Gene Symbol: luxS
Description: S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase
Alias: ECK2681, JW2662, ygaG
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     luxS

Top Publications

  1. Vendeville A, Winzer K, Heurlier K, Tang C, Hardie K. Making 'sense' of metabolism: autoinducer-2, LuxS and pathogenic bacteria. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005;3:383-96 pubmed
    ..One quorum-sensing system, based on the possession of LuxS, bears the unique feature of contributing directly to metabolism, and therefore has the potential to influence both ..
  2. Surette M, Bassler B. Quorum sensing in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:7046-50 pubmed
    ..Implications for the involvement of quorum sensing in pathogenesis are discussed. ..
  3. Sperandio V, Torres A, Jarvis B, Nataro J, Kaper J. Bacteria-host communication: the language of hormones. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:8951-6 pubmed
    ..The QS system used by EHEC is the LuxS/autoinducer 2 (AI-2) system extensively involved in interspecies communication...
  4. Li J, Wang L, Hashimoto Y, Tsao C, Wood T, Valdes J, et al. A stochastic model of Escherichia coli AI-2 quorum signal circuit reveals alternative synthesis pathways. Mol Syst Biol. 2006;2:67 pubmed
    ..Many cell functions are regulated by intricate and multimodal QS signal transduction processes. The LuxS/AI-2 QS system is highly conserved among Eubacteria and AI-2 is reported as a 'universal' signal molecule...
  5. Kaper J, Sperandio V. Bacterial cell-to-cell signaling in the gastrointestinal tract. Infect Immun. 2005;73:3197-209 pubmed
  6. Surette M, Miller M, Bassler B. Quorum sensing in Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Vibrio harveyi: a new family of genes responsible for autoinducer production. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:1639-44 pubmed
    ..E. coli DH5alpha can be complemented to AI-2 production by the introduction of the luxS gene from V. harveyi or E. coli O157:H7. Analysis of the E. coli DH5alpha luxSE.c...
  7. Delisa M, Valdes J, Bentley W. Mapping stress-induced changes in autoinducer AI-2 production in chemostat-cultivated Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:2918-28 pubmed
    ..Significant regulatory overlap was revealed among several stress and starvation genes and known quorum-sensing genes. ..
  8. Wang L, Li J, March J, Valdes J, Bentley W. luxS-dependent gene regulation in Escherichia coli K-12 revealed by genomic expression profiling. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:8350-60 pubmed
    The bacterial quorum-sensing autoinducer 2 (AI-2) has received intense interest because the gene for its synthase, luxS, is common among a large number of bacterial species...
  9. Winzer K, Hardie K, Burgess N, Doherty N, Kirke D, Holden M, et al. LuxS: its role in central metabolism and the in vitro synthesis of 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone. Microbiology. 2002;148:909-22 pubmed
    ..a number of bacteria have been shown to possess AI-2 activity in their culture supernatants, and bear the luxS gene product, which is required for AI-2 synthesis...

More Information


  1. Wang L, Hashimoto Y, Tsao C, Valdes J, Bentley W. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP receptor protein influence both synthesis and uptake of extracellular autoinducer 2 in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:2066-76 pubmed
    ..repression through the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-CRP complex, which directly stimulates transcription of the lsr (for "luxS regulated") operon and indirectly represses luxS expression...
  2. Winzer K, Hardie K, Williams P. LuxS and autoinducer-2: their contribution to quorum sensing and metabolism in bacteria. Adv Appl Microbiol. 2003;53:291-396 pubmed
  3. Schauder S, Shokat K, Surette M, Bassler B. The LuxS family of bacterial autoinducers: biosynthesis of a novel quorum-sensing signal molecule. Mol Microbiol. 2001;41:463-76 pubmed
    ..bacteria produce AI-2 and, in every case, production of AI-2 is dependent on the function encoded by the luxS gene...
  4. Zhu J, Knottenbelt S, Kirk M, Pei D. Catalytic mechanism of S-ribosylhomocysteinase: ionization state of active-site residues. Biochemistry. 2006;45:12195-203 pubmed
    S-Ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS) catalyzes the cleavage of the thioether linkage in S-ribosylhomocysteine (SRH) to produce homocysteine (Hcys) and 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD), the precursor of type II bacterial autoinducer (AI-2)...
  5. Ling H, Kang A, Tan M, Qi X, Chang M. The absence of the luxS gene increases swimming motility and flagella synthesis in Escherichia coli K12. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;401:521-6 pubmed publisher
    Despite the significant role of S-ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS) in the activated methyl cycle pathway and quorum sensing, the connectivity between luxS and other cellular functions remains incomplete...
