Gene Symbol: marA
Description: multiple antibiotic resistance transcriptional regulator
Alias: ECK1524, JW5249, cfxB, inaR, nfxC, norB, soxQ
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Martin R, Rosner J. Analysis of microarray data for the marA, soxS, and rob regulons of Escherichia coli. Methods Enzymol. 2003;370:278-80 pubmed
  2. Schneiders T, Barbosa T, McMurry L, Levy S. The Escherichia coli transcriptional regulator MarA directly represses transcription of purA and hdeA. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:9037-42 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli MarA protein mediates a response to multiple environmental stresses through the activation or repression in vivo of a large number of chromosomal genes...
  3. Warner D, Levy S. Different effects of transcriptional regulators MarA, SoxS and Rob on susceptibility of Escherichia coli to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs): Rob-dependent CAMP induction of the marRAB operon. Microbiology. 2010;156:570-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The roles of the Escherichia coli transcriptional regulators MarA, SoxS and Rob in susceptibility to these peptides were examined...
  4. Dangi B, Pelupessey P, Martin R, Rosner J, Louis J, Gronenborn A. Structure and dynamics of MarA-DNA complexes: an NMR investigation. J Mol Biol. 2001;314:113-27 pubmed
    ..We have investigated the interactions between the Escherichia coli transcription factor, MarA, and its diverse binding sites using NMR techniques...
  5. Rosner J, Dangi B, Gronenborn A, Martin R. Posttranscriptional activation of the transcriptional activator Rob by dipyridyl in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:1407-16 pubmed
    ..low activity in vivo, Rob binding to cognate DNA and activation of transcription in vitro is similar to that of MarA, which has a homologous NTD but no CTD...
  6. White D, Goldman J, Demple B, Levy S. Role of the acrAB locus in organic solvent tolerance mediated by expression of marA, soxS, or robA in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:6122-6 pubmed
    ..Constitutive expression of marA of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus or of the soxS or robA gene product produced tolerance to ..
  7. Sulavik M, Gambino L, Miller P. Analysis of the genetic requirements for inducible multiple-antibiotic resistance associated with the mar locus in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:7754-6 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that regulated antibiotic resistance associated with this locus requires only the products of marR and marA, without any neighboring genes.
  8. Hachler H, Cohen S, Levy S. marA, a regulated locus which controls expression of chromosomal multiple antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:5532-8 pubmed
    ..entire resistance phenotype is reversed to susceptibility by insertion of transposon Tn5 into a locus, designated marA, near 34 min on the chromosome (A. M. George and S. B. Levy, J. Bacteriol. 155:541-548, 1983)...
  9. Griffith K, Shah I, Wolf R. Proteolytic degradation of Escherichia coli transcription activators SoxS and MarA as the mechanism for reversing the induction of the superoxide (SoxRS) and multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) regulons. Mol Microbiol. 2004;51:1801-16 pubmed
    ..The response regulators, SoxS and MarA, are synthesized de novo in response to their inducing signals and directly activate transcription of a common set ..

More Information


  1. Griffith K, Shah I, Myers T, O Neill M, Wolf R. Evidence for "pre-recruitment" as a new mechanism of transcription activation in Escherichia coli: the large excess of SoxS binding sites per cell relative to the number of SoxS molecules per cell. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;291:979-86 pubmed
    ..We name this new pathway "pre-recruitment." ..
  2. Pomposiello P, Koutsolioutsou A, Carrasco D, Demple B. SoxRS-regulated expression and genetic analysis of the yggX gene of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:6624-32 pubmed
    ..the transcriptional activation of yggX by oxidative stress or SoxS expression but not in response to the related MarA or Rob proteins...
  3. Jair K, Martin R, Rosner J, Fujita N, Ishihama A, Wolf R. Purification and regulatory properties of MarA protein, a transcriptional activator of Escherichia coli multiple antibiotic and superoxide resistance promoters. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:7100-4 pubmed
    Expression of the marA or soxS genes is induced by exposure of Escherichia coli to salicylate or superoxides, respectively...
