The Escherichia coli MutL protein physically interacts with MutH and stimulates the MutH-associated endonuclease activity. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:1306-12 pubmed
    All possible pairwise combinations of UvrD, MutL, MutS, and MutH were tested using the yeast two-hybrid system to identify potential interactions involving mismatch repair proteins...
  10. Kunkel T, Erie D. DNA mismatch repair. Annu Rev Biochem. 2005;74:681-710 pubmed
    ..Emphasis is on structure-function studies of MMR proteins, on how mismatches are recognized, on the process by which the newly replicated strand is identified, and on excision of the replication error. ..
  11. Robertson A, Pattishall S, Gibbons E, Matson S. MutL-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis is required at a post-UvrD loading step in methyl-directed mismatch repair. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:19949-59 pubmed
    ..This post-replicative event involves the activities of several proteins, many of which appear to be regulated by MutL. MutL interacts with and modulates the activities of MutS, MutH, UvrD, and perhaps other proteins...
  12. Junop M, Yang W, Funchain P, Clendenin W, Miller J. In vitro and in vivo studies of MutS, MutL and MutH mutants: correlation of mismatch repair and DNA recombination. DNA Repair (Amst). 2003;2:387-405 pubmed
    We have used the recently determined crystal structures of Escherichia coli (E. coli) MutS, MutL and MutH to guide construction of 47 amino-acid substitutions in these proteins and analyzed their behavior in mismatch repair and ..
  13. Negishi K, Loakes D, Schaaper R. Saturation of DNA mismatch repair and error catastrophe by a base analogue in Escherichia coli. Genetics. 2002;161:1363-71 pubmed
    ..At a low dose, dP is much more mutagenic in mismatch-repair-defective mutH, mutL, and mutS strains than in a wild-type strain...
  14. Robertson A, Pattishall S, Matson S. The DNA binding activity of MutL is required for methyl-directed mismatch repair in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:8399-408 pubmed
    The DNA binding properties of the mismatch repair protein MutL and their importance in the repair process have been controversial for nearly two decades. We have addressed this issue using a point mutant of MutL (MutL-R266E)...
  15. Kosinski J, Steindorf I, Bujnicki J, Giron Monzon L, Friedhoff P. Analysis of the quaternary structure of the MutL C-terminal domain. J Mol Biol. 2005;351:895-909 pubmed
    The dimeric DNA mismatch repair protein MutL has a key function in communicating mismatch recognition by MutS to downstream repair processes...
  16. Au K, Welsh K, Modrich P. Initiation of methyl-directed mismatch repair. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:12142-8 pubmed
    ..1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 15624-15629). MutH endonuclease is activated in a reaction that requires MutS, MutL, ATP, and Mg2+ and depends upon the presence of a mismatch within the DNA...
  17. Cooper D, Lahue R, Modrich P. Methyl-directed mismatch repair is bidirectional. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:11823-9 pubmed
    ..Repair of both heteroduplex orientations requires MutH, MutL, MutS, DNA helicase II, SSB, and DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, but the two substrates differ with respect to ..
  18. Feng G, Winkler M. Single-step purifications of His6-MutH, His6-MutL and His6-MutS repair proteins of escherichia coli K-12. Biotechniques. 1995;19:956-65 pubmed
    The MutS, MutH and MutL proteins mediate methyl-directed-mismatch (MDM) repair in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium...
  19. Guarné A, Ramon Maiques S, Wolff E, Ghirlando R, Hu X, Miller J, et al. Structure of the MutL C-terminal domain: a model of intact MutL and its roles in mismatch repair. EMBO J. 2004;23:4134-45 pubmed
    b>MutL assists the mismatch recognition protein MutS to initiate and coordinate mismatch repair in species ranging from bacteria to humans...
  20. Drotschmann K, Aronshtam A, Fritz H, Marinus M. The Escherichia coli MutL protein stimulates binding of Vsr and MutS to heteroduplex DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:948-53 pubmed
    ..MutS is part of the mutHLS repair system and binds to diverse mismatches in DNA. The function of the mutL gene product is currently unclear but mutations in the gene abolish mutHLS -dependent repair...
