Gene Symbol: mdh
Description: malate dehydrogenase, NAD(P)-binding
Alias: ECK3225, JW3205
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     mdh

Top Publications

  1. Beloin C, Valle J, Latour Lambert P, Faure P, Kzreminski M, Balestrino D, et al. Global impact of mature biofilm lifestyle on Escherichia coli K-12 gene expression. Mol Microbiol. 2004;51:659-74 pubmed
    ..These results constitute a comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptional response triggered in mature E. coli biofilms and provide insights into its physiological signature. ..
  2. Kim Y, Park J, Cho J, Cho K, Park Y, Lee J. Proteomic response analysis of a threonine-overproducing mutant of Escherichia coli. Biochem J. 2004;381:823-9 pubmed
    ..coli mutant. ..
  3. Courtright J, Henning U. Malate dehydrogenase mutants in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1970;102:722-8 pubmed
    ..Malate dehydrogenase is coded for by a locus somewhere relatively near the histidine operon, i.e., a different chromosomal location than that known for other citric acid cycle enzymes. ..
  4. Kohanski M, Dwyer D, Hayete B, Lawrence C, Collins J. A common mechanism of cellular death induced by bactericidal antibiotics. Cell. 2007;130:797-810 pubmed
    ..g., reca. ..
  5. van der Rest M, Frank C, Molenaar D. Functions of the membrane-associated and cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenases in the citric acid cycle of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:6892-9 pubmed Escherichia coli can be catalyzed by two enzymes: the well-known NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH; EC and the membrane-associated malate:quinone-oxidoreductase (MQO; EC 1.1.99...
  6. Zaitseva J, Meneely K, Lamb A. Structure of Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase at 1.45 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2009;65:866-9 pubmed publisher
    ..6% (R(free) = 21.4%). The final model has two dimers in the asymmetric unit. In each dimer one monomer contains the active-site loop in the open conformation, whereas in the opposing monomer the active-site loop is disordered. ..
  7. Murphey W, Barnaby C, Lin F, Kaplan N. Malate dehydrogenases. II. Purification and properties of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus stearothermophilus, and Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenases. J Biol Chem. 1967;242:1548-59 pubmed
  8. Iuchi S, Matsuda Z, Fujiwara T, Lin E. The arcB gene of Escherichia coli encodes a sensor-regulator protein for anaerobic repression of the arc modulon. Mol Microbiol. 1990;4:715-27 pubmed
    ..Deletion into this domain destroyed ArcB function. ArcB conserved a histidine residue for autophosphorylation of the sensor proteins, and aspartic residues important for the regulator proteins. ..
  9. Fernley R, Lentz S, Bradshaw R. Malate dehydrogenase: isolation from E. coli and comparison with the eukaryotic mitochondrial and cytoplasmic forms. Biosci Rep. 1981;1:497-507 pubmed
    ..These findings appear to further substantiate the endosymbiotic hypothesis for the origin of the mitochondrion. ..