  4. Seoane A, Levy S. Characterization of MarR, the repressor of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:3414-9 pubmed
    ..MarR, therefore, controls expression of the marRAB operon presumably by binding to marO. MarR repression in cells can be reversed by different compounds, facilitating the response of bacteria to multiple environmental stress conditions. ..
  5. Schneiders T, Levy S. MarA-mediated transcriptional repression of the rob promoter. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:10049-55 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli transcriptional regulator MarA affects functions that include antibiotic resistance, persistence, and survival...
  6. McLaughlin W, Berman H. Statistical models for discerning protein structures containing the DNA-binding helix-turn-helix motif. J Mol Biol. 2003;330:43-55 pubmed
  7. Rosenberg E, Bertenthal D, Nilles M, Bertrand K, Nikaido H. Bile salts and fatty acids induce the expression of Escherichia coli AcrAB multidrug efflux pump through their interaction with Rob regulatory protein. Mol Microbiol. 2003;48:1609-19 pubmed
    ..Its expression is regulated by three XylS/AraC family regulators, MarA, SoxS and Rob...
  8. Shah I, Wolf R. Inhibition of Lon-dependent degradation of the Escherichia coli transcription activator SoxS by interaction with 'soxbox' DNA or RNA polymerase. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:199-208 pubmed
    ..To the best of our knowledge, these are the first examples of target DNA and RNA polymerase serving as ligands that inhibit the turnover of an unstable transcription activator. ..
  9. Casaz P, Garrity Ryan L, McKenney D, Jackson C, Levy S, Tanaka S, et al. MarA, SoxS and Rob function as virulence factors in an Escherichia coli murine model of ascending pyelonephritis. Microbiology. 2006;152:3643-50 pubmed
    b>MarA, SoxS and Rob are transcription factors belonging to the AraC family...
  10. Ruiz C, McMurry L, Levy S. Role of the multidrug resistance regulator MarA in global regulation of the hdeAB acid resistance operon in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:1290-7 pubmed
    b>MarA, a transcriptional regulator in Escherichia coli, affects functions such as multiple-antibiotic resistance (Mar) and virulence. Usually an activator, MarA is a repressor of hdeAB and other acid resistance genes...
  11. Hachler H, Cohen S, Levy S. Untranslated sequence upstream of MarA in the multiple antibiotic resistance locus of Escherichia coli is related to the effector-binding domain of the XylS transcriptional activator. J Mol Evol. 1996;42:409-13 pubmed
    b>MarA, the 129-amino-acid (aa) protein which plays a crucial role in the multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) phenotype in Escherichia coli, shows homology to members of the XylS/AraC family of transcriptional regulators...
  12. Lee J, Sung B, Yu B, Lee J, Lee S, Kim M, et al. Phenotypic engineering by reprogramming gene transcription using novel artificial transcription factors in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:e102 pubmed publisher
    ..These results and the general applicability of this platform clearly indicate that novel ATFs are powerful tools for the phenotypic engineering of microorganisms and can facilitate microbial functional genomic studies. ..
  13. George A, Levy S. Gene in the major cotransduction gap of the Escherichia coli K-12 linkage map required for the expression of chromosomal resistance to tetracycline and other antibiotics. J Bacteriol. 1983;155:541-8 pubmed
    ..The Tn5 element in this mutant mapped to 34 min on the E. coli K-12 linkage map. We have designated the locus marA (multiple antibiotic resistance)...
  14. Martin R, Gillette W, Martin N, Rosner J. Complex formation between activator and RNA polymerase as the basis for transcriptional activation by MarA and SoxS in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:355-70 pubmed
    ..We show here that the closely related activators, MarA, SoxS and Rob, which activate the same family of genes, are capable of forming complexes with RNP core or ..
