Gene Symbol: murG
Description: N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase
Alias: ECK0091, JW0088
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Mengin Lecreulx D, Texier L, Rousseau M, van Heijenoort J. The murG gene of Escherichia coli codes for the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: N-acetylmuramyl-(pentapeptide) pyrophosphoryl-undecaprenol N-acetylglucosamine transferase involved in the membrane steps of peptidoglycan synthesis. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:4625-36 pubmed
    Physiological properties of the murG gene product of Escherichia coli were investigated. The inactivation of the murG gene rapidly inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis in exponentially growing cells...
  2. Ravishankar S, Kumar V, Chandrakala B, Jha R, Solapure S, de Sousa S. Scintillation proximity assay for inhibitors of Escherichia coli MurG and, optionally, MraY. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:1410-8 pubmed
    b>MurG and MraY, essential enzymes involved in the synthesis of bacterial peptidoglycan, are difficult to assay because the substrates are lipidic and hard to prepare in large quantities...
  3. Crouvoisier M, Mengin Lecreulx D, van Heijenoort J. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:N-acetylmuramoyl-(pentapeptide) pyrophosphoryl undecaprenol N-acetylglucosamine transferase from Escherichia coli: overproduction, solubilization, and purification. FEBS Lett. 1999;449:289-92 pubmed
    Plasmids for the high-level overproduction of wild-type, and C- and N-terminal His-tagged MurG N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase from Escherichia coli were constructed. In complementation tests the three forms were active in vivo...
  4. Liu H, Ritter T, Sadamoto R, Sears P, Wu M, Wong C. Acceptor specificity and inhibition of the bacterial cell-wall glycosyltransferase MurG. Chembiochem. 2003;4:603-9 pubmed
    ..fluorescence coupled enzyme assay was developed to study the acceptor specificity of the glycosyltransferase MurG toward different lipid I analogues with various substituents replacing the undecaprenyl moiety...
  5. Ha S, Gross B, Walker S. E. Coli MurG: a paradigm for a superfamily of glycosyltransferases. Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord. 2001;1:201-13 pubmed
    b>MurG is an essential bacterial glycosyltransferase that is involved in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan. The enzyme is found in all organisms that synthesize peptidoglycan and is a target for the design of new antibiotics...
  6. Hu Y, Chen L, Ha S, Gross B, Falcone B, Walker D, et al. Crystal structure of the MurG:UDP-GlcNAc complex reveals common structural principles of a superfamily of glycosyltransferases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:845-9 pubmed
    b>MurG is an essential glycosyltransferase that forms the glycosidic linkage between N-acetyl muramyl pentapeptide and N-acetyl glucosamine in the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall...
  7. Auger G, van Heijenoort J, Mengin Lecreulx D, Blanot D. A MurG assay which utilises a synthetic analogue of lipid I. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;219:115-9 pubmed
    A standard assay for the MurG enzyme using a lipid I analogue [MurNAc(N(epsilon)-dansylpentapeptide)-pyrophosphoryl (R,S)-alpha-dihydroheptaprenol] and radioactive UDP-N-acetylglucosamine was set up...
  8. Zawadzke L, Wu P, Cook L, Fan L, Casperson M, Kishnani M, et al. Targeting the MraY and MurG bacterial enzymes for antimicrobial therapeutic intervention. Anal Biochem. 2003;314:243-52 pubmed
    ..The MraY and MurG enzymes were overexpressed and purified as the membrane fraction or to homogeneity, respectively...
  9. van den Brink van der Laan E, Boots J, Spelbrink R, Kool G, Breukink E, Killian J, et al. Membrane interaction of the glycosyltransferase MurG: a special role for cardiolipin. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:3773-9 pubmed
    b>MurG is a peripheral membrane protein that is one of the key enzymes in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli MurG (S. Ha, D. Walker, Y. Shi, and S. Walker, Protein Sci...

More Information


  1. Bupp K, van Heijenoort J. The final step of peptidoglycan subunit assembly in Escherichia coli occurs in the cytoplasm. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:1841-3 pubmed
    The murG gene of Escherichia coli encodes the N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase responsible for the final step in the formation of the lipid-linked disaccharide-pentapeptide subunit of peptidoglycan...
  2. Ha S, Walker D, Shi Y, Walker S. The 1.9 A crystal structure of Escherichia coli MurG, a membrane-associated glycosyltransferase involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Protein Sci. 2000;9:1045-52 pubmed
    ..This enzyme, MurG, contains two alpha/beta open sheet domains separated by a deep cleft...
