Gene Symbol: malF
Description: maltose transporter subunit
Alias: ECK4025, JW3993, malJ
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Mannering D, Sharma S, Davidson A. Demonstration of conformational changes associated with activation of the maltose transport complex. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:12362-8 pubmed
    ..The maltose transporter contains two transmembrane subunits, MalF and MalG, and two copies of a nucleotide-hydrolyzing subunit, MalK...
  2. Wagner S, Pop O, Pop O, Haan G, Baars L, Koningstein G, et al. Biogenesis of MalF and the MalFGK(2) maltose transport complex in Escherichia coli requires YidC. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:17881-90 pubmed publisher
    The polytopic inner membrane protein MalF is a constituent of the MalFGK(2) maltose transport complex in Escherichia coli. We have studied the biogenesis of MalF using a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches...
  3. Shilton B, Shuman H, Mowbray S. Crystal structures and solution conformations of a dominant-negative mutant of Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein. J Mol Biol. 1996;264:364-76 pubmed
    ..A general kinetic framework for transport by either wild-type MalFGK2 or MBP-independent MalFGK2 is used to understand the effects of dominant-negative MBP molecules on both of these systems...
  4. Austermuhle M, Hall J, Klug C, Davidson A. Maltose-binding protein is open in the catalytic transition state for ATP hydrolysis during maltose transport. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:28243-50 pubmed
    ..The membrane-associated transporter consists of two transmembrane subunits, MalF and MalG, and two copies of the cytoplasmic ATP-binding cassette subunit, MalK...
  5. Treptow N, Shuman H. Allele-specific malE mutations that restore interactions between maltose-binding protein and the inner-membrane components of the maltose transport system. J Mol Biol. 1988;202:809-22 pubmed
    ..LamB, a periplasmic maltose-binding protein (MalE, MBP) and three inner-membrane proteins, MalF, MalG and MalK...
  6. BOHM A, Diez J, Diederichs K, Welte W, Boos W. Structural model of MalK, the ABC subunit of the maltose transporter of Escherichia coli: implications for mal gene regulation, inducer exclusion, and subunit assembly. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:3708-17 pubmed
    ..amino acids that have previously been shown to be involved in the interaction with the transmembranous subunits MalF and MalG and that fall into the highly conserved N-terminal ATPase domain were visualized...
  7. Covitz K, Panagiotidis C, Hor L, Reyes M, Treptow N, Shuman H. Mutations that alter the transmembrane signalling pathway in an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter. EMBO J. 1994;13:1752-9 pubmed
    ..residues that cluster to specific regions within the membrane spanning segments of the integral membrane components MalF and MalG. Individually, the mutations perturb the ability of MBP to interact productively with the membrane complex...
  8. Chen J, Lu G, Lin J, Davidson A, Quiocho F. A tweezers-like motion of the ATP-binding cassette dimer in an ABC transport cycle. Mol Cell. 2003;12:651-61 pubmed
    ..The two nucleotide binding domains of the dimer open and close like a pair of tweezers, suggesting a regulatory mechanism for ATPase activity that may be tightly coupled to translocation...
  9. Martineau P, Saurin W, Hofnung M, Spurlino J, Quiocho F. Progress in the identification of interaction sites on the periplasmic maltose binding protein from E coli. Biochimie. 1990;72:397-402 pubmed
    ..In these functions, MBP interacts with proteins of the cytoplasmic membrane: MalF and MalG for transport, Tar for chemotaxis...

More Information


  1. Fetsch E, Davidson A. Maltose transport through the inner membrane of E. coli. Front Biosci. 2003;8:d652-60 pubmed
    ..This review discusses the current knowledge of the mechanism of maltose transport, as it relates to the ABC superfamily of transporters as a whole. ..
  2. Daus M, Berendt S, Wuttge S, Schneider E. Maltose binding protein (MalE) interacts with periplasmic loops P2 and P1 respectively of the MalFG subunits of the maltose ATP binding cassette transporter (MalFGK(2)) from Escherichia coli/Salmonella during the transport cycle. Mol Microbiol. 2007;66:1107-22 pubmed
    ..binding protein (MalE), and a membrane-bound complex (MalFGK(2)), comprising the pore-forming hydrophobic subunits, MalF and MalG, and two copies of the ABC subunit, MalK...
