Gene Symbol: malG
Description: maltose transporter subunit
Alias: ECK4024, JW3992, malJ
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Panagiotidis C, Reyes M, Sievertsen A, Boos W, Shuman H. Characterization of the structural requirements for assembly and nucleotide binding of an ATP-binding cassette transporter. The maltose transport system of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:23685-96 pubmed
    ..In addition to the water-soluble maltose-binding protein, the system comprises three membrane proteins, MalF, MalG, and MalK, which form a heterotetrameric complex (FGK2) in the cytoplasmic membrane...
  2. Sharma S, Davidson A. Vanadate-induced trapping of nucleotides by purified maltose transport complex requires ATP hydrolysis. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:6570-6 pubmed
    ..ATP hydrolysis is therefore necessary, but not sufficient, for vanadate-induced nucleotide trapping...
  3. Reyes M, Shuman H. Overproduction of MalK protein prevents expression of the Escherichia coli mal regulon. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:4598-602 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the idea that MalK protein somehow interferes with the activity of the MalT protein. Different models for the regulatory function of MalK are discussed. ..
  4. Froshauer S, Green G, Boyd D, McGovern K, Beckwith J. Genetic analysis of the membrane insertion and topology of MalF, a cytoplasmic membrane protein of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1988;200:501-11 pubmed
    ..Differential amounts of the fusion proteins indicate that a regulatory signal occurs within the malF gene that is responsible for the step-down in expression from the malE gene to the malF gene...
  5. Lu G, Westbrooks J, Davidson A, Chen J. ATP hydrolysis is required to reset the ATP-binding cassette dimer into the resting-state conformation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17969-74 pubmed
  6. Kennedy K, Gachelet E, Traxler B. Evidence for multiple pathways in the assembly of the Escherichia coli maltose transport complex. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:33290-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that several paths can lead to assembly of this oligomer. We also characterized MalF and MalG mutants that caused reduced association between some or all of the subunits of the complex with this assay...
  7. Nelson B, Traxler B. Exploring the role of integral membrane proteins in ATP-binding cassette transporters: analysis of a collection of MalG insertion mutants. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:2507-14 pubmed
    ..The complex, containing one copy each of the integral membrane proteins MalG and MalF and two copies of the peripheral cytoplasmic membrane protein MalK, interacts with the periplasmic maltose-..
  8. Binz H, Amstutz P, Kohl A, Stumpp M, Briand C, Forrer P, et al. High-affinity binders selected from designed ankyrin repeat protein libraries. Nat Biotechnol. 2004;22:575-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, our AR protein libraries are valuable sources for binding molecules and, because of the very favorable biophysical properties of the designed AR proteins, an attractive alternative to antibody libraries. ..
  9. Gould A, Telmer P, Shilton B. Stimulation of the maltose transporter ATPase by unliganded maltose binding protein. Biochemistry. 2009;48:8051-61 pubmed publisher
    ..One possible explanation is that the open conformation is able to activate the MalFGK(2) ATPase directly...

More Information


  1. Kennedy K, Traxler B. MalK forms a dimer independent of its assembly into the MalFGK2 ATP-binding cassette transporter of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:6259-64 pubmed
    ..The MTC is made up of two integral membrane proteins, MalF and MalG, and a peripheral membrane protein, MalK...
  2. Sharff A, Rodseth L, Spurlino J, Quiocho F. Crystallographic evidence of a large ligand-induced hinge-twist motion between the two domains of the maltodextrin binding protein involved in active transport and chemotaxis. Biochemistry. 1992;31:10657-63 pubmed
  3. Joly N, Danot O, Schlegel A, Boos W, Richet E. The Aes protein directly controls the activity of MalT, the central transcriptional activator of the Escherichia coli maltose regulon. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:16606-13 pubmed
    ..The differential effects of ATP and ADP on the competition between the inducer and Aes (or MalY) suggest that the ATPase activity displayed by MalT plays a role in the negative control of its activity. ..