More Information


  1. Fischer E, Sauer U. A novel metabolic cycle catalyzes glucose oxidation and anaplerosis in hungry Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:46446-51 pubmed
  2. Wang W, Li Z, Xie J, Ye Q. Production of succinate by a pflB ldhA double mutant of Escherichia coli overexpressing malate dehydrogenase. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2009;32:737-45 pubmed publisher
    The gene encoding malate dehydrogenase (MDH) was overexpressed in a pflB ldhA double mutant of Escherichia coli, NZN111, for succinic acid production...
  3. Siddiquee K, Arauzo Bravo M, Shimizu K. Effect of a pyruvate kinase (pykF-gene) knockout mutation on the control of gene expression and metabolic fluxes in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;235:25-33 pubmed
    ..revealed that the glycolytic genes such as glk, pgi, pfkA and tpiA were down regulated, that ppc, pckA, maeB and mdh genes were strongly up-regulated, and that the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway genes such as zwf and gnd were ..
  4. Venkat S, Gregory C, Sturges J, Gan Q, Fan C. Studying the Lysine Acetylation of Malate Dehydrogenase. J Mol Biol. 2017;429:1396-1405 pubmed publisher
    Protein acetylation plays important roles in many biological processes. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH), a key enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, has been identified to be acetylated in bacteria by proteomic studies, but no further ..
  5. Yin Y, Kirsch J. Identification of functional paralog shift mutations: conversion of Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase to a lactate dehydrogenase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:17353-7 pubmed
    Five positions in the Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase (eMDH) sequence, which distinguish MDH from lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, were identified through a combination of Venn diagrams constructed from whole genomic data and ..
  6. Vogel R, Entian K, Mecke D. Cloning and sequence of the mdh structural gene of Escherichia coli coding for malate dehydrogenase. Arch Microbiol. 1987;149:36-42 pubmed
    ..The nucleotide sequence was determined of a 2.47 kbp fragment, containing the mdh structural gene. All information necessary for expression of the mdh structural gene was mapped within a 1...
  7. McAlister Henn L, Blaber M, Bradshaw R, Nisco S. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli gene encoding malate dehydrogenase. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987;15:4993 pubmed
  8. Nystrom T, Larsson C, Gustafsson L. Bacterial defense against aging: role of the Escherichia coli ArcA regulator in gene expression, readjusted energy flux and survival during stasis. EMBO J. 1996;15:3219-28 pubmed
  9. Charnock C. Structural studies of malate dehydrogenases (MDHs): MDHs in Brevundimonas species are the first reported MDHs in Proteobacteria which resemble lactate dehydrogenases in primary structure. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:4066-70 pubmed
    ..Additional evidence from subunit molecular weights, peptide mapping, and enzyme mobilities suggested that malate dehydrogenases from species of the genus Brevundimonas were structurally distinct from others in the study. ..
  10. Sutherland P, McAlister Henn L. Isolation and expression of the Escherichia coli gene encoding malate dehydrogenase. J Bacteriol. 1985;163:1074-9 pubmed
    ..residues 32 through 36 of Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase was chemically synthesized and used to identify the mdh gene on plasmid pLC32-38 from the Clarke-Carbon recombinant library...
  11. Pupo G, Karaolis D, Lan R, Reeves P. Evolutionary relationships among pathogenic and nonpathogenic Escherichia coli strains inferred from multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and mdh sequence studies. Infect Immun. 1997;65:2685-92 pubmed
    ..We used multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) at 10 enzyme loci and the sequence of the mdh housekeeping gene to study the genetic relationships of pathogenic E...
  12. Park J, Lee K, Kim T, Lee S. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of L-valine based on transcriptome analysis and in silico gene knockout simulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7797-802 pubmed
    ..Further improvement was achieved by using in silico gene knockout simulation, which identified the aceF, mdh, and pfkA genes as knockout targets...
  13. Park S, Cotter P, Gunsalus R. Regulation of malate dehydrogenase (mdh) gene expression in Escherichia coli in response to oxygen, carbon, and heme availability. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:6652-6 pubmed
    ..To investigate how the mdh gene is expressed under these different conditions, an mdh-lacZ operon fusion was constructed and analyzed in vivo...
  14. Yamamoto K, Matsumoto F, Oshima T, Fujita N, Ogasawara N, Ishihama A. Anaerobic regulation of citrate fermentation by CitAB in Escherichia coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008;72:3011-4 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, CitB, a cognate response regulator of CitA, specifically bound to the promoter regions for mdh, citA, citC, and exuT...
  15. Strocchi M, Ferrer M, Timmis K, Golyshin P. Low temperature-induced systems failure in Escherichia coli: insights from rescue by cold-adapted chaperones. Proteomics. 2006;6:193-206 pubmed
    ..coli cells at low temperatures. ..
  16. Park J, Han K, Song J, Ahn K, Seo H, Lee J. Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase, a novel solubility enhancer for heterologous proteins synthesized in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Lett. 2007;29:1513-8 pubmed
    ..coli cytoplasm. Therefore, malate dehydrogenase is well suited for production of a biologically active fusion mutant of cutinase (Pseudomonas putida origin) that is currently of considerable to biotechnology and commercial industries. ..
  17. Amarneh B, Vik S. Direct transfer of NADH from malate dehydrogenase to complex I in Escherichia coli. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2005;42:251-61 pubmed
    ..These two lines of evidence indicate that the direct transfer of NADH from malate dehydrogenase to Complex I can occur in the E. coli system. ..
  18. Henzel W, Billeci T, Stults J, Wong S, Grimley C, Watanabe C. Identifying proteins from two-dimensional gels by molecular mass searching of peptide fragments in protein sequence databases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:5011-5 pubmed
    ..One of the spots contained an N-terminally blocked protein that required enzymatic cleavage, peptide separation, and Edman degradation for confirmation of its identity...
  19. Geck M, Kirsch J. A novel, definitive test for substrate channeling illustrated with the aspartate aminotransferase/malate dehydrogenase system. Biochemistry. 1999;38:8032-7 pubmed
    ..channeling of oxaloacetate between Escherichia coli aspartate aminotransferase (AATase) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH). The assay is carried out in the presence of a large excess of inactive variants of AATase...
  20. Boyd E, Nelson K, Wang F, Whittam T, Selander R. Molecular genetic basis of allelic polymorphism in malate dehydrogenase (mdh) in natural populations of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:1280-4 pubmed
    Nucleotide sequences of the mdh gene encoding the metabolic enzyme malate dehydrogenase (MDH) were determined for 44 strains representing the major lineages of Escherichia coli and the eight subspecies of Salmonella enterica...
  21. Tanaka N, Tani Y, Hattori H, Tada T, Kunugi S. Interaction of the N-terminal domain of Escherichia coli heat-shock protein ClpB and protein aggregates during chaperone activity. Protein Sci. 2004;13:3214-21 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the effect of the ClpB N-terminal domain on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) refolding. ClpB reduced the yield of MDH refolding by a strong interaction with the intermediate...
  22. Hall M, Levitt D, Banaszak L. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase. A complex of the apoenzyme and citrate at 1.87 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 1992;226:867-82 pubmed
    ..In the energy minimized structure of the ternary complex, the C-4 atom of NAD is in van der Waals' contact with the C-3 atom of the malate. A catalytic cycle involves hydride transfer between these two atoms. ..
  23. Ferrer M, Chernikova T, Yakimov M, Golyshin P, Timmis K. Chaperonins govern growth of Escherichia coli at low temperatures. Nat Biotechnol. 2003;21:1266-7 pubmed
  24. Wright G. On the road to bacterial cell death. Cell. 2007;130:781-3 pubmed
    ..In this issue, Kohanski et al. (2007) provide evidence that the production of reactive oxygen species is a shared mechanism of cell death initiated by bactericidal antibiotics. ..
  25. Lelong C, Rolland M, Louwagie M, Garin J, Geiselmann J. Mutual regulation of Crl and Fur in Escherichia coli W3110. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2007;6:660-8 pubmed
    ..Crl modulated the affinity of Fur at the fur promoter but not at the crl promoter. The triad RpoS-Crl-Fur may thus represent the centerpiece of a global regulatory system of response to different stresses. ..