  21. Rye P, Delaney J, Netirojjanakul C, Sun D, Liu J, Essigmann J. Mismatch repair proteins collaborate with methyltransferases in the repair of O(6)-methylguanine. DNA Repair (Amst). 2008;7:170-6 pubmed
    ..MTase repair of a single O(6)mG residue in cells deficient in individual mismatch repair proteins (Dam, MutH, MutS, MutL, or Vsr). We found that MTase repair in cells deficient in Dam or MutH showed wild-type levels of MTase repair...
  22. Li F, Liu Q, Chen Y, Yu Z, Zhang Z, Zhou Y, et al. Escherichia coli mismatch repair protein MutL interacts with the clamp loader subunits of DNA polymerase III. Mutat Res. 2008;637:101-10 pubmed
    ..The results showed that the MMR key protein MutL could directly interact with both the individual subunits delta, delta', and gamma and the complex of these ..
  23. Worth L, Clark S, Radman M, Modrich P. Mismatch repair proteins MutS and MutL inhibit RecA-catalyzed strand transfer between diverged DNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:3238-41 pubmed
    Bacterial mutS and mutL mutations confer large increases in recombination between sequences that are divergent by several percent at the nucleotide level, an effect attributed to a role for products of these genes in control of ..
  24. Feng G, Tsui H, Winkler M. Depletion of the cellular amounts of the MutS and MutH methyl-directed mismatch repair proteins in stationary-phase Escherichia coli K-12 cells. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:2388-96 pubmed
    The MutL, MutS, and MutH proteins mediate methyl-directed mismatch (MDM) repair and help to maintain chromosome stability in Escherichia coli...
  25. Toedt G, Krishnan R, Friedhoff P. Site-specific protein modification to identify the MutL interface of MutH. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:819-25 pubmed
    ..for the protein interaction site of the Escherichia coli mismatch repair protein MutH for its activator protein MutL by a site-specific protein modification approach...
  26. Mansour C, Doiron K, Cupples C. Characterization of functional interactions among the Escherichia coli mismatch repair proteins using a bacterial two-hybrid assay. Mutat Res. 2001;485:331-8 pubmed
    ..MutS and MutL, part of the post-replication mismatch repair system, stimulate VSP repair...
  27. Yamaguchi M, Dao V, Modrich P. MutS and MutL activate DNA helicase II in a mismatch-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:9197-201 pubmed
    MutS, MutL, and DNA helicase II are required for the mismatch-provoked excision step that occurs during Escherichia coli methyl-directed mismatch repair...
  28. Dao V, Modrich P. Mismatch-, MutS-, MutL-, and helicase II-dependent unwinding from the single-strand break of an incised heteroduplex. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:9202-7 pubmed
    Escherichia coli MutS, MutL, and DNA helicase II are sufficient to initiate mismatch-dependent unwinding of an incised heteroduplex (Yamaguchi, M., Dao, V., and Modrich, P. (1998) J. Biol. Chem., 273, 9197-9201)...
  29. Mechanic L, Frankel B, Matson S. Escherichia coli MutL loads DNA helicase II onto DNA. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:38337-46 pubmed
    Previous studies have shown that MutL physically interacts with UvrD (DNA helicase II) (Hall, M. C., Jordan, J. R., and Matson, S. W. (1998) EMBO J...
  30. Ban C, Junop M, Yang W. Transformation of MutL by ATP binding and hydrolysis: a switch in DNA mismatch repair. Cell. 1999;97:85-97 pubmed
    The MutL DNA mismatch repair protein has recently been shown to be an ATPase and to belong to an emerging ATPase superfamily that includes DNA topoisomerase II and Hsp90...