  15. Liwo A, Lee J, Ripoll D, Pillardy J, Scheraga H. Protein structure prediction by global optimization of a potential energy function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:5482-5 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the computed lowest-energy structures of two of them (HDEA and MarA) with the crystal structures, released by the Protein Data Bank after the predictions were made, shows that large ..
  16. Alekshun M, Levy S. The mar regulon: multiple resistance to antibiotics and other toxic chemicals. Trends Microbiol. 1999;7:410-3 pubmed
    ..The Mar phenotype is induced following exposure to a variety of chemicals with aromatic rings. ..
  17. Cohen S, McMurry L, Levy S. marA locus causes decreased expression of OmpF porin in multiple-antibiotic-resistant (Mar) mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:5416-22 pubmed
    ..Insertion of transposon Tn5 into the marA locus at min 34.05 on the chromosome completely reverses the Mar phenotype (A. M. George and S. B. Levy, J...
  18. Goldman J, White D, Levy S. Multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus protects Escherichia coli from rapid cell killing by fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1996;40:1266-9 pubmed
    ..The inducible mar locus appears to specify a novel antibactericidal mechanism which may play a role in the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical E. coli isolates. ..
  19. Bailey A, Webber M, Piddock L. Medium plays a role in determining expression of acrB, marA, and soxS in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:1071-4 pubmed
    Analysis of expression of acrB, marA, and soxS in rich and minimal media, at early and late logarithmic growth phases, showed that acrB had increased expression in minimal medium compared to rich medium, but expression decreased dose ..
  20. Rickard A, Lindsay S, Lockwood G, Gilbert P. Induction of the mar operon by miscellaneous groceries. J Appl Microbiol. 2004;97:1063-8 pubmed
    ..Concern that the overuse of antibacterials within consumer products might select for mar-mediated resistance is shortsighted and fails to recognize the ubiquity of inducers in our environment. ..
  21. Helling R, Janes B, Kimball H, Tran T, Bundesmann M, Check P, et al. Toxic waste disposal in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:3699-703 pubmed
    ..The metabolites that accumulate upstream of the blocks caused by the mutations are hypothesized to increase the levels of the AcrAB-TolC pump, thereby removing nalidixic acid from the organism. ..
  22. Martin R, Nyantakyi P, Rosner J. Regulation of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) regulon by marORA sequences in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:4176-8 pubmed
  23. Greenberg J, Chou J, Monach P, Demple B. Activation of oxidative stress genes by mutations at the soxQ/cfxB/marA locus of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:4433-9 pubmed
    ..We report here that certain mutations at a separate locus that we have named soxQ (at min 34) confer some of the phenotypes seen in soxR-constitutive strains, including resistance to menadione...
  24. Rhee S, Martin R, Rosner J, Davies D. A novel DNA-binding motif in MarA: the first structure for an AraC family transcriptional activator. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:10413-8 pubmed
    A crystal structure for a member of the AraC prokaryotic transcriptional activator family, MarA, in complex with its cognate DNA-binding site is described...
  25. Wood T, Griffith K, Fawcett W, Jair K, Schneider T, Wolf R. Interdependence of the position and orientation of SoxS binding sites in the transcriptional activation of the class I subset of Escherichia coli superoxide-inducible promoters. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:414-30 pubmed
    ..Analysis by molecular information theory of DNA sequences known to bind SoxS in vitro is consistent with the opposite orientation of the zwf and fpr soxboxes. ..
  26. Rosner J, Martin R. An excretory function for the Escherichia coli outer membrane pore TolC: upregulation of marA and soxS transcription and Rob activity due to metabolites accumulated in tolC mutants. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5283-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Because tolC transcription is activated by three paralogous activators, MarA, SoxS, and Rob, we examined the regulation of these activators in tolC mutants...