  3. Salmond G, Lutkenhaus J, Donachie W. Identification of new genes in a cell envelope-cell division gene cluster of Escherichia coli: cell envelope gene murG. J Bacteriol. 1980;144:438-40 pubmed
    We report the identification, cloning, and mapping of a new cell envelope gene, murG. This lies in a group of five genes of similar phenotype (in the order murE murF murG murC ddl) all concerned with peptidoglycan biosynthesis...
  4. Hu Y, Helm J, Chen L, Ginsberg C, Gross B, Kraybill B, et al. Identification of selective inhibitors for the glycosyltransferase MurG via high-throughput screening. Chem Biol. 2004;11:703-11 pubmed
    ..We have applied the screen to E. coli MurG, an enzyme that is both a potential antibiotic target and a paradigm for a large family of glycosyltransferases...
  5. van Dam V, Sijbrandi R, Kol M, Swiezewska E, de Kruijff B, Breukink E. Transmembrane transport of peptidoglycan precursors across model and bacterial membranes. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:1105-14 pubmed
    ..b>MurG catalysed synthesis of Lipid II from Lipid I in lipid vesicles also did not result in membrane translocation of ..
  6. Jung H, Ishino F, Matsuhashi M. Inhibition of growth of ftsQ, ftsA, and ftsZ mutant cells of Escherichia coli by amplification of a chromosomal region encompassing closely aligned cell division and cell growth genes. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:6379-82 pubmed
    ..coli strains with mutations of the flanking cell division genes ftsQ, ftsA, and ftsZ. A shortened fragment in which the major portion of ftsI was deleted also had lethal effects on ftsQ and ftsZ mutants. ..
  7. Ikeda M, Wachi M, Jung H, Ishino F, Matsuhashi M. Nucleotide sequence involving murG and murC in the mra gene cluster region of Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:4014 pubmed
  8. Sun D, Cohen S, Mani N, Murphy C, Rothstein D. A pathway-specific cell based screening system to detect bacterial cell wall inhibitors. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2002;55:279-87 pubmed the direct result of cell wall inhibition, a host strain carrying a temperature-sensitive mutation in the murG gene, whose product converts the cell wall intermediate Lipid I, to Lipid II, also induced beta-lactamase at the ..
  9. Crouvoisier M, Auger G, Blanot D, Mengin Lecreulx D. Role of the amino acid invariants in the active site of MurG as evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis. Biochimie. 2007;89:1498-508 pubmed
    To evaluate their role in the active site of the MurG enzyme from Escherichia coli, 13 residues conserved in the sequences of 73 MurG orthologues were submitted to site-directed mutagenesis...
  10. Wrabl J, Grishin N. Homology between O-linked GlcNAc transferases and proteins of the glycogen phosphorylase superfamily. J Mol Biol. 2001;314:365-74 pubmed
    ..proteins with known structure such as glycogen phosphorylase, UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase, and the glycosyl transferase MurG. This relationship, in conjunction with amino acid similarity spanning the entire length of the sequence, implies ..
  11. Cudic P, Behenna D, Yu M, Kruger R, Szewczuk L, McCafferty D. Synthesis of P(1)-Citronellyl-P(2)-alpha-D-pyranosyl pyrophosphates as potential substrates for the E. coli undecaprenyl-pyrophosphoryl-N-acetylglucoseaminyl transferase MurG. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2001;11:3107-10 pubmed
    ..carbohydrates were synthesized and used in substrate specificity studies of the Escherichia coli MurG enzyme...
  12. Branstrom A, Midha S, Longley C, Han K, Baizman E, Axelrod H. Assay for identification of inhibitors for bacterial MraY translocase or MurG transferase. Anal Biochem. 2000;280:315-9 pubmed
    ..Formation of the peptidoglycan precursors Lipid I and Lipid II is catalyzed by the gene products of mraY and murG, which are involved in the first and second steps of the lipid cycle reactions, respectively...
  13. Chen L, Men H, Ha S, Ye X, Brunner L, Hu Y, et al. Intrinsic lipid preferences and kinetic mechanism of Escherichia coli MurG. Biochemistry. 2002;41:6824-33 pubmed
    b>MurG, the last enzyme involved in the intracellular phase of peptidoglycan synthesis, is a membrane-associated glycosyltransferase that couples N-acetyl glucosamine to the C4 hydroxyl of a lipid-linked N-acetyl muramic acid derivative (..
