mechanosensitive channel


Gene Symbol: mechanosensitive channel
Description: mechanosensitive channel protein, small conductance
Alias: ECK2920, JW2891, yggB
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Belyy V, Anishkin A, Kamaraju K, Liu N, Sukharev S. The tension-transmitting 'clutch' in the mechanosensitive channel MscS. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:451-8 pubmed publisher
    Under prolonged stimulation, the mechanosensitive channel MscS of Escherichia coli enters a tension-insensitive inactivated state...
  2. Edwards M, Li Y, Kim S, Miller S, Bartlett W, Black S, et al. Pivotal role of the glycine-rich TM3 helix in gating the MscS mechanosensitive channel. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:113-9 pubmed
    The crystal structure of an open form of the Escherichia coli MscS mechanosensitive channel was recently solved. However, the conformation of the closed state and the gating transition remain uncharacterized...
  3. Perozo E, Rees D. Structure and mechanism in prokaryotic mechanosensitive channels. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2003;13:432-42 pubmed
    ..Recent functional, structural and dynamic data offer fresh insights into the molecular basis of gating for these membrane proteins. ..
  4. Wang W, Black S, Edwards M, Miller S, Morrison E, Bartlett W, et al. The structure of an open form of an E. coli mechanosensitive channel at 3.45 A resolution. Science. 2008;321:1179-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The Escherichia coli mechanosensitive channel, MscS, opens to allow rapid ion efflux, relieving the turgor pressure that would otherwise destroy the ..
  5. Anishkin A, Akitake B, Sukharev S. Characterization of the resting MscS: modeling and analysis of the closed bacterial mechanosensitive channel of small conductance. Biophys J. 2008;94:1252-66 pubmed
    ..From this closed-resting conformation, the TM3 helices must expand to allow for channel opening. ..
  6. Sukharev S, Martinac B, Arshavsky V, Kung C. Two types of mechanosensitive channels in the Escherichia coli cell envelope: solubilization and functional reconstitution. Biophys J. 1993;65:177-83 pubmed
  7. Balleza D, Gomez Lagunas F. Conserved motifs in mechanosensitive channels MscL and MscS. Eur Biophys J. 2009;38:1013-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the conservation in MscL homologs is high for TM1 and TM2 in the three domains of life. The conservation in MscS homologs is high only for TM3 in Bacteria and Archaea. ..
  8. Sotomayor M, van der Straaten T, Ravaioli U, Schulten K. Electrostatic properties of the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance MscS. Biophys J. 2006;90:3496-510 pubmed
    The mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) belongs to a family of membrane proteins that are gated in response to changes in membrane tension, thereby protecting the cell from hypo-osmotic shock...
  9. Bass R, Strop P, Barclay M, Rees D. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli MscS, a voltage-modulated and mechanosensitive channel. Science. 2002;298:1582-7 pubmed
    The mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) responds both to stretching of the cell membrane and to membrane depolarization. The crystal structure at 3...

More Information


  1. Grajkowski W, Kubalski A, Koprowski P. Surface changes of the mechanosensitive channel MscS upon its activation, inactivation, and closing. Biophys J. 2005;88:3050-9 pubmed
    MscS is a bacterial mechanosensitive channel that shows voltage dependence. The crystal structure of MscS revealed that the channel is a homoheptamer with a large chamber on the intracellular site...
  2. Okada K, Moe P, Blount P. Functional design of bacterial mechanosensitive channels. Comparisons and contrasts illuminated by random mutagenesis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:27682-8 pubmed
    ..Previously, it was shown that eliminating the expression of Escherichia coli yggB removed a major portion of MscS activity. YggB is distinct from MscL by having no obvious structural similarity...
  3. Martinac B. Mechanosensitive ion channels: molecules of mechanotransduction. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:2449-60 pubmed
    ..Moreover, cloning and sequencing of MS channels from several species has provided insights into their evolution, their physiological functions in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and their potential roles in the pathology of disease. ..
  4. Schumann U, Edwards M, Li C, Booth I. The conserved carboxy-terminus of the MscS mechanosensitive channel is not essential but increases stability and activity. FEBS Lett. 2004;572:233-7 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli MscS mechanosensitive channel protein has a distinct domain structure that terminates in a conserved seven-strand beta barrel...