  3. Hunke S, Mourez M, Jehanno M, Dassa E, Schneider E. ATP modulates subunit-subunit interactions in an ATP-binding cassette transporter (MalFGK2) determined by site-directed chemical cross-linking. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:15526-34 pubmed
    ..a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily, is composed of two integral membrane proteins, MalF and MalG, and of two copies of an ATPase subunit, MalK, which hydrolyze ATP, thus energizing the translocation ..
  4. Mourez M, Skouloubris S, Betton J, Dassa E. Heat shock induction by a misassembled cytoplasmic membrane protein complex in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1997;26:821-31 pubmed
    ..We found that production of the MalF protein alone was inducing the phtrA promoter, which is under the control of a recently discovered sigma factor, ..
  5. Bochner B, Gadzinski P, Panomitros E. Phenotype microarrays for high-throughput phenotypic testing and assay of gene function. Genome Res. 2001;11:1246-55 pubmed
    ..Here, we provide data on phenotypic analysis of six strains and show that we can detect expected phenotypes as well as, in some cases, unexpected phenotypes. ..
  6. Davidson A, Sharma S. Mutation of a single MalK subunit severely impairs maltose transport activity in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:5458-64 pubmed
    ..It is clear from these results that two functional MalK proteins are required for transport activity and that the two nucleotide-binding domains do not function independently to catalyze transport...
  7. Clausen T, Schlegel A, Peist R, Schneider E, Steegborn C, Chang Y, et al. X-ray structure of MalY from Escherichia coli: a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme acting as a modulator in mal gene expression. EMBO J. 2000;19:831-42 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose that a direct protein-protein interaction with MalT, the central transcriptional activator of the maltose system, underlies MalY-dependent repression of the maltose system. ..
  8. Decker K, Plumbridge J, Boos W. Negative transcriptional regulation of a positive regulator: the expression of malT, encoding the transcriptional activator of the maltose regulon of Escherichia coli, is negatively controlled by Mlc. Mol Microbiol. 1998;27:381-90 pubmed
    ..As Mlc also regulates another operon (manXYZ, see pages 369-379 of this issue), it may very well constitute a new global regulator of carbohydrate utilization...
  9. Vidal Ingigliardi D, Raibaud O. Three adjacent binding sites for cAMP receptor protein are involved in the activation of the divergent malEp-malKp promoters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:229-33 pubmed
    ..The participation of several adjacent bound CRP molecules in the activation of a promoter is an unprecedented observation and might involve molecular mechanisms quite different from those used in the other CRP-controlled promoters. ..
  10. Schneider E, Hunke S, Tebbe S. The MalK protein of the ATP-binding cassette transporter for maltose of Escherichia coli is accessible to protease digestion from the periplasmic side of the membrane. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:5364-7 pubmed
    ..This finding suggests a partial transmembrane orientation of the protein...
  11. Wandersman C, Schwartz M, Ferenci T. Escherichia coli mutants impaired in maltodextrin transport. J Bacteriol. 1979;140:1-13 pubmed
    ..They were defective in the transfer of maltodextrins from the periplasmic space to the cytoplasm but only slightly affected in the transport of maltose. ..
  12. Telmer P, Shilton B. Structural studies of an engineered zinc biosensor reveal an unanticipated mode of zinc binding. J Mol Biol. 2005;354:829-40 pubmed
    ..A comparison to the mechanism of maltose-induced domain rearrangement is discussed. ..
  13. Ehrmann M, Beckwith J. Proper insertion of a complex membrane protein in the absence of its amino-terminal export signal. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:16530-3 pubmed
    The MalF protein spans the Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membrane eight times...
  14. Shuman H, Panagiotidis C. Tinkering with transporters: periplasmic binding protein-dependent maltose transport in E. coli. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 1993;25:613-20 pubmed
  15. Hofnung M, Hatfield D, Schwartz M. malB region in Escherichia coli K-12: characterization of new mutations. J Bacteriol. 1974;117:40-7 pubmed
    ..the site for Mal(-)lambdas mutations (formerly called gene malB) in that region, into two adjacent genetic segments malJ and malK. malJ and malK are both involved in maltose permeation...