  4. Tang C, Schwieters C, Clore G. Open-to-closed transition in apo maltose-binding protein observed by paramagnetic NMR. Nature. 2007;449:1078-82 pubmed
    ..Using ensemble simulated annealing refinement against the PRE data we are able to determine a <r(-6)> ensemble average structure of the minor apo species and show that it is distinct from the sugar-bound state. ..
  5. Sharff A, Rodseth L, Quiocho F. Refined 1.8-A structure reveals the mode of binding of beta-cyclodextrin to the maltodextrin binding protein. Biochemistry. 1993;32:10553-9 pubmed
    ..The sugar makes a total of 94 productive interactions (of less than 4.0-A length) with the protein and with bound water molecules.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  6. Boos W, Shuman H. Maltose/maltodextrin system of Escherichia coli: transport, metabolism, and regulation. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1998;62:204-29 pubmed
  7. Ehrmann M, Boyd D, Beckwith J. Genetic analysis of membrane protein topology by a sandwich gene fusion approach. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:7574-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the sandwich fusion approach can give a more accurate picture of membrane protein topology...
  8. Wyka M, St John A. Effects of production of abnormal proteins on the rate of killing of Escherichia coli by streptomycin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990;34:534-8 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that certain abnormal membrane proteins can contribute to the bactericidal action of streptomycin. ..
  9. Duan X, Hall J, Nikaido H, Quiocho F. Crystal structures of the maltodextrin/maltose-binding protein complexed with reduced oligosaccharides: flexibility of tertiary structure and ligand binding. J Mol Biol. 2001;306:1115-26 pubmed
    ..This versatility reflects the flexibility of the protein, from very large motions of interdomain rotation to more localized side-chain conformational changes, and adaptation by the oligosaccharides as well...
  10. Ehrmann M, Ehrle R, Hofmann E, Boos W, Schlosser A. The ABC maltose transporter. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:685-94 pubmed
    ..In addition, recent experimental evidence suggests that regulation of gene expression and transport activity is far more complex than expected...
  11. Duan X, Quiocho F. Structural evidence for a dominant role of nonpolar interactions in the binding of a transport/chemosensory receptor to its highly polar ligands. Biochemistry. 2002;41:706-12 pubmed
  12. Schiefner A, Diederichs K, Hashimoto K, Boos W, Welte W. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the trehalose/maltose ABC transporter MalFGK2 from Thermococcus litoralis. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2002;58:2147-9 pubmed
    ..The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 106.5, b = 150.5, c = 170.1 A, beta = 107.8 degrees. A native data set has been obtained at a resolution of 5 A. ..
  13. Bedouelle H. Mutations in the promoter regions of the malEFG and malK-lamB operons of Escherichia coli K12. J Mol Biol. 1983;170:861-82 pubmed
    ..It decreases the activity of malKp by at least four orders of magnitude and likely alters the MalT binding site. These results are discussed in terms of regulatory interactions within the malB control region. ..
  14. Decker K, Gerhardt F, Boos W. The role of the trehalose system in regulating the maltose regulon of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1999;32:777-88 pubmed
    ..Extracts containing TreC transformed [14C]-maltose into another 14C-labelled compound (preliminarily identified as maltose 1-phosphate) that is likely to be an alternative inducer of the maltose system...
  15. Dassa E. Sequence-function relationships in MalG, an inner membrane protein from the maltose transport system in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1993;7:39-47 pubmed
    The malG gene encodes a hydrophobic cytoplasmic membrane protein which is required for the energy-dependent transport of maltose and maltodextrins in Escherichia coli...
  16. McGovern K, Beckwith J. Membrane insertion of the Escherichia coli MalF protein in cells with impaired secretion machinery. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:20870-6 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that MalF can assemble in the membrane independently of the bacterial secretion machinery...