  31. Burdett V, Baitinger C, Viswanathan M, Lovett S, Modrich P. In vivo requirement for RecJ, ExoVII, ExoI, and ExoX in methyl-directed mismatch repair. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6765-70 pubmed
    ..phenotypes associated with 2-aminopurine exposure are effectively suppressed by null mutations in mutH, mutL, mutS, or uvrD/mutU, which encode activities that act upstream of the four exonucleases in the mechanism for the ..
  32. Schofield M, Hsieh P. DNA mismatch repair: molecular mechanisms and biological function. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2003;57:579-608 pubmed
    ..In addition to its role in postreplication repair, the MMR machinery serves to police homologous recombination events and acts as a barrier to genetic exchange between species. ..
  33. Schofield M, Nayak S, Scott T, Du C, Hsieh P. Interaction of Escherichia coli MutS and MutL at a DNA mismatch. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:28291-9 pubmed
    MutS and MutL are both required to activate downstream events in DNA mismatch repair...
  34. Lahue R, Au K, Modrich P. DNA mismatch correction in a defined system. Science. 1989;245:160-4 pubmed
    ..The Escherichia coli methyl-directed reaction has been reconstituted in a purified system consisting of MutH, MutL, and MutS proteins, DNA helicase II, single-strand DNA binding protein, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, exonuclease ..
  35. Hall M, Jordan J, Matson S. Evidence for a physical interaction between the Escherichia coli methyl-directed mismatch repair proteins MutL and UvrD. EMBO J. 1998;17:1535-41 pubmed
    ..Screening of an E.coli genomic library revealed a potential interaction between UvrD and MutL, a component of the methyl-directed mismatch repair pathway...
  36. Polosina Y, Cupples C. MutL: conducting the cell's response to mismatched and misaligned DNA. Bioessays. 2010;32:51-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We argue that MutL homologues play a key role in determining biologic outcome by recruiting and/or activating effector proteins in ..
  37. Winkler I, Marx A, Lariviere D, Heinze R, Cristovao M, Reumer A, et al. Chemical trapping of the dynamic MutS-MutL complex formed in DNA mismatch repair in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:17326-37 pubmed publisher
    The ternary complex comprising MutS, MutL, and DNA is a key intermediate in DNA mismatch repair...
  38. Nowosielska A, Marinus M. Cisplatin induces DNA double-strand break formation in Escherichia coli dam mutants. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:773-81 pubmed
    Escherichia coli dam cells are more susceptible to the cytotoxic action of cisplatin than wildtype. Dam mutS or dam mutL bacteria, however, are resistant to this agent indicating that active mismatch repair sensitizes dam cells to ..
  39. Siegel E, Bryson V. Mutator gene of Escherichia coli B. J Bacteriol. 1967;94:38-47 pubmed
    ..No suppression was found. Recombinants were prepared containing mutS1 and the Treffers mutator gene of E. coli K-12. The effect of the mutator genes appears to be additive. ..
  40. Polosina Y, Mui J, Pitsikas P, Cupples C. The Escherichia coli mismatch repair protein MutL recruits the Vsr and MutH endonucleases in response to DNA damage. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:4041-3 pubmed publisher
    The activities of the Vsr and MutH endonucleases of Escherichia coli are stimulated by MutL. The interaction of MutL with each enzyme is enhanced in vivo by 2-aminopurine treatment and by inactivation of the mutY gene...
  41. Flores M, Bidnenko V, Michel B. The DNA repair helicase UvrD is essential for replication fork reversal in replication mutants. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:983-8 pubmed
    ..coli polymerase III mutants, whereas its partners in DNA repair (UvrA/B and MutL/S) are not. We conclude that UvrD participates in replication fork reversal in E. coli.
  42. Hu X, Machius M, Yang W. Monovalent cation dependence and preference of GHKL ATPases and kinases. FEBS Lett. 2003;544:268-73 pubmed
    ..motifs that form the ATP-binding site, consists of the ATPase domains of type II DNA topoisomerases, Hsp90, and MutL, and bacterial and mitochondrial protein kinases...