  16. Ehrle R, Pick C, Ulrich R, Hofmann E, Ehrmann M. Characterization of transmembrane domains 6, 7, and 8 of MalF by mutational analysis. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:2255-62 pubmed
    Oligonucleotide mutagenesis was used to isolate mutations in membrane-spanning segments 6, 7, and 8 of MalF. MalF is a cytoplasmic membrane component of the binding protein-dependent maltose transport system in Escherichia coli...
  17. Joly N, BOHM A, Boos W, Richet E. MalK, the ATP-binding cassette component of the Escherichia coli maltodextrin transporter, inhibits the transcriptional activator malt by antagonizing inducer binding. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:33123-30 pubmed
    ..These results offer new insights into the mechanism by which gene regulation can be accomplished by the ATPase component of a bacterial ATP-binding cassette-type importer...
  18. Bedouelle H, Schmeissner U, Hofnung M, Rosenberg M. Promoters of the malEFG and malK-lamB operons in Escherichia coli K12. J Mol Biol. 1982;161:519-31 pubmed
  19. Duplay P, Szmelcman S, Bedouelle H, Hofnung M. Silent and functional changes in the periplasmic maltose-binding protein of Escherichia coli K12. I. Transport of maltose. J Mol Biol. 1987;194:663-73 pubmed
    ..Three regions (residues 207 to 220, 297 to 303 and 364 to 370) may be involved in interactions with the MalF or MalG proteins. A region near the C-terminal end is important for maltose binding...
  20. Xu Y, Zheng Y, Fan J, Yang D. A new strategy for structure determination of large proteins in solution without deuteration. Nat Methods. 2006;3:931-7 pubmed
    ..The strategy extends the size limit for structure determination by NMR spectroscopy to 42 kDa for monomeric proteins and to 65 kDa for differentially labeled multimeric proteins without the need for deuteration or selective labeling. ..
  21. Daus M, Grote M, Schneider E. The MalF P2 loop of the ATP-binding cassette transporter MalFGK2 from Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium interacts with maltose binding protein (MalE) throughout the catalytic cycle. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:754-61 pubmed publisher
    We have investigated the interaction of the uncommonly large periplasmic P2 loop of the MalF subunit of the maltose ATP-binding cassette transporter (MalFGK(2)) from Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with ..
  22. Mourez M, Jehanno M, Schneider E, Dassa E. In vitro interaction between components of the inner membrane complex of the maltose ABC transporter of Escherichia coli: modulation by ATP. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:353-63 pubmed
    ..We focused on interactions between the nucleotide-binding protein, MalK, and the transmembrane proteins, MalF and MalG. We incubated purified MalK with inverted membrane vesicles containing MalF and MalG...
  23. Silhavy T, Brickman E, Bassford P, Casadaban M, Shuman H, Schwartz V, et al. Structure of the malB region in Escherichia coli K12. II. Genetic map of the malE,F,G operon. Mol Gen Genet. 1979;174:249-59 pubmed
    ..The construction of this deletion map has led to the identification of a new gene, malG. The malG gene is located distal to malF. The malG gene product is a protein required for the active transport of maltose and maltodextrins.
  24. Panagiotidis C, Shuman H. Maltose transport in Escherichia coli: mutations that uncouple ATP hydrolysis from transport. Methods Enzymol. 1998;292:30-9 pubmed
  25. Srinivasan U, Iyer G, Przybycien T, Samsonoff W, Bell J. Crystine: fibrous biomolecular material from protein crystals cross-linked in a specific geometry. Protein Eng. 2002;15:895-902 pubmed
    ..Crystine fibers are a new type of biomolecular material with potential applications wherever the use of proteins in a fibrous form is desirable, for example, the incorporation of enzymes into cloth or filtration material. ..
  26. Chapon C. Role of the catabolite activator protein in the maltose regulon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1982;150:722-9 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, it controls the other two operons more stringently, both by regulating malT expression and by a more direct action, probably exerted in the promoters of these operons. ..
  27. Jacso T, Grote M, Daus M, Schmieder P, Keller S, Schneider E, et al. Periplasmic loop P2 of the MalF subunit of the maltose ATP binding cassette transporter is sufficient to bind the maltose binding protein MalE. Biochemistry. 2009;48:2216-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Nature 450, 515-522]. Using liquid-state NMR, we find that the periplasmic loop P2 of MalF (MalF-P2) folds independently in solution and adopts a well-defined tertiary structure which is similar to the one ..