  6. Turovskiy Y, Kashtanov D, Paskhover B, Chikindas M. Quorum sensing: fact, fiction, and everything in between. Adv Appl Microbiol. 2007;62:191-234 pubmed
  7. Soni K, Jesudhasan P, Cepeda M, Williams B, Hume M, Russell W, et al. Proteomic analysis to identify the role of LuxS/AI-2 mediated protein expression in Escherichia coli O157:H7. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2007;4:463-71 pubmed
    ..coli O157:H7 and its isogenic luxS mutant, and 2) the luxS mutant and the luxS mutant supplemented with AI-2 molecules...
  8. De Lay N, Gottesman S. The Crp-activated small noncoding regulatory RNA CyaR (RyeE) links nutritional status to group behavior. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:461-76 pubmed publisher
    ..that several genes are negatively regulated by CyaR, including ompX, encoding a major outer membrane protein; luxS, encoding the autoinducer-2 synthase; nadE, encoding an essential NAD synthetase; and yqaE, encoding a predicted ..
  9. Walters M, Sircili M, Sperandio V. AI-3 synthesis is not dependent on luxS in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:5668-81 pubmed
    ..with homocysteine, is produced by cleavage of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and S-ribosylhomocysteine by the Pfs and LuxS enzymes. Numerous phenotypes have been attributed to AI-2 QS signaling using luxS mutants...
  10. Yang Y, Zhou M, Hou H, Zhu J, Yao F, Zhang X, et al. Quorum-sensing gene luxS regulates flagella expression and Shiga-like toxin production in F18ab Escherichia coli. Can J Microbiol. 2014;60:355-61 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effect of the luxS gene on the expression of virulence factors in Shiga-like toxin producing and verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli, the luxS gene from E. coli 107/86 (wild type, O139:H1:F18ab, Stx2e) was deleted...
  11. Belik A, Zavil gel skiń≠ G, Khmel I. [Influence of mutations at genes of global transcriptional regulators on production of autoinducer AI-2 Quorum Sensing in the system of Escherichia coli]. Genetika. 2008;44:1184-90 pubmed
    ..AI-2 and synthase LuxS mediating its synthesis are widely distributed in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria...
  12. Han X, Bai H, Liu L, Dong H, Liu R, Song J, et al. The luxS gene functions in the pathogenesis of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli. Microb Pathog. 2013;55:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>LuxS, the product of the luxS gene, mediates the quorum sensing (QS) mechanism...
  13. Grillo Puertas M, Villegas J, Rintoul M, Rapisarda V. Polyphosphate degradation in stationary phase triggers biofilm formation via LuxS quorum sensing system in Escherichia coli. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50368 pubmed publisher
    ..b>luxS and lsrK mutants, impaired in autoinducer-2 quorum sensing signal metabolism, were unable to form biofilm unless ..
  14. Han X, Bai H, Liu L, Chen W, Ding C, Hu Q, et al. [Cloning and expression of luxS and pfs and in vitro biosynthesis autoinducer 2 of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli from Anhui Province]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2012;52:1167-72 pubmed
    The LuxS/AI-2 quorum sensing (QS) system shared by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria involves the production of autoinducer-2 (AI-2)...
  15. Yang S, Lopez C, Zechiedrich E. Quorum sensing and multidrug transporters in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:2386-91 pubmed
    ..These results were not affected by the deletion of luxS, which synthesizes the quorum-sensing signal autoinducer 2 (AI-2)...
  16. Rychlik I, Barrow P. Salmonella stress management and its relevance to behaviour during intestinal colonisation and infection. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2005;29:1021-40 pubmed
    ..The role of quorum-sensing through luxS and sdiA is also considered as a regulator of virulence and colonisation.
  17. Ahmer B. Cell-to-cell signalling in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Mol Microbiol. 2004;52:933-45 pubmed
    ..Conversely, E. coli and Salmonella encode the signal-generating component of a second system (a LuxS homologue that generates AI-2), but the sensory apparatus for AI-2 differs substantially from the Vibrio system...
  18. Winzer K, Williams P. Escherichia coli gets the message. Nat Med. 2003;9:1118-9 pubmed
  19. Hardie K, Cooksley C, Green A, Winzer K. Autoinducer 2 activity in Escherichia coli culture supernatants can be actively reduced despite maintenance of an active synthase, LuxS. Microbiology. 2003;149:715-28 pubmed publisher
    Production of the signalling molecule (autoinducer-2) synthesized by LuxS has been proposed to be pivotal to a universal mechanism of inter-species bacterial cell-cell communication (quorum sensing); however recently the function of LuxS ..