  43. Park J, Jeon Y, In D, Fishel R, Ban C, Lee J. Single-molecule analysis reveals the kinetics and physiological relevance of MutL-ssDNA binding. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15496 pubmed publisher
    DNA binding by MutL homologs (MLH/PMS) during mismatch repair (MMR) has been considered based on biochemical and genetic studies...
  44. Costantino N, Court D. Enhanced levels of lambda Red-mediated recombinants in mismatch repair mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15748-53 pubmed
    ..Our results show that Beta is the only bacteriophage function required for this level of recombination and suggest that Beta directs the ssDNA to the replication fork as it passes the target sequence. ..
  45. Polosina Y, Cupples C. Wot the 'L-Does MutL do?. Mutat Res. 2010;705:228-38 pubmed publisher
    ..In prokaryotic organisms, mispaired bases are recognized by MutS homologs which, together with MutL homologs, initiate mismatch repair...
  46. Tsui H, Feng G, Winkler M. Transcription of the mutL repair, miaA tRNA modification, hfq pleiotropic regulator, and hflA region protease genes of Escherichia coli K-12 from clustered Esigma32-specific promoters during heat shock. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:5719-31 pubmed
    The amiB-mutL-miaA-hfq-hflX-hflK-hflC superoperon of Escherichia coli contains genes that are important for diverse cellular functions, including DNA mismatch repair (mutL), tRNA modification (miaA), pleiotropic regulation (hfq), and ..
  47. Helling R. Selection of a mutant of Escherichia coli which has high mutation rates. J Bacteriol. 1968;96:975-80 pubmed
    ..This mutation (mut-2) and the Treffers' mutation (mutT1) mapped at approximately the same position to the right of leu. Specificity studies showed that the two mutations differ in rates of mutation produced. ..
  48. An L, Tang W, Ranalli T, Kim H, Wytiaz J, Kong H. Characterization of a thermostable UvrD helicase and its participation in helicase-dependent amplification. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:28952-8 pubmed
    ..HDA (mHDA) utilizing the Escherichia coli UvrD helicase, DNA polymerase I Klenow fragment, two accessory proteins, MutL and single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB), was developed (1)...
  49. Pluciennik A, Burdett V, Lukianova O, O Donnell M, Modrich P. Involvement of the beta clamp in methyl-directed mismatch repair in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:32782-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The mismatch-, MutS-, and MutL-dependent activation of MutH is unaffected by the presence or orientation of loaded beta clamp on either 3' or 5' ..
  50. Pillon M, Miller J, Guarné A. The endonuclease domain of MutL interacts with the ? sliding clamp. DNA Repair (Amst). 2011;10:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Both MutS and MutL, the two proteins that initiate the mismatch repair response, interact with ?...
  51. Heo S, Ku J, Ban C. Effect of E. coli MutL on the steady-state ATPase activity of MutS in the presence of short blocked end DNAs. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;385:225-9 pubmed publisher
    The effect of wild-type and mutant MutL on the steady-state ATPase activity of MutS from Escherichia coli has been investigated in the absence and presence of 22, 50, and 75 base pair hetero- and homoduplex DNAs with open and blocked ends...
  52. Heinze R, Giron Monzon L, Solovyova A, Elliot S, Geisler S, Cupples C, et al. Physical and functional interactions between Escherichia coli MutL and the Vsr repair endonuclease. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:4453-63 pubmed publisher
    ..and cooperation between these two repair pathways, we analyzed the physical and functional interaction between MutL and Vsr using biophysical and biochemical methods...
  53. Liu J, Hanne J, Britton B, Bennett J, Kim D, Lee J, et al. Cascading MutS and MutL sliding clamps control DNA diffusion to activate mismatch repair. Nature. 2016;539:583-587 pubmed publisher
    ..Highly conserved MutS (MSH) and MutL (MLH/PMS) homologues initiate mismatch repair and, in higher eukaryotes, act as DNA damage sensors that can trigger ..
  54. Elez M, Radman M, Matic I. Stoichiometry of MutS and MutL at unrepaired mismatches in vivo suggests a mechanism of repair. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:3929-38 pubmed publisher
    ..MutS recognizes and binds base pair mismatches, while the MutL protein interacts with MutS-mismatch complex and triggers MutH endonuclease activity at a distal-strand ..