  17. Zhang Y, Mannering D, Davidson A, Yao N, Manson M. Maltose-binding protein containing an interdomain disulfide bridge confers a dominant-negative phenotype for transport and chemotaxis. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:17881-9 pubmed be aligned to allow residues in both domains to interact simultaneously with complementary sites on the MalF and MalG proteins of the maltodextrin uptake system or with the Tar chemotactic signal transducer...
  18. Khare D, Oldham M, Orelle C, Davidson A, Chen J. Alternating access in maltose transporter mediated by rigid-body rotations. Mol Cell. 2009;33:528-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The comparison also reveals that point mutations enabling binding protein-independent transport line dynamic interfaces in the TM region...
  19. Froshauer S, Beckwith J. The nucleotide sequence of the gene for malF protein, an inner membrane component of the maltose transport system of Escherichia coli. Repeated DNA sequences are found in the malE-malF intercistronic region. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:10896-903 pubmed
    ..Further analysis of this region may help in understanding the observed step-down in synthesis of the MalF protein...
  20. Traxler B, Murphy C. Insertion of the polytopic membrane protein MalF is dependent on the bacterial secretion machinery. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:12394-400 pubmed
    ..We propose that the mechanism of export from the cytoplasm is related for both signal sequence-containing and cytoplasmic membrane proteins, but hydrophobic membrane proteins such as MalF may have a higher affinity for the Sec apparatus...
  21. Gilson E, Nikaido H, Hofnung M. Sequence of the malK gene in E.coli K12. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982;10:7449-58 pubmed
    ..The sequence as well as sequence comparisons with the ndh protein of E.coli are discussed in terms of the location and function of the malK protein...
  22. Quiocho F, Spurlino J, Rodseth L. Extensive features of tight oligosaccharide binding revealed in high-resolution structures of the maltodextrin transport/chemosensory receptor. Structure. 1997;5:997-1015 pubmed
  23. Raibaud O, Clement J, Hofnung M. Structure of the malB region in Escherichia coli K12. III. Correlation of the genetic map with the restriction map. Mol Gen Genet. 1979;174:261-7 pubmed
    ..This also allowed to localize the boundaries between malF and malE, malE and malK, mal K and lamB on the restriction map. The genetic map is not grossly distorted with respect to the physical map. ..
  24. Dassa E, Hofnung M. Sequence of gene malG in E. coli K12: homologies between integral membrane components from binding protein-dependent transport systems. EMBO J. 1985;4:2287-93 pubmed
    The MalG protein is needed for the transport of maltose in Escherichia coli K12. We present the sequence of gene malG. The deduced amino acid sequence corresponds to a protein of 296 amino acid residues (mol. wt. = 32 188 daltons)...
  25. Daus M, Landmesser H, Schlosser A, Muller P, Herrmann A, Schneider E. ATP induces conformational changes of periplasmic loop regions of the maltose ATP-binding cassette transporter. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:3856-65 pubmed
    ..The transport complex consists of one copy each of the transmembrane subunits, MalF and MalG, and of two copies of the nucleotide-binding subunit, MalK...
  26. Samanta S, Ayvaz T, Reyes M, Shuman H, Chen J, Davidson A. Disulfide cross-linking reveals a site of stable interaction between C-terminal regulatory domains of the two MalK subunits in the maltose transport complex. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:35265-71 pubmed
    ..These data support a model for ATP hydrolysis in which the C-terminal domains of MalK remain in contact whereas the N-terminal domains of MalK open and close to allow nucleotide binding and dissociation...
  27. Kiino D, Silhavy T. Mutation prlF1 relieves the lethality associated with export of beta-galactosidase hybrid proteins in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1984;158:878-83 pubmed
    ..5-fold. Similarly, prlF1 did not affect the beta-galactosidase activity of fusions of lacZ to a gene specifying a nonexported protein, malK. ..
  28. Mourez M, Hofnung M, Dassa E. Subunit interactions in ABC transporters: a conserved sequence in hydrophobic membrane proteins of periplasmic permeases defines an important site of interaction with the ATPase subunits. EMBO J. 1997;16:3066-77 pubmed
    ..We mutagenized the EAA regions of MalF and MalG proteins of the Escherichia coli maltose transport system...