  28. Ehrle R, Mikhaleva N, Boyd D, Davidson A, Ehrmann M. Context-dependent effects of charged residues in transmembrane segments of MalF-PhoA fusions. Res Microbiol. 2003;154:654-7 pubmed
    Charged residues were introduced into the C-terminal transmembrane segment of a MalF-PhoA fusion to investigate the efficiency of the altered transmembrane segment to function as an export signal or a stop transfer signal...
  29. Shuman H, Silhavy T. Identification of the malK gene product. A peripheral membrane component of the Escherichia coli maltose transport system. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:560-2 pubmed
    ..This alteration in location suggests that the malK protein is associated with the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane via an interaction with the malG protein...
  30. Colonna B, Hofnung M. rho Mutations restore lamB expression in E. coli K12 strains with an inactive malB region. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;184:479-83 pubmed
    ..Experiments with Mu insertions in gene malK suggest that in the (-) orientation a Mu promoter is also able to allow lamB expression in a rho background. ..
  31. Higgins C, Hiles I, Whalley K, Jamieson D. Nucleotide binding by membrane components of bacterial periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport systems. EMBO J. 1985;4:1033-9 pubmed
    ..The hisP, malK and oppD proteins are thus responsible for energy-coupling to their respective transport systems. ..
  32. Boyd D, Traxler B, Beckwith J. Analysis of the topology of a membrane protein by using a minimum number of alkaline phosphatase fusions. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:553-6 pubmed
    ..The disruption of topogenic signals is thereby minimized, and predictable anomalous results are avoided. The Escherichia coli MalG protein has been analyzed...
  33. Khare D, Oldham M, Orelle C, Davidson A, Chen J. Alternating access in maltose transporter mediated by rigid-body rotations. Mol Cell. 2009;33:528-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The comparison also reveals that point mutations enabling binding protein-independent transport line dynamic interfaces in the TM region...
  34. Schiefner A, Diederichs K, Hashimoto K, Boos W, Welte W. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the trehalose/maltose ABC transporter MalFGK2 from Thermococcus litoralis. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2002;58:2147-9 pubmed
    ..The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 106.5, b = 150.5, c = 170.1 A, beta = 107.8 degrees. A native data set has been obtained at a resolution of 5 A. ..
  35. Kennedy K, Gachelet E, Traxler B. Evidence for multiple pathways in the assembly of the Escherichia coli maltose transport complex. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:33290-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that several paths can lead to assembly of this oligomer. We also characterized MalF and MalG mutants that caused reduced association between some or all of the subunits of the complex with this assay...
  36. Dassa E. Sequence-function relationships in MalG, an inner membrane protein from the maltose transport system in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1993;7:39-47 pubmed
    ..The MalG protein, together with MalF and MalK proteins, forms a multimeric complex in the membrane consisting of two MalK subunits for each MalF and ..
  37. Ehrmann M, Boyd D, Beckwith J. Genetic analysis of membrane protein topology by a sandwich gene fusion approach. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:7574-8 pubmed
    ..constructed a series of sandwich fusions of alkaline phosphatase to the multispanning cytoplasmic membrane protein MalF. Despite the fact that the alkaline phosphatase was tethered to MalF at both its N and its C terminus, the enzyme ..
  38. Lu G, Westbrooks J, Davidson A, Chen J. ATP hydrolysis is required to reset the ATP-binding cassette dimer into the resting-state conformation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17969-74 pubmed
  39. Panagiotidis C, Reyes M, Sievertsen A, Boos W, Shuman H. Characterization of the structural requirements for assembly and nucleotide binding of an ATP-binding cassette transporter. The maltose transport system of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:23685-96 pubmed
    ..In addition to the water-soluble maltose-binding protein, the system comprises three membrane proteins, MalF, MalG, and MalK, which form a heterotetrameric complex (FGK2) in the cytoplasmic membrane...
  40. Chen J, Sharma S, Quiocho F, Davidson A. Trapping the transition state of an ATP-binding cassette transporter: evidence for a concerted mechanism of maltose transport. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:1525-30 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a general model explaining how ATP hydrolysis is coupled to substrate transport in which a binding protein stimulates the ATPase activity of its cognate transporter by stabilizing the transition state...