  27. Bina X, Perreten V, Levy S. The periplasmic protein MppA requires an additional mutated locus to repress marA expression in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:1465-9 pubmed the gene for the periplasmic murein tripeptide binding protein MppA, was previously reported to overproduce MarA and exhibit a multiple-antibiotic resistance (Mar) phenotype (H. Li and J. T. Park, J. Bacteriol...
  28. Grkovic S, Brown M, Skurray R. Regulation of bacterial drug export systems. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2002;66:671-701, table of contents pubmed
    ..coli mar, expression of which is controlled by the MarA and MarR proteins...
  29. Griffith K, Wolf R. Systematic mutagenesis of the DNA binding sites for SoxS in the Escherichia coli zwf and fpr promoters: identifying nucleotides required for DNA binding and transcription activation. Mol Microbiol. 2001;40:1141-54 pubmed
    ..Based on this exhaustive mutagenesis, we propose the following optimal sequence for SoxS binding: AnVGCACWWWnKRHCAAAHn (n = A, C, G, T; V = A, C, G; W = A, T; K = G, T; R = A, G; H = A, C, T). ..
  30. Griffith K, Becker S, Wolf R. Characterization of TetD as a transcriptional activator of a subset of genes of the Escherichia coli SoxS/MarA/Rob regulon. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:1103-17 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, SoxS, MarA and Rob form a closely related subset of the AraC/XylS family of positive regulators, sharing approximately 42% amino acid sequence identity over the length of SoxS and the ability to activate transcription ..
  31. Kwon H, Bennik M, Demple B, Ellenberger T. Crystal structure of the Escherichia coli Rob transcription factor in complex with DNA. Nat Struct Biol. 2000;7:424-30 pubmed
    ..The genes encoding these proteins are activated by the homologous proteins MarA and SoxS, although the level of activation can vary for the different transcription factors. Here we report a 2...
  32. Martin R, Gillette W, Rhee S, Rosner J. Structural requirements for marbox function in transcriptional activation of mar/sox/rob regulon promoters in Escherichia coli: sequence, orientation and spatial relationship to the core promoter. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:431-41 pubmed
    ..regulon of Escherichia coli contain a binding site (marbox) for the homologous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS and Rob...
  33. Dangi B, Gronenborn A, Rosner J, Martin R. Versatility of the carboxy-terminal domain of the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase in transcriptional activation: use of the DNA contact site as a protein contact site for MarA. Mol Microbiol. 2004;54:45-59 pubmed
    The transcriptional activator, MarA, interacts with RNA polymerase (RNAP) to activate promoters of the mar regulon...
  34. Hirai K, Aoyama H, Suzue S, Irikura T, Iyobe S, Mitsuhashi S. Isolation and characterization of norfloxacin-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986;30:248-53 pubmed
    ..their properties: (i) NorA appeared to result for mutation in the gyrA locus for the A subunit of DNA gyrase; (ii) NorB showed low-level resistance to quinolones and other antimicrobial agents (e.g...
  35. Griffith K, Wolf R. A comprehensive alanine scanning mutagenesis of the Escherichia coli transcriptional activator SoxS: identifying amino acids important for DNA binding and transcription activation. J Mol Biol. 2002;322:237-57 pubmed
    ..With SoxS being closely related to MarA, we analyzed the effects of the SoxS mutations in the context of the MarA-mar crystal structure and with respect to ..
  36. Tamae C, Liu A, Kim K, Sitz D, Hong J, Becket E, et al. Determination of antibiotic hypersensitivity among 4,000 single-gene-knockout mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:5981-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Many of the gene knockouts in E. coli are hypersensitive to more than one antibiotic. Together, all of these data allow us to outline the cell's "intrinsic resistome," which provides innate resistance to antibiotics. ..
  37. Mosel M, Li L, Drlica K, Zhao X. Superoxide-mediated protection of Escherichia coli from antimicrobials. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:5755-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These pretreatments also reduced an oxolinic acid-mediated ROS surge. Defects in SoxS MarA or AcrB eliminated plumbagin- and paraquat-mediated MIC increases but maintained protection from killing...