  29. Avison M, Horton R, Walsh T, Bennett P. Escherichia coli CreBC is a global regulator of gene expression that responds to growth in minimal media. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:26955-61 pubmed
    ..The diverse functions encoded by the cre regulon suggest that CreBC is a global regulator that sits right at the heart of metabolic control in Escherichia coli. ..
  30. Randall L, Hardy S, Josefsson L. Precursors of three exported proteins in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978;75:1209-12 pubmed
    ..In contrast to the above, when the intracellular protein elongation factor Tu is synthesized in vitro on free polysomes, it is not detectably larger than the authentic form. ..
  31. Wandersman C, Schwartz M, Ferenci T. Escherichia coli mutants impaired in maltodextrin transport. J Bacteriol. 1979;140:1-13 pubmed
    ..The last class of mutants described in this paper were affected in malG, or perhaps in an as yet undetected gene close to malG...
  32. Davidson A, Nikaido H. Purification and characterization of the membrane-associated components of the maltose transport system from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:8946-51 pubmed
    ..The three membrane-associated components of the transport system, the MalK, MalF, and MalG proteins, have been solubilized from the membrane and maltose transport activity has been reconstituted in ..
  33. Mueller G, Choy W, Yang D, Forman Kay J, Venters R, Kay L. Global folds of proteins with low densities of NOEs using residual dipolar couplings: application to the 370-residue maltodextrin-binding protein. J Mol Biol. 2000;300:197-212 pubmed
    ..When applied to experimental data recorded on MBP the precision of the family of structures generated improves from 5.5 to 2.2 A, while the rmsd with respect to the X-ray structure (1dmb) is reduced from 5.1 to 3.3 A. ..
  34. Jacso T, Grote M, Daus M, Schmieder P, Keller S, Schneider E, et al. Periplasmic loop P2 of the MalF subunit of the maltose ATP binding cassette transporter is sufficient to bind the maltose binding protein MalE. Biochemistry. 2009;48:2216-25 pubmed publisher
    ..MalF-P2 interacts with the maltose binding protein, independent of the transmembrane region of MalF and MalG with an affinity of 10-20 microM, in the presence and absence of substrate...
  35. Mourez M, Skouloubris S, Betton J, Dassa E. Heat shock induction by a misassembled cytoplasmic membrane protein complex in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1997;26:821-31 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the proteolytic sensitivity of MalF is different when it is produced alone and when MalF and MalG are produced together, suggesting a change in the conformation and/or accessibility of MalF...
  36. Kainosho M, Torizawa T, Iwashita Y, Terauchi T, Mei Ono A, G√ľntert P. Optimal isotope labelling for NMR protein structure determinations. Nature. 2006;440:52-7 pubmed
    ..It thus makes a large class of proteins newly accessible to detailed solution structure determination. ..
  37. Panagiotidis C, Shuman H. Maltose transport in Escherichia coli: mutations that uncouple ATP hydrolysis from transport. Methods Enzymol. 1998;292:30-9 pubmed
  38. Decker K, Plumbridge J, Boos W. Negative transcriptional regulation of a positive regulator: the expression of malT, encoding the transcriptional activator of the maltose regulon of Escherichia coli, is negatively controlled by Mlc. Mol Microbiol. 1998;27:381-90 pubmed
    ..As Mlc also regulates another operon (manXYZ, see pages 369-379 of this issue), it may very well constitute a new global regulator of carbohydrate utilization...
  39. Dean D, Hor L, Shuman H, Nikaido H. Interaction between maltose-binding protein and the membrane-associated maltose transporter complex in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:2033-40 pubmed
    ..coli requires the presence of both maltose-binding protein (MBP) in the periplasm and a complex of MalF, MalG, and MalK proteins (FGK2) located in the cytoplasmic membrane...