  41. Chagneau C, Heyde M, Alonso S, Portalier R, Laloi P. External-pH-dependent expression of the maltose regulon and ompF gene in Escherichia coli is affected by the level of glycerol kinase, encoded by glpK. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:5675-83 pubmed
    ..Thus, GlpK-dependent repression of the maltose system requires the cAMP-CRP complex. We propose that the pHo may affect a complex interplay between GlpK, the phosphotransferase-mediated uptake of glucose, and the adenylate cyclase...
  42. Zhang Y, Mannering D, Davidson A, Yao N, Manson M. Maltose-binding protein containing an interdomain disulfide bridge confers a dominant-negative phenotype for transport and chemotaxis. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:17881-9 pubmed
    ..proposed to be aligned to allow residues in both domains to interact simultaneously with complementary sites on the MalF and MalG proteins of the maltodextrin uptake system or with the Tar chemotactic signal transducer...
  43. Samanta S, Ayvaz T, Reyes M, Shuman H, Chen J, Davidson A. Disulfide cross-linking reveals a site of stable interaction between C-terminal regulatory domains of the two MalK subunits in the maltose transport complex. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:35265-71 pubmed
    ..These data support a model for ATP hydrolysis in which the C-terminal domains of MalK remain in contact whereas the N-terminal domains of MalK open and close to allow nucleotide binding and dissociation...
  44. Joly N, Danot O, Schlegel A, Boos W, Richet E. The Aes protein directly controls the activity of MalT, the central transcriptional activator of the Escherichia coli maltose regulon. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:16606-13 pubmed
    ..The differential effects of ATP and ADP on the competition between the inducer and Aes (or MalY) suggest that the ATPase activity displayed by MalT plays a role in the negative control of its activity. ..
  45. Saul F, Mourez M, Vulliez Le Normand B, Sassoon N, Bentley G, Betton J. Crystal structure of a defective folding protein. Protein Sci. 2003;12:577-85 pubmed
  46. Reich Slotky R, Panagiotidis C, Reyes M, Shuman H. The detergent-soluble maltose transporter is activated by maltose binding protein and verapamil. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:993-1000 pubmed
    ..This uncoupled activity was not due to dissociation of the MalK ATPase subunit from the integral membrane protein MalF and MalG subunits...
  47. Tian H, Beckwith J. Genetic screen yields mutations in genes encoding all known components of the Escherichia coli signal recognition particle pathway. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:111-8 pubmed
    ..of the mutations caused defects in the membrane insertions of three topologically distinct membrane proteins, AcrB, MalF, and FtsQ...
  48. Li C, Yang Y, Su J, Liu B, Tan J, Zhang X, et al. Allosteric transitions of the maltose transporter studied by an elastic network model. Biopolymers. 2014;101:758-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These results can provide some insights into the understanding of the mechanism of ABC transporters...
  49. Ohki M, Ogawa H, Nishimura S. Synthesis of mRNA of malB operons at specific stages in the cell cycle of Escherichia coli. Ann Microbiol (Paris). 1982;133A:71-5 pubmed
    ..Identification of the species of mRNA revealed that the malK-lamB operon was preferably transcribed in the former stage of the cycle while a major fraction of mRNA of the malE-malF operon was synthesized in the later stage.
  50. Ehrmann M, Boos W. Identification of endogenous inducers of the mal regulon in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:3539-45 pubmed
    ..coli linkage map. A Tn10 insertion in malI also resulted in the loss of constitutivity at low osmolarity and delayed the induction of the maltose regulon by exogenous inducers. ..
  51. Merino G, Shuman H. Unliganded maltose-binding protein triggers lactose transport in an Escherichia coli mutant with an alteration in the maltose transport system. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:7687-94 pubmed
    ..protein (MBP) in the periplasm, and the proteins of the inner membrane complex (MalFGK2), composed of one MalF, one MalG, and two MalK subunits. Substrate specificity is determined primarily by the periplasmic component, MBP...
  52. Landmesser H, Stein A, Bl├╝schke B, Brinkmann M, Hunke S, Schneider E. Large-scale purification, dissociation and functional reassembly of the maltose ATP-binding cassette transporter (MalFGK(2)) of Salmonella typhimurium. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1565:64-72 pubmed purified complex protein by taking advantage of a newly constructed expression plasmid that carries the malK, malF and malG genes in tandem orientation...