  38. Gambino L, Gracheck S, Miller P. Overexpression of the MarA positive regulator is sufficient to confer multiple antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:2888-94 pubmed
    ..of the minimal complementation unit revealed that the resistance phenotype was associated with the presence of the marA gene on the plasmids...
  39. Randall L, Woodward M. The multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus and its significance. Res Vet Sci. 2002;72:87-93 pubmed
    ..coli and Salmonella is perhaps the best described system involved in this type of resistance which is induced by MarA, the activator protein encoded by the marRAB locus...
  40. Ariza R, Cohen S, Bachhawat N, Levy S, Demple B. Repressor mutations in the marRAB operon that activate oxidative stress genes and multiple antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:143-8 pubmed this locus can activate the marRAB operon, in which marR encodes a putative repressor of mar transcription and marA encodes a putative transcriptional activator of defense genes against antibiotics and oxidants...
  41. Martin R, Jair K, Wolf R, Rosner J. Autoactivation of the marRAB multiple antibiotic resistance operon by the MarA transcriptional activator in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:2216-23 pubmed
    ..activation of the promoters of the mar/soxRS regulons by the sequence-related but independently inducible MarA and SoxS proteins renders Escherichia coli resistant to a broad spectrum of antibiotics and superoxide generators...
  42. Martin R, Gillette W, Rosner J. Promoter discrimination by the related transcriptional activators MarA and SoxS: differential regulation by differential binding. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:623-34 pubmed
    b>MarA and SoxS are closely related proteins ( approximately 45% identical) that transcriptionally activate a common set of unlinked genes, resulting in multiple antibiotic and superoxide resistance in Escherichia coli...
  43. Keeney D, Ruzin A, McAleese F, Murphy E, Bradford P. MarA-mediated overexpression of the AcrAB efflux pump results in decreased susceptibility to tigecycline in Escherichia coli. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;61:46-53 pubmed
    ..Both transcriptional profile analysis and Taqman RT-PCR demonstrated increased expression levels of MarA, a transcriptional activator, and AcrAB, an RND-type efflux pump, in the strains with elevated tigecycline MICs...
  44. Vinué L, McMurry L, Levy S. The 216-bp marB gene of the marRAB operon in Escherichia coli encodes a periplasmic protein which reduces the transcription rate of marA. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2013;345:49-55 pubmed publisher
    ..b>MarA is a transcriptional regulator affecting many genes involved in resistance to stresses, and MarR is an ..
  45. Cohen S, H chler H, Levy S. Genetic and functional analysis of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:1484-92 pubmed
    ..The second ORF (ORF129), designated marA, would encode a protein, MarA, whose sequence shows strong similarity to those of a family of positive ..
  46. Gillette W, Rhee S, Rosner J, Martin R. Structural homology between MarA of the AraC family of transcriptional activators and the integrase family of site-specific recombinases. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:1582-3 pubmed
  47. Maira Litran T, Allison D, Gilbert P. An evaluation of the potential of the multiple antibiotic resistance operon (mar) and the multidrug efflux pump acrAB to moderate resistance towards ciprofloxacin in Escherichia coli biofilms. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2000;45:789-95 pubmed
    ..004 mg/L). This protection was again lost at concentrations of 0.1 mg/L. Overall, these results show that ciprofloxacin resistance in biofilms is not mediated by the upregulation of the mar or acrAB operons. ..
  48. Martin R, Rosner J. The AraC transcriptional activators. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2001;4:132-7 pubmed
    ..Recent X-ray diffraction studies show that the monomeric MarA and Rob activators bind to their asymmetric degenerate DNA sites via two different helix-turn-helix elements...