  40. Ehrle R, Pick C, Ulrich R, Hofmann E, Ehrmann M. Characterization of transmembrane domains 6, 7, and 8 of MalF by mutational analysis. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:2255-62 pubmed
    ..The majority of mutations in membrane-spanning segment 8 caused a Mal+ Dex- phenotype. Six Mal+ suppressor mutations isolated to two mutations in transmembrane domain 7 changed amino acid residues in membrane-spanning segment 6 or 8...
  41. Davidson A, Sharma S. Mutation of a single MalK subunit severely impairs maltose transport activity in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:5458-64 pubmed
    ..It is clear from these results that two functional MalK proteins are required for transport activity and that the two nucleotide-binding domains do not function independently to catalyze transport...
  42. Bechtluft P, van Leeuwen R, Tyreman M, Tomkiewicz D, Nouwen N, Tepper H, et al. Direct observation of chaperone-induced changes in a protein folding pathway. Science. 2007;318:1458-61 pubmed
    ..It appears that SecB only binds to the extended or molten globulelike structure and retains MBP in this latter state. Thus during MBP translocation, no energy is required to disrupt stable tertiary interactions. ..
  43. Daus M, Grote M, Muller P, Doebber M, Herrmann A, Steinhoff H, et al. ATP-driven MalK dimer closure and reopening and conformational changes of the "EAA" motifs are crucial for function of the maltose ATP-binding cassette transporter (MalFGK2). J Biol Chem. 2007;282:22387-96 pubmed
    ..The transport complex is composed of a heterodimer of the hydrophobic subunits MalF and MalG constituting the translocation pore and of a homodimer of MalK, representing the ATP-hydrolyzing subunit...
  44. Sharma S, Davis J, Ayvaz T, Traxler B, Davidson A. Functional reassembly of the Escherichia coli maltose transporter following purification of a MalF-MalG subassembly. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:2908-11 pubmed
    Taking advantage of a chaperone-like function of MalK, a stable complex of MalF-MalG could be solubilized from the Escherichia coli membrane and purified in high yield in the absence of MalK...
  45. Treptow N, Shuman H. Allele-specific malE mutations that restore interactions between maltose-binding protein and the inner-membrane components of the maltose transport system. J Mol Biol. 1988;202:809-22 pubmed
    ..LamB, a periplasmic maltose-binding protein (MalE, MBP) and three inner-membrane proteins, MalF, MalG and MalK...
  46. Higgins C, Hiles I, Whalley K, Jamieson D. Nucleotide binding by membrane components of bacterial periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport systems. EMBO J. 1985;4:1033-9 pubmed
    ..The hisP, malK and oppD proteins are thus responsible for energy-coupling to their respective transport systems. ..
  47. Oldham M, Chen J. Crystal structure of the maltose transporter in a pretranslocation intermediate state. Science. 2011;332:1202-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results, interpreted in light of biochemical and functional studies, provide a structural basis to understand allosteric communication in ABC transporters...
  48. Duplay P, Szmelcman S, Bedouelle H, Hofnung M. Silent and functional changes in the periplasmic maltose-binding protein of Escherichia coli K12. I. Transport of maltose. J Mol Biol. 1987;194:663-73 pubmed
    ..Three regions (residues 207 to 220, 297 to 303 and 364 to 370) may be involved in interactions with the MalF or MalG proteins. A region near the C-terminal end is important for maltose binding...
  49. McGovern K, Ehrmann M, Beckwith J. Decoding signals for membrane protein assembly using alkaline phosphatase fusions. EMBO J. 1991;10:2773-82 pubmed
    ..The strength of cytoplasmic domains as topogenic signals varies, correlated with the density of positively charged amino acids within them...
  50. Shuman H, Silhavy T. Identification of the malK gene product. A peripheral membrane component of the Escherichia coli maltose transport system. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:560-2 pubmed
    ..In mutant strains which lack another component of the transport system, the malG protein, the malK protein is located in the cytoplasm...