  5. Booth I, Louis P. Managing hypoosmotic stress: aquaporins and mechanosensitive channels in Escherichia coli. Curr Opin Microbiol. 1999;2:166-9 pubmed
    ..The isolation of specific mutations and the structural studies on MscL now pave the way to a molecular understanding of the mechanism of activation of mechanosensitive channels. ..
  6. Li Y, Moe P, Chandrasekaran S, Booth I, Blount P. Ionic regulation of MscK, a mechanosensitive channel from Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 2002;21:5323-30 pubmed
    Three gene products that form independent mechanosensitive channel activities have been identified in Escherichia coli. Two of these, MscL and MscS, play a vital role in allowing the cell to survive acute hypotonic stress...
  7. Edwards M, Booth I, Miller S. Gating the bacterial mechanosensitive channels: MscS a new paradigm?. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2004;7:163-7 pubmed
    ..Discovery of the gene for a second class of mechanosensitive channel, MscS, and its subsequent crystallisation, has provided a new paradigm for mechanosensation, enabling a ..
  8. Haswell E, Meyerowitz E. MscS-like proteins control plastid size and shape in Arabidopsis thaliana. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1-11 pubmed
    ..We propose that MscS family members have evolved new roles in plants since the endosymbiotic event that gave rise to plastids. ..
  9. Sotomayor M, Vásquez V, Perozo E, Schulten K. Ion conduction through MscS as determined by electrophysiology and simulation. Biophys J. 2007;92:886-902 pubmed
    The mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) is a membrane protein thought to act as a safety valve in bacteria, regulating the release of ions and small solutes when gated by membrane tension under challenging osmotic ..
  10. Berrier C, Coulombe A, Houssin C, Ghazi A. A patch-clamp study of ion channels of inner and outer membranes and of contact zones of E. coli, fused into giant liposomes. Pressure-activated channels are localized in the inner membrane. FEBS Lett. 1989;259:27-32 pubmed
    ..The outer membrane contained pressure-insensitive channels with large conductances and long opening and closing times which are likely to be porins. Large channels were also observed in contact zones. ..
  11. Shapovalov G, Lester H. Gating transitions in bacterial ion channels measured at 3 microns resolution. J Gen Physiol. 2004;124:151-61 pubmed
  12. Vora T, Corry B, Chung S. Brownian dynamics investigation into the conductance state of the MscS channel crystal structure. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1758:730-7 pubmed
    We suggest that the crystal structure of the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance is in a minimally conductive state rather than being fully activated...
  13. Pivetti C, Yen M, Miller S, Busch W, Tseng Y, Booth I, et al. Two families of mechanosensitive channel proteins. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2003;67:66-85, table of contents pubmed
    ..The presence of a conserved residue pattern for the putative channel-forming TMSs in the MscL and MscS family proteins suggests a common structural organization, gating mechanism, and evolutionary origin. ..
  14. Koprowski P, Kubalski A. C termini of the Escherichia coli mechanosensitive ion channel (MscS) move apart upon the channel opening. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:11237-45 pubmed
    Heptameric YggB is a mechanosensitive ion channel (MscS) from the inner membrane of Escherichia coli...
  15. Anishkin A, Sukharev S. Water dynamics and dewetting transitions in the small mechanosensitive channel MscS. Biophys J. 2004;86:2883-95 pubmed
    ..The recently solved heptameric structure of the small mechanosensitive channel of Escherichia coli, MscS, has revealed a relatively wide (7-15 A) yet highly hydrophobic transmembrane ..
  16. McLaggan D, Jones M, Gouesbet G, Levina N, Lindey S, Epstein W, et al. Analysis of the kefA2 mutation suggests that KefA is a cation-specific channel involved in osmotic adaptation in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:521-36 pubmed
    ..organization of the KefA protein and the phenotype of a missense mutation, kefA, which affects the KefA mechanosensitive channel. The altered function of the channel is manifest through increased sensitivity to K+ during growth at low ..
  17. Spronk S, Elmore D, Dougherty D. Voltage-dependent hydration and conduction properties of the hydrophobic pore of the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance. Biophys J. 2006;90:3555-69 pubmed
    ..This mechanism has been implicated in the gating of several channels, including the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS)...
  18. Miller S, Edwards M, Ozdemir C, Booth I. The closed structure of the MscS mechanosensitive channel. Cross-linking of single cysteine mutants. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:32246-50 pubmed
    ..The data are also consistent with significant flexibility of the cytoplasmic domain. ..