  49. Nicoloff H, Perreten V, McMurry L, Levy S. Role for tandem duplication and lon protease in AcrAB-TolC- dependent multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) in an Escherichia coli mutant without mutations in marRAB or acrRAB. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:4413-23 pubmed
    ..The decreased amount of Lon protease increased the amount of MarA by stabilization of the basal quantities of MarA produced, which in turn increased the amount of multidrug effux ..
  50. White D, Maneewannakul K, von Hofe E, Zillman M, Eisenberg W, Field A, et al. Inhibition of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon in Escherichia coli by antisense DNA analogs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997;41:2699-704 pubmed
    ..A plasmid construct with marA cloned in the antisense direction reduced LacZ expression from a constitutively expressed marA::lacZ translational ..
  51. Bore E, Hebraud M, Chafsey I, Chambon C, Skjaeret C, Moen B, et al. Adapted tolerance to benzalkonium chloride in Escherichia coli K-12 studied by transcriptome and proteome analyses. Microbiology. 2007;153:935-46 pubmed
    ..The results revealed that BC treatment might result in superoxide stress in E. coli. ..
  52. Martin R, Bartlett E, Rosner J, Wall M. Activation of the Escherichia coli marA/soxS/rob regulon in response to transcriptional activator concentration. J Mol Biol. 2008;380:278-84 pubmed publisher
    The paralogous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS, and Rob activate a common set of promoters, the marA/soxS/rob regulon of Escherichia coli, by binding a cognate site (marbox) upstream of each promoter...
  53. Zhang A, Rosner J, Martin R. Transcriptional activation by MarA, SoxS and Rob of two tolC promoters using one binding site: a complex promoter configuration for tolC in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:1450-5 pubmed publisher
    ..g. diverse xenobiotics, haemolysin) and as an attachment site for phage and colicins. tolC is regulated in part by MarA, SoxS and Rob, three paralogous transcriptional activators which bind a sequence called the marbox and which ..
  54. Lee J, Lee K, Yeo W, Park S, Roe J. SoxRS-mediated lipopolysaccharide modification enhances resistance against multiple drugs in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:4441-50 pubmed publisher
    ..waaY expression was also regulated by MarA (multiple-antibiotic resistance regulator), which shares a binding site (soxbox) with SoxS, and was induced by ..
  55. Gallegos M, Schleif R, Bairoch A, Hofmann K, Ramos J. Arac/XylS family of transcriptional regulators. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1997;61:393-410 pubmed
  56. Rosner J, Slonczewski J. Dual regulation of inaA by the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) and superoxide (soxRS) stress response systems of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:6262-9 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of marA alone on a multicopy plasmid caused high constitutive expression of inaA in a strain with an extensive (39-kbp) ..
  57. Demple B. Redox signaling and gene control in the Escherichia coli soxRS oxidative stress regulon--a review. Gene. 1996;179:53-7 pubmed
    ..When the soxRS system is activated, bacteria gain resistance to oxidants, antibiotics and immune cells that generate nitric oxide. The latter features could increase the success (virulence) of some bacterial infections. ..
  58. Barbosa T, Levy S. Differential expression of over 60 chromosomal genes in Escherichia coli by constitutive expression of MarA. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:3467-74 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, the MarA protein controls expression of multiple chromosomal genes affecting resistance to antibiotics and other environmental hazards...
  59. Martin R, Rosner J. Promoter discrimination at class I MarA regulon promoters mediated by glutamic acid 89 of the MarA transcriptional activator of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:506-15 pubmed publisher
    Three paralogous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS, and Rob, activate > 40 Escherichia coli promoters...
  60. Barbosa T, Levy S. Activation of the Escherichia coli nfnB gene by MarA through a highly divergent marbox in a class II promoter. Mol Microbiol. 2002;45:191-202 pubmed
    b>MarA is a global regulator that mediates resistance to multiple environmental hazards such as antibiotics, disinfectants and oxidative stress agents by modulating the expression of a large number of genes in the Escherichia coli ..