  51. Ferenci T. The recognition of maltodextrins by Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 1980;108:631-6 pubmed
    ..The inability to transport dextrins larger than maltoheptaose is, therefore, due to the inability of E. coli to transfer large substrates from the binding protein to the cytoplasm and not to lack of access through the outer membrane. ..
  52. Martineau P, Saurin W, Hofnung M, Spurlino J, Quiocho F. Progress in the identification of interaction sites on the periplasmic maltose binding protein from E coli. Biochimie. 1990;72:397-402 pubmed
    ..In these functions, MBP interacts with proteins of the cytoplasmic membrane: MalF and MalG for transport, Tar for chemotaxis. A large number of MBP mutations have been isolated by us and other laboratories...
  53. Raibaud O, Roa M, Braun Breton C, Schwartz M. Structure of the malB region in Escherichia coli K12. I. Genetic map of the malK-lamB operon. Mol Gen Genet. 1979;174:241-8 pubmed
  54. Shuman H, Panagiotidis C. Tinkering with transporters: periplasmic binding protein-dependent maltose transport in E. coli. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 1993;25:613-20 pubmed
  55. Schneider E, Hunke S, Tebbe S. The MalK protein of the ATP-binding cassette transporter for maltose of Escherichia coli is accessible to protease digestion from the periplasmic side of the membrane. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:5364-7 pubmed
    ..This finding suggests a partial transmembrane orientation of the protein...
  56. Tchetina E, Newman E. Identification of Lrp-regulated genes by inverse PCR and sequencing: regulation of two mal operons of Escherichia coli by leucine-responsive regulatory protein. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:2679-83 pubmed
    ..lacZ transcription is also increased in the presence of Lrp. However, the growth rate of the Lrp mutant on maltose and lactose is not decreased by Lrp deficiency. ..
  57. Gould A, Shilton B. Studies of the maltose transport system reveal a mechanism for coupling ATP hydrolysis to substrate translocation without direct recognition of substrate. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:11290-6 pubmed publisher
  58. Panagiotidis C, Boos W, Shuman H. The ATP-binding cassette subunit of the maltose transporter MalK antagonizes MalT, the activator of the Escherichia coli mal regulon. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:535-46 pubmed
    ..This model suggests that bacteria may be able to couple information about extracellular substrate availability to the transcriptional apparatus via the levels of ATP hydrolysis associated with transport...
  59. Hekstra D, Tommassen J. Functional exchangeability of the ABC proteins of the periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport systems Ugp and Mal of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:6546-52 pubmed
    ..These are the first examples of functional, hybrid periplasmic permeases in which the energy-coupling components could be functionally exchanged...
  60. Francoz E, Dassa E. 3' end of the malEFG operon in E.coli: localization of the transcription termination site. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:4097-109 pubmed
    ..displayed a putative Rho-independent transcription termination site localized 87 bp's after the stop codon of malG. When cloned into plasmid pKG1800, the HincII-PvuII fragment containing this structure acted as a strong ..
  61. Bedouelle H, Schmeissner U, Hofnung M, Rosenberg M. Promoters of the malEFG and malK-lamB operons in Escherichia coli K12. J Mol Biol. 1982;161:519-31 pubmed
  62. Bedouelle H, Hofnung M. A DNA sequence containing the control regions of the malEFG and malK-lamB operons in Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1982;185:82-7 pubmed
    ..We discuss the possible relevance of this and other salient features of the DNA sequence to the mechanisms by which the expression of the malB region is positively regulated. ..
  63. Schlegel A, Danot O, Richet E, Ferenci T, Boos W. The N terminus of the Escherichia coli transcription activator MalT is the domain of interaction with MalY. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:3069-77 pubmed
    ..These mutations are located at positions 38, 220, 243, and 359, most likely defining the interaction patch with Aes on the three-dimensional structure of MalT...
  64. Davidson A, Nikaido H. Overproduction, solubilization, and reconstitution of the maltose transport system from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:4254-60 pubmed assays with membrane vesicles when the three membrane-associated components of the transport system (the MalF, MalG, and MalK proteins) were overproduced...