  19. Chiang C, Anishkin A, Sukharev S. Gating of the large mechanosensitive channel in situ: estimation of the spatial scale of the transition from channel population responses. Biophys J. 2004;86:2846-61 pubmed
    ..Using the all-point histogram method and calibrating tension against the threshold for the small mechanosensitive channel (MscS) in each patch, we found that the distribution of channels among the subconducting states is ..
  20. Blount P, Moe P. Bacterial mechanosensitive channels: integrating physiology, structure and function. Trends Microbiol. 1999;7:420-4 pubmed
    ..Mutagenesis of one of these channels, combined with structural information derived from X-ray crystallography, has given the first clues of how a mechanosensitive channel senses and responds to membrane tension.
  21. Levina N, Tötemeyer S, Stokes N, Louis P, Jones M, Booth I. Protection of Escherichia coli cells against extreme turgor by activation of MscS and MscL mechanosensitive channels: identification of genes required for MscS activity. EMBO J. 1999;18:1730-7 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the characterization of a new gene family required for MscS function, YggB and KefA, which has enabled a rigorous test of the role of the channels...
  22. Anishkin A, Kamaraju K, Sukharev S. Mechanosensitive channel MscS in the open state: modeling of the transition, explicit simulations, and experimental measurements of conductance. J Gen Physiol. 2008;132:67-83 pubmed publisher
  23. Sukharev S. Purification of the small mechanosensitive channel of Escherichia coli (MscS): the subunit structure, conduction, and gating characteristics in liposomes. Biophys J. 2002;83:290-8 pubmed
    The small mechanosensitive channel, MscS, is a part of the turgor-driven solute efflux system that protects bacteria from lysis in the event of osmotic downshift...
  24. Sotomayor M, Schulten K. Molecular dynamics study of gating in the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance MscS. Biophys J. 2004;87:3050-65 pubmed
    ..MscS, the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance, is found in the inner membrane of Escherichia coli and its crystallographic ..
  25. Vásquez V, Sotomayor M, Cortes D, Roux B, Schulten K, Perozo E. Three-dimensional architecture of membrane-embedded MscS in the closed conformation. J Mol Biol. 2008;378:55-70 pubmed publisher
    The mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) is part of a coordinated response to osmotic challenges in Escherichia coli...
  26. Akitake B, Anishkin A, Sukharev S. The "dashpot" mechanism of stretch-dependent gating in MscS. J Gen Physiol. 2005;125:143-54 pubmed
    The crystal structure of the small conductance mechanosensitive channel (MscS) has been an invaluable tool in the search for the gating mechanism, however many functional aspects of the channel remain unsettled...
  27. Akitake B, Anishkin A, Liu N, Sukharev S. Straightening and sequential buckling of the pore-lining helices define the gating cycle of MscS. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:1141-9 pubmed
    We describe a mechanism connecting the adaptive behavior of the bacterial mechanosensitive channel MscS to the flexibility of the pore-lining helix TM3...
  28. Kamaraju K, Sukharev S. The membrane lateral pressure-perturbing capacity of parabens and their effects on the mechanosensitive channel directly correlate with hydrophobicity. Biochemistry. 2008;47:10540-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe effects of ethyl, propyl, and butyl parabens on the gating of the bacterial mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) and compare them with the surface activity and lateral pressure changes ..
  29. Rasmussen A, Rasmussen T, Edwards M, Schauer D, Schumann U, Miller S, et al. The role of tryptophan residues in the function and stability of the mechanosensitive channel MscS from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2007;46:10899-908 pubmed
    ..The data point to a significant role for W16 in the gating of MscS, and an essential role for W240 in MscS oligomer stability. ..
  30. Malcolm H, Blount P. Mutations in a Conserved Domain of E. coli MscS to the Most Conserved Superfamily Residue Leads to Kinetic Changes. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0136756 pubmed publisher
    In Escherichia coli (E. coli) the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance, MscS, gates in response to membrane tension created from acute external hypoosmotic shock, thus rescuing the bacterium from cell lysis. E...
  31. Hurst A, Gottlieb P, Martinac B. Concentration dependent effect of GsMTx4 on mechanosensitive channels of small conductance in E. coli spheroplasts. Eur Biophys J. 2009;38:415-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, application of peptide at concentrations of 12 and 20 microM facilitated prokaryotic MS channel opening by increasing the pressure sensitivity...