  55. Bourn R, Rindler P, Pollard L, Bidichandani S. E. coli mismatch repair acts downstream of replication fork stalling to stabilize the expanded (GAA.TTC)(n) sequence. Mutat Res. 2009;661:71-7 pubmed publisher
    ..While MMR destabilizes the (CTG.CAG)(n) sequence, it is involved in stabilization of the (GAA.TTC)(n) sequence. The role of MMR in triplet repeat instability therefore depends on the repeat sequence and the orientation of replication. ..
  56. Yang H, To K, Aguila S, Miller J. Metagenomic DNA fragments that affect Escherichia coli mutational pathways. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:960-77 pubmed
    ..coli host and the effect can be suppressed by overproducing a DNA mismatch component MutL. In addition, we identified nine metagenomic mutator genes (designated as smu genes) that encode proteins that have ..
  57. Hong E, Yeung A, Funchain P, Slupska M, Miller J. Mutants with temperature-sensitive defects in the Escherichia coli mismatch repair system: sensitivity to mispairs generated in vivo. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:840-6 pubmed
    ..We detected and sequenced mutations that give rise to temperature-sensitive MutS, MutL, and MutH proteins...
  58. Li X, Costantino N, Lu L, Liu D, Watt R, Cheah K, et al. Identification of factors influencing strand bias in oligonucleotide-mediated recombination in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6674-87 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate for the first time that the interplay between DNA replication and MMR has a major effect on the efficiency and strand bias of Red/SSO-mediated recombination in E.coli. ..
  59. Shaver A, Sniegowski P. Spontaneously arising mutL mutators in evolving Escherichia coli populations are the result of changes in repeat length. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:6076-82 pubmed
    ..the mutations responsible for this increased mutation rate lie in the same region of the mismatch repair gene mutL. In this region, a 6-bp repeat is present in three copies in the gene of the wild-type ancestor of the experimental ..
  60. Tannenbaum E, Deeds E, Shakhnovich E. Equilibrium distribution of mutators in the single fitness peak model. Phys Rev Lett. 2003;91:138105 pubmed
    ..The repair catastrophe therefore occurs when the repair error probability exceeds the fraction of deleterious mutations. Our model also gives a quantitative estimate for the equilibrium fraction of mutators in Escherichia coli. ..
  61. Galio L, Bouquet C, Brooks P. ATP hydrolysis-dependent formation of a dynamic ternary nucleoprotein complex with MutS and MutL. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999;27:2325-31 pubmed
    Functional interactions of Escherichia coli MutS and MutL in mismatch repair are dependent on ATP...
  62. Glickman B, Radman M. Escherichia coli mutator mutants deficient in methylation-instructed DNA mismatch correction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980;77:1063-7 pubmed
    ..These new mutators all mapped at three known mutator loci, mutH, mutL, and mutS, which exhibit the same mutagenic spectrum as the dam- mutator: increased levels of base substitution and ..
  63. Cox E, Gibson T. Selection for high mutation rates in chemostats. Genetics. 1974;77:169-84 pubmed
    ..Fitness values vary between chemostats and are strongly correlated (P < 0.001) with fluctuations in population density. ..
  64. Tsui H, Leung H, Winkler M. Characterization of broadly pleiotropic phenotypes caused by an hfq insertion mutation in Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Microbiol. 1994;13:35-49 pubmed
    ..Together, these results show that hfq function plays a fundamental role in Escherichia coli physiology and that hfq and the hflA-region are in the amiB-mutL-miaA-hfq-hflX superoperon.
  65. Guarné A, Charbonnier J. Insights from a decade of biophysical studies on MutL: Roles in strand discrimination and mismatch removal. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2015;117:149-156 pubmed publisher
    ..The coordinated actions of two proteins (MutS and MutL) initiate the mismatch repair response and defects in the genes encoding for these proteins have been linked to ..