  65. Hofnung M, Hatfield D, Schwartz M. malB region in Escherichia coli K-12: characterization of new mutations. J Bacteriol. 1974;117:40-7 pubmed
    ..the site for Mal(-)lambdas mutations (formerly called gene malB) in that region, into two adjacent genetic segments malJ and malK. malJ and malK are both involved in maltose permeation...
  66. Xu Y, Zheng Y, Fan J, Yang D. A new strategy for structure determination of large proteins in solution without deuteration. Nat Methods. 2006;3:931-7 pubmed
    ..The strategy extends the size limit for structure determination by NMR spectroscopy to 42 kDa for monomeric proteins and to 65 kDa for differentially labeled multimeric proteins without the need for deuteration or selective labeling. ..
  67. Spurlino J, Lu G, Quiocho F. The 2.3-A resolution structure of the maltose- or maltodextrin-binding protein, a primary receptor of bacterial active transport and chemotaxis. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:5202-19 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words)..
  68. BOHM A, Diez J, Diederichs K, Welte W, Boos W. Structural model of MalK, the ABC subunit of the maltose transporter of Escherichia coli: implications for mal gene regulation, inducer exclusion, and subunit assembly. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:3708-17 pubmed
    ..acids that have previously been shown to be involved in the interaction with the transmembranous subunits MalF and MalG and that fall into the highly conserved N-terminal ATPase domain were visualized...
  69. Daus M, Grote M, Schneider E. The MalF P2 loop of the ATP-binding cassette transporter MalFGK2 from Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium interacts with maltose binding protein (MalE) throughout the catalytic cycle. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:754-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, this loop is involved in keeping MalE in close contact with the transporter. The data are discussed with respect to a crystal structure and current transport models...
  70. Ohsumi M, Sekiya T, Nishimura S, Ohki M. Nucleotide sequence of the regulatory region of malB operons in E. coli. J Biochem. 1983;94:243-7 pubmed
    ..The DNA regions binding to cyclic AMP binding protein were determined by a method using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The sites are thought to be located close to GC clusters. ..
  71. Ferenci T. Methyl-alpha-maltoside and 5-thiomaltose: analogs transported by the Escherichia coli maltose transport system. J Bacteriol. 1980;144:7-11 pubmed
    ..Both analogs were inhibitory to the growth of E. coli, but only when the bacteria were previously induced for the maltose transport system. The analogs are substrates for but poor inducers of the maltose transport system. ..
  72. Zhang Y, Conway C, Rosato M, Suh Y, Manson M. Maltose chemotaxis involves residues in the N-terminal and C-terminal domains on the same face of maltose-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:22813-20 pubmed
    ..interacts with the Tar chemotactic signal transducer and the integral cytoplasmic-membrane components (the MalF and MalG proteins) of the maltose transport system...
  73. Lippincott J, Traxler B. MalFGK complex assembly and transport and regulatory characteristics of MalK insertion mutants. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:1337-43 pubmed
    ..It associates with integral cytoplasmic membrane proteins MalF and MalG to form the maltose transport complex (MalFGK), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of proteins...
  74. Vidal Ingigliardi D, Raibaud O. Three adjacent binding sites for cAMP receptor protein are involved in the activation of the divergent malEp-malKp promoters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:229-33 pubmed
    ..The participation of several adjacent bound CRP molecules in the activation of a promoter is an unprecedented observation and might involve molecular mechanisms quite different from those used in the other CRP-controlled promoters. ..
  75. Richet E. On the role of the multiple regulatory elements involved in the activation of the Escherichia coli malEp promoter. J Mol Biol. 1996;264:852-62 pubmed
    ..Some elements of this structure, namely the CRP site 1, located at -76.5, and the distal MalT sites, seem to play a direct role in malEp activation besides their participation in the assembly of the higher-order structure...