  32. Martinac B. Mechanosensitive channels in prokaryotes. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2001;11:61-76 pubmed
    ..Therefore, throughout this review prokaryotic MS ion channels are referred to as MS channels rather than MS ion channels. ..
  33. Vásquez V, Cortes D, Furukawa H, Perozo E. An optimized purification and reconstitution method for the MscS channel: strategies for spectroscopical analysis. Biochemistry. 2007;46:6766-73 pubmed
    The mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) plays a critical role in the osmoregulation of prokaryotic cells...
  34. Nguyen T, Clare B, Guo W, Martinac B. The effects of parabens on the mechanosensitive channels of E. coli. Eur Biophys J. 2005;34:389-95 pubmed
    ..In this study we examined the effects of ethyl and propyl paraben, on gating of the E. coli mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) reconstituted into azolectin liposomes...
  35. Machiyama H, Tatsumi H, Sokabe M. Structural changes in the cytoplasmic domain of the mechanosensitive channel MscS during opening. Biophys J. 2009;97:1048-57 pubmed publisher
    The bacterial mechanosensitive channel MscS forms a homoheptamer of subunits composed of a transmembrane (TM) domain and a large cytoplasmic (CP) domain...
  36. Naismith J, Booth I. Bacterial mechanosensitive channels--MscS: evolution's solution to creating sensitivity in function. Annu Rev Biophys. 2012;41:157-77 pubmed publisher
    The discovery of mechanosensing channels has changed our understanding of bacterial physiology. The mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) is perhaps the most intensively studied of these channels...
  37. Akitake B, Spelbrink R, Anishkin A, Killian J, de Kruijff B, Sukharev S. 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol changes the transition kinetics and subunit interactions in the small bacterial mechanosensitive channel MscS. Biophys J. 2007;92:2771-84 pubmed
    ..One of these was the homo-heptameric stretch-activated mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS), a ubiquitous component of the bacterial turgor-regulation system...
  38. Bass R, Locher K, Borths E, Poon Y, Strop P, Lee A, et al. The structures of BtuCD and MscS and their implications for transporter and channel function. FEBS Lett. 2003;555:111-5 pubmed
    ..aspects of the structure and mechanism of two bacterial transport systems, the stretch-activated mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) and the ATP-dependent vitamin B12 uptake system (BtuCD), emphasizing their ..
  39. Bezanilla F, Perozo E. Structural biology. Force and voltage sensors in one structure. Science. 2002;298:1562-3 pubmed
  40. Alefounder P, Perham R. Identification, molecular cloning and sequence analysis of a gene cluster encoding the class II fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase and a putative second glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1989;3:723-32 pubmed
    ..coli and which maps elsewhere on the chromosome. The products, if any, of several other open reading frames remain to be identified. ..
  41. Boucher P, Morris C, Joós B. Mechanosensitive closed-closed transitions in large membrane proteins: osmoprotection and tension damping. Biophys J. 2009;97:2761-70 pubmed publisher
    ..One spandex species could not excel as both first line of defense for osmovalve partners and tension damper. Possible interactions among MS closed-closed and closed-open transitions are discussed for MscS- and MscL-like proteins. ..
  42. Batiza A, Kuo M, Yoshimura K, Kung C. Gating the bacterial mechanosensitive channel MscL invivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:5643-8 pubmed
    b>YggB and MscL are the major mechanosensitive channels in Escherichia coli, and each can rescue the double knockout mutant from osmotic downshock...
  43. Anishkin A, Sukharev S. State-stabilizing Interactions in Bacterial Mechanosensitive Channel Gating and Adaptation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19153-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss physical factors that may direct the transitions and stabilize main functional states in these channels. ..
  44. Macdonald A, Martinac B. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the bacterial mechanosensitive channel MscS. Eur Biophys J. 2005;34:434-41 pubmed
    We have investigated the effect of high hydrostatic pressure on MscS, the bacterial mechanosensitive channel of small conductance. Pressure affected channel kinetics but not conductance...
  45. Kubalski A, Koprowski P. [Bacterial ion canals]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw. 2000;54:317-27 pubmed
    ..with structural information derived from X-ray crystalography, have brought the knowledge of how a mechanosensitive channel senses membrane tension...