  53. Dassa E, Lambert P. Activity of protein MalE (maltose-binding protein) fused to cytoplasmic and periplasmic regions of an Escherichia coli inner membrane protein. Res Microbiol. 1997;148:389-95 pubmed
    ..We discuss the possibility of genetically determining the topology of cytoplasmic membrane proteins by a method based on engineered fusions to MBP...
  54. Saaf A, Andersson H, Gafvelin G, von Heijne G. SecA-dependence of the translocation of a large periplasmic loop in the Escherichia coli MalF inner membrane protein is a function of sequence context. Mol Membr Biol. 1995;12:209-15 pubmed
    We have analysed the translocation of a large periplasmic loop in the Escherichia coli MalF inner membrane protein when placed in different sequence contexts and under conditions when the function of the SecA protein is inhibited...
  55. Alonzo S, Heyde M, Laloi P, Portalier R. Analysis of the effect exerted by extracellular pH on the maltose regulon in Escherichia coli K-12. Microbiology. 1998;144 ( Pt 12):3317-25 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that binding of cAMP-CRP at malTp may be affected by malTp topology induced by pHo or that a pHo-dependent effector may act in concert with the cAMP-CRP complex...
  56. Froshauer S, Green G, Boyd D, McGovern K, Beckwith J. Genetic analysis of the membrane insertion and topology of MalF, a cytoplasmic membrane protein of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1988;200:501-11 pubmed
    b>MalF is an essential cytoplasmic membrane protein of the maltose transport system of Escherichia coli...
  57. Steinke A, Grau S, Davidson A, Hofmann E, Ehrmann M. Characterization of transmembrane segments 3, 4, and 5 of MalF by mutational analysis. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:375-81 pubmed
    b>MalF and MalG are the cytoplasmic membrane components of the binding protein-dependent ATP binding cassette maltose transporter in Escherichia coli...
  58. Avison M, Horton R, Walsh T, Bennett P. Escherichia coli CreBC is a global regulator of gene expression that responds to growth in minimal media. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:26955-61 pubmed
    ..The diverse functions encoded by the cre regulon suggest that CreBC is a global regulator that sits right at the heart of metabolic control in Escherichia coli. ..
  59. Nikaido H. Maltose transport system of Escherichia coli: an ABC-type transporter. FEBS Lett. 1994;346:55-8 pubmed
    ..coli is composed of a periplasmic maltose-binding protein (MBP), the presumed transmembrane channel made up of MalF and MalG proteins, and two copies of the ATPase subunit, MalK...
  60. Shuman H, Silhavy T, Beckwith J. Labeling of proteins with beta-galactosidase by gene fusion. Identification of a cytoplasmic membrane component of the Escherichia coli maltose transport system. J Biol Chem. 1980;255:168-74 pubmed
  61. Dassa E, Hofnung M. Sequence of gene malG in E. coli K12: homologies between integral membrane components from binding protein-dependent transport systems. EMBO J. 1985;4:2287-93 pubmed
    ..We have found a sequence which is highly conserved between MalG and MalF, the other integral inner membrane protein of the maltose transport system...
  62. Daus M, Landmesser H, Schlosser A, Muller P, Herrmann A, Schneider E. ATP induces conformational changes of periplasmic loop regions of the maltose ATP-binding cassette transporter. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:3856-65 pubmed
    ..The transport complex consists of one copy each of the transmembrane subunits, MalF and MalG, and of two copies of the nucleotide-binding subunit, MalK...
  63. Tang C, Schwieters C, Clore G. Open-to-closed transition in apo maltose-binding protein observed by paramagnetic NMR. Nature. 2007;449:1078-82 pubmed
    ..Using ensemble simulated annealing refinement against the PRE data we are able to determine a <r(-6)> ensemble average structure of the minor apo species and show that it is distinct from the sugar-bound state. ..
  64. Reidl J, Boos W. The malX malY operon of Escherichia coli encodes a novel enzyme II of the phosphotransferase system recognizing glucose and maltose and an enzyme abolishing the endogenous induction of the maltose system. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:4862-76 pubmed
    ..This is not the case in a malT(Con) strain that expresses the mal genes constitutively. We conclude that malY encodes an enzyme that degrades the inducer of the maltose system or prevents its synthesis. ..