  76. Saier M, Straud H, Massman L, Judice J, Newman M, Feucht B. Permease-specific mutations in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli that release the glycerol, maltose, melibiose, and lactose transport systems from regulation by the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system. J Bacteriol. 1978;133:1358-67 pubmed
  77. Boyd D, Manoil C, Beckwith J. Determinants of membrane protein topology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:8525-9 pubmed
    ..These studies in conjunction with our earlier results show that alkaline phosphatase fusions to membrane proteins can be an important aid in analyzing membrane topology and its determinants...
  78. Colonna B, Hofnung M. rho Mutations restore lamB expression in E. coli K12 strains with an inactive malB region. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;184:479-83 pubmed
    ..Experiments with Mu insertions in gene malK suggest that in the (-) orientation a Mu promoter is also able to allow lamB expression in a rho background. ..
  79. Telmer P, Shilton B. Structural studies of an engineered zinc biosensor reveal an unanticipated mode of zinc binding. J Mol Biol. 2005;354:829-40 pubmed
    ..A comparison to the mechanism of maltose-induced domain rearrangement is discussed. ..
  80. Oloo E, Fung E, Tieleman D. The dynamics of the MgATP-driven closure of MalK, the energy-transducing subunit of the maltose ABC transporter. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28397-407 pubmed
    ..Our simulations also give insight into possible interactions of MalK with the regulatory proteins MalT and enzyme IIA(glc)...
  81. Telmer P, Shilton B. Insights into the conformational equilibria of maltose-binding protein by analysis of high affinity mutants. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:34555-67 pubmed
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    ..This review discusses the current knowledge of the mechanism of maltose transport, as it relates to the ABC superfamily of transporters as a whole. ..
  83. Srinivasan U, Iyer G, Przybycien T, Samsonoff W, Bell J. Crystine: fibrous biomolecular material from protein crystals cross-linked in a specific geometry. Protein Eng. 2002;15:895-902 pubmed
    ..Crystine fibers are a new type of biomolecular material with potential applications wherever the use of proteins in a fibrous form is desirable, for example, the incorporation of enzymes into cloth or filtration material. ..
  84. Chapon C. Role of the catabolite activator protein in the maltose regulon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1982;150:722-9 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, it controls the other two operons more stringently, both by regulating malT expression and by a more direct action, probably exerted in the promoters of these operons. ..
  85. Clausen T, Schlegel A, Peist R, Schneider E, Steegborn C, Chang Y, et al. X-ray structure of MalY from Escherichia coli: a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme acting as a modulator in mal gene expression. EMBO J. 2000;19:831-42 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose that a direct protein-protein interaction with MalT, the central transcriptional activator of the maltose system, underlies MalY-dependent repression of the maltose system. ..
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    ..Together, these results establish that MalY acts directly upon MalT without the help of any factor, and that MalY is a negative effector of MalT competing with the inducer for MalT binding. ..
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    ..These results offer new insights into the mechanism by which gene regulation can be accomplished by the ATPase component of a bacterial ATP-binding cassette-type importer...
  88. Daus M, Berendt S, Wuttge S, Schneider E. Maltose binding protein (MalE) interacts with periplasmic loops P2 and P1 respectively of the MalFG subunits of the maltose ATP binding cassette transporter (MalFGK(2)) from Escherichia coli/Salmonella during the transport cycle. Mol Microbiol. 2007;66:1107-22 pubmed
    ..MalE), and a membrane-bound complex (MalFGK(2)), comprising the pore-forming hydrophobic subunits, MalF and MalG, and two copies of the ABC subunit, MalK...
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    ..The last enzyme is a soluble esterase of as yet unknown function. When overproduced, this enzyme specifically reduces mal gene expression and affects the activity of MalT in an in vitro transcription assay. ..
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    ..The products of the malF, malG, and malK genes form a membrane-associated complex that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to provide energy for the ..
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    ..protein-dependent transport system for maltose and maltodextrins is composed of five proteins--LamB, MalE, MalF, MalG and MalK--located in the three layers of the bacterial envelope...