  20. Palaniyandi S, Mitra A, Herren C, Zhu X, Mukhopadhyay S. LuxS contributes to virulence in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli O78:K80:H9. Vet Microbiol. 2013;166:567-75 pubmed publisher
    ..b>LuxS, a well-known controller in the QS, plays a role in regulating virulence in various bacterial species...
  21. Xavier K, Bassler B. Interference with AI-2-mediated bacterial cell-cell communication. Nature. 2005;437:750-3 pubmed
    ..AI-2 signalling, and the interference with it, could have important ramifications for eukaryotes in the maintenance of normal microflora and in protection from pathogenic bacteria. ..
  22. Winzer K, Hardie K, Williams P. Bacterial cell-to-cell communication: sorry, can't talk now - gone to lunch!. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2002;5:216-22 pubmed
    ..cell-to-cell communication (quorum sensing) systems based on diffusible signal molecules, such as indole and the LuxS autoinducer-2, requires discrimination between true signalling molecules and metabolites present in culture ..
  23. Tavender T, Halliday N, Hardie K, Winzer K. LuxS-independent formation of AI-2 from ribulose-5-phosphate. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:98 pubmed publisher
    ..signal molecule AI-2 is generated from its precursor S-ribosyl-L-homocysteine in a reaction catalysed by the enzyme LuxS. However, generation of AI-2-like activity has also been reported for organisms lacking the luxS gene and the ..
  24. Lomovskaya O, Lewis K. Emr, an Escherichia coli locus for multidrug resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:8938-42 pubmed
    ..Disruption of emrB significantly increased sensitivity of cells to uncouplers. The cellular content of uncoupler increased in the order: overexpressed emrB cells greater than wild type greater than emrB-. ..
  25. Miller C, Duerre J. S-ribosylhomocysteine cleavage enzyme from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1968;243:92-7 pubmed
  26. Campagna S, Gooding J, May A. Direct quantitation of the quorum sensing signal, autoinducer-2, in clinically relevant samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2009;81:6374-81 pubmed publisher
  27. Ren D, Bedzyk L, Ye R, Thomas S, Wood T. Differential gene expression shows natural brominated furanones interfere with the autoinducer-2 bacterial signaling system of Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2004;88:630-42 pubmed
    ..Microbiol 3:731-736, 2001) to inhibit quorum sensing in Escherichia coli via autoinducer-2 (AI-2, produced by LuxS)...
  28. Taga M, Semmelhack J, Bassler B. The LuxS-dependent autoinducer AI-2 controls the expression of an ABC transporter that functions in AI-2 uptake in Salmonella typhimurium. Mol Microbiol. 2001;42:777-93 pubmed
    ..In every case, production of AI-2 is dependent on the LuxS autoinducer synthase...
  29. Kirkpatrick C, Maurer L, Oyelakin N, Yoncheva Y, Maurer R, Slonczewski J. Acetate and formate stress: opposite responses in the proteome of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:6466-77 pubmed
    ..and ProX), metabolic enzymes (YfiD and GatY), the RpoS growth phase regulon, and the autoinducer synthesis protein LuxS. Acetate repressed 17 proteins, among them phosphotransferase (Pta)...
  30. De Keersmaecker S, Sonck K, Vanderleyden J. Let LuxS speak up in AI-2 signaling. Trends Microbiol. 2006;14:114-9 pubmed
    ..The AI-2 synthase LuxS is widely distributed among the Bacteria, which suggests that AI-2 is a language for interspecies communication...
  31. Haigh R, Kumar B, Sandrini S, Freestone P. Mutation design and strain background influence the phenotype of Escherichia coli luxS mutants. Mol Microbiol. 2013;88:951-69 pubmed publisher
    Previous analyses of luxS in Escherichia coli have used different strain backgrounds and design formats to produce the luxS mutation, resulting in luxS mutants with confusingly dissimilar phenotypes...
  32. Eboigbodin K, Newton J, Routh A, Biggs C. Bacterial quorum sensing and cell surface electrokinetic properties. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;73:669-75 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli MG1655 and MG1655 LuxS- mutant (lacking quorum-sensing gene for Autoinducer synthase AI-2) were used for this study...
  33. Walters M, Sperandio V. Quorum sensing in Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296:125-31 pubmed
    ..several research groups have demonstrated that these bacteria use several quorum-sensing systems, such as: the luxS/AI-2, AI-3/epinephrine/norepinephrine, indole, and the LuxR homolog SdiA to achieve intercellular signaling...