  65. Gould A, Telmer P, Shilton B. Stimulation of the maltose transporter ATPase by unliganded maltose binding protein. Biochemistry. 2009;48:8051-61 pubmed publisher
    ..One possible explanation is that the open conformation is able to activate the MalFGK(2) ATPase directly...
  66. Kennedy K, Traxler B. MalK forms a dimer independent of its assembly into the MalFGK2 ATP-binding cassette transporter of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:6259-64 pubmed
    ..The MTC is made up of two integral membrane proteins, MalF and MalG, and a peripheral membrane protein, MalK...
  67. Nelson B, Traxler B. Exploring the role of integral membrane proteins in ATP-binding cassette transporters: analysis of a collection of MalG insertion mutants. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:2507-14 pubmed
    ..The complex, containing one copy each of the integral membrane proteins MalG and MalF and two copies of the peripheral cytoplasmic membrane protein MalK, interacts with the periplasmic maltose-binding ..
  68. Hall J, Davidson A, Nikaido H. Preparation and reconstitution of membrane-associated maltose transporter complex of Escherichia coli. Methods Enzymol. 1998;292:20-9 pubmed
  69. Oldham M, Khare D, Quiocho F, Davidson A, Chen J. Crystal structure of a catalytic intermediate of the maltose transporter. Nature. 2007;450:515-21 pubmed
    ..These results provide direct evidence for a concerted mechanism of transport in which solute is transferred from the binding protein to the transmembrane subunits when the cassette dimer closes to hydrolyse ATP...
  70. Silhavy T, Casadaban M, Shuman H, Beckwith J. Conversion of beta-galactosidase to a membrane-bound state by gene fusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976;73:3423-7 pubmed
    ..protein molecule produced, comprised of an NH2-terminal amino acid sequence from a maltose transport protein (malF) and a COOH-terminal amino acid sequence from beta-galactosidase...
  71. Mourez M, Hofnung M, Dassa E. Subunit interactions in ABC transporters: a conserved sequence in hydrophobic membrane proteins of periplasmic permeases defines an important site of interaction with the ATPase subunits. EMBO J. 1997;16:3066-77 pubmed
    ..We mutagenized the EAA regions of MalF and MalG proteins of the Escherichia coli maltose transport system...
  72. Ehrmann M, Ehrle R, Hofmann E, Boos W, Schlosser A. The ABC maltose transporter. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:685-94 pubmed
    ..In addition, recent experimental evidence suggests that regulation of gene expression and transport activity is far more complex than expected...
  73. Decker K, Gerhardt F, Boos W. The role of the trehalose system in regulating the maltose regulon of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1999;32:777-88 pubmed
    ..Extracts containing TreC transformed [14C]-maltose into another 14C-labelled compound (preliminarily identified as maltose 1-phosphate) that is likely to be an alternative inducer of the maltose system...
  74. Sharff A, Rodseth L, Szmelcman S, Hofnung M, Quiocho F. Refined structures of two insertion/deletion mutants probe function of the maltodextrin binding protein. J Mol Biol. 1995;246:8-13 pubmed
    ..This is most likely due to the long distance of the mutation from the binding site and conservation of the number of interactions between the area around the deletion site and the main body of the protein. ..
  75. Rubin S, Lee S, Ruiz E, Pines A, Wemmer D. Detection and characterization of xenon-binding sites in proteins by 129Xe NMR spectroscopy. J Mol Biol. 2002;322:425-40 pubmed
    ..Further applications of 129Xe NMR to biochemical assays, including the screening of proteins for xenon binding for crystallography are considered...
  76. Treptow N, Shuman H. Genetic evidence for substrate and periplasmic-binding-protein recognition by the MalF and MalG proteins, cytoplasmic membrane components of the Escherichia coli maltose transport system. J Bacteriol. 1985;163:654-60 pubmed
    ..The mutations in these strains map in either malF or malG. These genes code for two of the cytoplasmic membrane components of the maltose transport system...