  46. Nomura T, Cranfield C, Deplazes E, Owen D, Macmillan A, Battle A, et al. Differential effects of lipids and lyso-lipids on the mechanosensitivity of the mechanosensitive channels MscL and MscS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:8770-5 pubmed publisher
  47. Calladine C, Pratap V, Chandran V, Mizuguchi K, Luisi B. Cylindrical channels from concave helices. Science. 2003;299:661-2 pubmed
  48. Stokes N, Murray H, Subramaniam C, Gourse R, Louis P, Bartlett W, et al. A role for mechanosensitive channels in survival of stationary phase: regulation of channel expression by RpoS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15959-64 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that MscS and MscL are components of the RpoS regulon and play an important role in ensuring structural integrity in stationary phase bacteria. ..
  49. Nomura T, Sokabe M, Yoshimura K. Lipid-protein interaction of the MscS mechanosensitive channel examined by scanning mutagenesis. Biophys J. 2006;91:2874-81 pubmed
    The mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) is a bacterial mechanosensitive channel that opens in response to rapid hypoosmotic stress...
  50. Vásquez V, Sotomayor M, Cordero Morales J, Schulten K, Perozo E. A structural mechanism for MscS gating in lipid bilayers. Science. 2008;321:1210-4 pubmed publisher
    The mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) is a key determinant in the prokaryotic response to osmotic challenges...
  51. Strop P, Bass R, Rees D. Prokaryotic mechanosensitive channels. Adv Protein Chem. 2003;63:177-209 pubmed
  52. Biggin P, Sansom M. Mechanosensitive channels: stress relief. Curr Biol. 2003;13:R183-5 pubmed
    ..The crystal structure has been determined of the small conductance mechanosensitive channel (MscS) from Escherichia coli, providing new insights into mechanical and voltage sensing by this and ..
  53. Nomura T, Sokabe M, Yoshimura K. Voltage-Dependent Inactivation of MscS Occurs Independently of the Positively Charged Residues in the Transmembrane Domain. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:2401657 pubmed publisher
    MscS (mechanosensitive channel of small conductance) is ubiquitously found among bacteria and plays a major role in avoiding cell lysis upon rapid osmotic downshock...
  54. Martinac B. Structural plasticity in MS channels. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:104-5 pubmed
  55. Folgering J, Wolters J, Poolman B. Engineering covalent oligomers of the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance from Escherichia coli with native conductance and gating characteristics. Protein Sci. 2005;14:2947-54 pubmed
    ..construct for making single substitutions per channel and to determine the quaternary structure of the mechanosensitive channel MscL from Escherichia coli, covalent oligomers (monomer to hexamer) were engineered by gene fusion; up to ..
  56. Kung C, Blount P. Channels in microbes: so many holes to fill. Mol Microbiol. 2004;53:373-80 pubmed
    ..The intellectual and technical schisms between 'neuro' and 'micro' biology must be bridged before we know how we became so smart, and whether microbes are just as smart. ..
  57. Miller S, Bartlett W, Chandrasekaran S, Simpson S, Edwards M, Booth I. Domain organization of the MscS mechanosensitive channel of Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 2003;22:36-46 pubmed
    The major structural features of the Escherichia coli MscS mechanosensitive channel protein have been explored using alkaline phosphatase (PhoA) fusions, precise deletions and site-directed mutations...
  58. Corry B, Martinac B. Bacterial mechanosensitive channels: experiment and theory. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1778:1859-70 pubmed
  59. Kloda A, Martinac B. Mechanosensitive channels of bacteria and archaea share a common ancestral origin. Eur Biophys J. 2002;31:14-25 pubmed
    ..TM1 structural motifs and showed a high degree of se quence and secondary structure conservation with MscS (YggB) homologues...
  60. Clarkson S. Regulating osmosensing. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004;2:86-7 pubmed
  61. Lai J, Poon Y, Kaiser J, Rees D. Open and shut: crystal structures of the dodecylmaltoside solubilized mechanosensitive channel of small conductance from Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori at 4.4 Å and 4.1 Å resolutions. Protein Sci. 2013;22:502-9 pubmed publisher
    The mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) contributes to the survival of bacteria during osmotic downshock by transiently opening large diameter pores for the efflux of cellular contents before the membrane ruptures...