  14. Li J, Bugg T. A fluorescent analogue of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: application for FRET assay of peptidoglycan translocase II (MurG). Chem Commun (Camb). 2004;:182-3 pubmed
    A direct continuous fluorescence assay for translocase II MurG based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) has been developed using a 6-substituted fluorescent analogue of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine.
  15. Mengin Lecreulx D, Ayala J, Bouhss A, van Heijenoort J, Parquet C, Hara H. Contribution of the Pmra promoter to expression of genes in the Escherichia coli mra cluster of cell envelope biosynthesis and cell division genes. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:4406-12 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, three- to sixfold-decreased levels of MurG and MurC enzymes were observed in uninduced Pmra::Plac cells...
  16. Mengin Lecreulx D, Texier L, van Heijenoort J. Nucleotide sequence of the cell-envelope murG gene of Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:2810 pubmed
  17. Mohammadi T, Karczmarek A, Crouvoisier M, Bouhss A, Mengin Lecreulx D, Den Blaauwen T. The essential peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase MurG forms a complex with proteins involved in lateral envelope growth as well as with proteins involved in cell division in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2007;65:1106-21 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli many enzymes including MurG are directly involved in the synthesis and assembly of peptidoglycan. MurG is an essential glycosyltransferase catalysing the last intracellular step of peptidoglycan synthesis...
  18. Xu H, Real L, Bailey M. An array of Escherichia coli clones over-expressing essential proteins: a new strategy of identifying cellular targets of potent antibacterial compounds. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;349:1250-7 pubmed
    ..Target identification via target protein over-expression was demonstrated using both mixed clone and individual clone assay formats. ..
  19. Hara H, Yasuda S, Horiuchi K, Park J. A promoter for the first nine genes of the Escherichia coli mra cluster of cell division and cell envelope biosynthesis genes, including ftsI and ftsW. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:5802-11 pubmed
    ..Although several potential promoter sequences in this region of the mra cluster have been reported, we conclude that the promoter identified in this study is required for the first nine genes of the cluster to be fully expressed. ..
  20. Zheng Y, Roberts R, Kasif S. Segmentally variable genes: a new perspective on adaptation. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E81 pubmed
    ..Discerning their function and identifying their binding partners may offer biologists new insights into the basic mechanisms of adaptation, context-dependent evolution, and the interaction between microbes and their environment. ..
  21. Hyland S, Anderson M. A high-throughput solid-phase extraction assay capable of measuring diverse polyprenyl phosphate: sugar-1-phosphate transferases as exemplified by the WecA, MraY, and MurG proteins. Anal Biochem. 2003;317:156-65 pubmed
    ..This possibility is exemplified by the MurG protein of bacterial cell wall synthesis, which catalyzes the addition of an N-acetylglucosamine residue to the ..
  22. Unligil U, Rini J. Glycosyltransferase structure and mechanism. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2000;10:510-7 pubmed
    ..X-ray crystal structures of a new form of bacteriophage T4 beta-glucosyltransferase, Escherichia coli MurG, Bacillus subtilis SpsA, bovine beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 and rabbit N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I have ..
  23. Vicente M, Gomez M, Ayala J. Regulation of transcription of cell division genes in the Escherichia coli dcw cluster. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1998;54:317-24 pubmed
  24. Mengin Lecreulx D, Parquet C, Desviat L, Pla J, Flouret B, Ayala J, et al. Organization of the murE-murG region of Escherichia coli: identification of the murD gene encoding the D-glutamic-acid-adding enzyme. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:6126-34 pubmed
    ..Our data show that the genes are in the order pbpB-murE-murF-X-murD-Y-murG, where X and Y represent chromosomal fragments from 1 to 1.5 kilobase pairs, possibly coding for unknown proteins...
  25. Chandrakala B, Elias B, Mehra U, Umapathy N, Dwarakanath P, Balganesh T, et al. Novel scintillation proximity assay for measuring membrane-associated steps of peptidoglycan biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:768-75 pubmed
    ..The assay monitors the activity of the translocase (MraY), the transferase (MurG), the lipid pyrophosphorylase, and the transglycosylase and transpeptidase activities of the penicillin-binding ..
  26. Barbosa M, Ross H, Hillman M, Meade R, Kurilla M, Pompliano D. A multitarget assay for inhibitors of membrane-associated steps of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Anal Biochem. 2002;306:17-22 pubmed
    ..UDP-GlcNAc is also utilized as substrate for the glycosyltransferase MurG, a membrane-bound enzyme that catalyzes the production of lipid II...