  77. Sharff A, Rodseth L, Quiocho F. Refined 1.8-A structure reveals the mode of binding of beta-cyclodextrin to the maltodextrin binding protein. Biochemistry. 1993;32:10553-9 pubmed
    ..The sugar makes a total of 94 productive interactions (of less than 4.0-A length) with the protein and with bound water molecules.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  78. Hor L, Shuman H. Genetic analysis of periplasmic binding protein dependent transport in Escherichia coli. Each lobe of maltose-binding protein interacts with a different subunit of the MalFGK2 membrane transport complex. J Mol Biol. 1993;233:659-70 pubmed
    ..protein in the outer membrane; the periplasmic maltose-binding protein (MBP); two integral inner membrane proteins, MalF and MalG; and MalK, which is associated with the cytoplasmic face of the inner membrane...
  79. Newbury S, Smith N, Higgins C. Differential mRNA stability controls relative gene expression within a polycistronic operon. Cell. 1987;51:1131-43 pubmed
    ..coli contains two REP sequences (highly conserved inverted repeats) within the malE-malF intercistronic region...
  80. Traxler B, Murphy C. Insertion of the polytopic membrane protein MalF is dependent on the bacterial secretion machinery. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:12394-400 pubmed
    ..In addition, we show that the proper insertion of the polytopic MalF protein (synthesized without a signal sequence) into the cytoplasmic membrane is also SecE-dependent...
  81. Hall J, Ganesan A, Chen J, Nikaido H. Two modes of ligand binding in maltose-binding protein of Escherichia coli. Functional significance in active transport. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:17615-22 pubmed
  82. Meyer D, Schneider Fresenius C, Horlacher R, Peist R, Boos W. Molecular characterization of glucokinase from Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:1298-306 pubmed
    ..This demonstrates that free internal glucose plays an essential role in the formation of the endogenous inducer of the maltose system. ..
  83. Merino G, Shuman H. Truncation of MalF results in lactose transport via the maltose transport system of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:2435-44 pubmed
    ..level of substrate specificity is contributed by the inner membrane integral membrane components of the system, MalF and MalG. We have isolated and characterized an altered substrate specificity mutant that transports lactose...
  84. Boos W, Shuman H. Maltose/maltodextrin system of Escherichia coli: transport, metabolism, and regulation. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1998;62:204-29 pubmed
  85. Traxler B, Beckwith J. Assembly of a hetero-oligomeric membrane protein complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:10852-6 pubmed
    ..of this complex has been examined by using an assay based on the proteolytic sensitivity of one of its components, MalF. Immediately after synthesis and insertion into the membrane, MalF is sensitive to exogenously added proteases...
  86. Froshauer S, Beckwith J. The nucleotide sequence of the gene for malF protein, an inner membrane component of the maltose transport system of Escherichia coli. Repeated DNA sequences are found in the malE-malF intercistronic region. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:10896-903 pubmed
    The malF gene product is an inner membrane component of the maltose transport system in Escherichia coli...
  87. Reyes M, Shuman H. Overproduction of MalK protein prevents expression of the Escherichia coli mal regulon. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:4598-602 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the idea that MalK protein somehow interferes with the activity of the MalT protein. Different models for the regulatory function of MalK are discussed. ..
  88. Bukau B, Ehrmann M, Boos W. Osmoregulation of the maltose regulon in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1986;166:884-91 pubmed
    ..The repression at high osmolarity no longer occurred in malQ mutants, however, provided that glycogen was present. ..
  89. Sharma S, Davidson A. Vanadate-induced trapping of nucleotides by purified maltose transport complex requires ATP hydrolysis. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:6570-6 pubmed
    ..ATP hydrolysis is therefore necessary, but not sufficient, for vanadate-induced nucleotide trapping...
  90. Dean D, Reizer J, Nikaido H, Saier M. Regulation of the maltose transport system of Escherichia coli by the glucose-specific enzyme III of the phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar phosphotransferase system. Characterization of inducer exclusion-resistant mutants and reconstitution of inducer exclus. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:21005-10 pubmed
    ..Finally, the Ki for IIIglc was 40 microM, roughly the same as the in vivo concentration of IIIglc. ..
  91. Wyka M, St John A. Effects of production of abnormal proteins on the rate of killing of Escherichia coli by streptomycin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990;34:534-8 pubmed
    ..Induction of malF-phoA fusion proteins, which have no significant effects on membrane integrity, did not alter susceptibility to ..