Gene Symbol: lpp
Description: murein lipoprotein
Alias: ECK1673, JW1667, mlpA, mulI
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Cowles C, Li Y, Semmelhack M, Cristea I, Silhavy T. The free and bound forms of Lpp occupy distinct subcellular locations in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2011;79:1168-81 pubmed publisher
    The lipoprotein Lpp is the most numerically abundant protein in Escherichia coli, has been investigated for over 40 years, and has served as the paradigmatic bacterial lipoprotein since its initial discovery...
  2. Cao G, Sarkar N. Poly(A) RNA in Escherichia coli: nucleotide sequence at the junction of the lpp transcript and the polyadenylate moiety. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:7546-50 pubmed
    ..in exoribonucleases and synthesized DNA complementary to polyadenylylated lipoprotein mRNA, encoded by the lpp gene, by using avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase and an oligo(dT)-containing primer...
  3. Schrader J, Gaafar H. Detection of antibodies to Neisseria gonorrhoeae by counterimmunoelectrophoresis. Health Lab Sci. 1978;15:15-21 pubmed
    ..Of the sera from patients with bacteriologically confirmed cases of gonorrhea, 80% were positive by CIE using this antigen preparation. Of the sera in the negative control group 11% were reactive. ..
  4. Ni Y, Mao Z, Chen R. Outer membrane mutation effects on UDP-glucose permeability and whole-cell catalysis rate. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;73:384-93 pubmed
    ..It also highlights a need for an assessment of substrate permeability in biocatalysis research and development. ..
  5. Born P, Breukink E, Vollmer W. In vitro synthesis of cross-linked murein and its attachment to sacculi by PBP1A from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:26985-93 pubmed
    ..The attachment of the new material occurred by transpeptidation reactions in which monomeric triand tetrapeptides in the sacculi were the acceptors. ..
  6. Braun V. Covalent lipoprotein from the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975;415:335-77 pubmed
  7. Cavard D. Inhibition of colicin synthesis by the antibiotic globomycin. Arch Microbiol. 1998;171:50-8 pubmed
    ..alleviated by a null mutation in the degP gene encoding the DegP/HtrA protease, abolished by a null mutation in the lpp gene encoding the murein-lipoprotein, and enhanced by a mutation in the pldA gene encoding the outer membrane ..
  8. Pathania R, Zlitni S, Barker C, Das R, Gerritsma D, Lebert J, et al. Chemical genomics in Escherichia coli identifies an inhibitor of bacterial lipoprotein targeting. Nat Chem Biol. 2009;5:849-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that MAC13243 inhibits the function of the LolA protein and represents a new chemical probe of lipoprotein targeting in bacteria with promise as an antibacterial lead with Gram-negative selectivity. ..
  9. Brinkman K, Larsen R. Interactions of the energy transducer TonB with noncognate energy-harvesting complexes. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:421-7 pubmed
    ..Further, the data suggest a distinct role for ExbD in the TonB energy transduction cycle. ..

More Information


  1. Liu J, Lu M. An alanine-zipper structure determined by long range intermolecular interactions. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:48708-13 pubmed
    ..A similar interplay between short range local and longer range global forces may underlie the conformational properties of the growing class of natively unstructured proteins in biological processes. ..
  2. Hirashima A, Wang S, Inouye M. Cell-free synthesis of a specific lipoprotein of the Escherichia coli outer membrane directed by purified messenger RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974;71:4149-53 pubmed
    ..Protein synthesis of the cell-free system was totally dependent upon the addition of the purified mRNA. The product of the cell-free system was identified as the specific lipoprotein by immunoprecipitation and by peptide mapping. ..
  3. Dragan A, Potekhin S, Sivolob A, Lu M, Privalov P. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the unfolding and refolding of the three-stranded alpha-helical coiled coil, Lpp-56. Biochemistry. 2004;43:14891-900 pubmed
    Temperature-induced reversible unfolding and refolding of the three-stranded alpha-helical coiled coil, Lpp-56, were studied by kinetic and thermodynamic methods, using CD spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and scanning calorimetry...
  4. Vadillo Rodriguez V, Schooling S, Dutcher J. In situ characterization of differences in the viscoelastic response of individual gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cells. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5518-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this is the first report in which the mechanical role of Lpp, the major peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein and one of the most abundant outer membrane proteins in E...
  5. Grogan D, Cronan J. Genetic characterization of the Escherichia coli cyclopropane fatty acid (cfa) locus and neighboring loci. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;196:367-72 pubmed
    ..Selection for excision of the Tn10 element resulted in several types of mutants which harbor mutations of cfa and of neighboring genes, presumably as a consequence of Tn10-catalyzed chromosomal rearrangements. ..
  6. Inukai M, Ghrayeb J, Nakamura K, Inouye M. Apolipoprotein, an intermediate in the processing of the major lipoprotein of the Escherichia coli outer membrane. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:757-60 pubmed
    ..The resulting intermediate, designated here as apolipoprotein, is subsequently acylated at its free amino group to yield the final mature lipoprotein. ..
  7. Tajima T, Yokota N, Matsuyama S, Tokuda H. Genetic analyses of the in vivo function of LolA, a periplasmic chaperone involved in the outer membrane localization of Escherichia coli lipoproteins. FEBS Lett. 1998;439:51-4 pubmed
    The major outer membrane lipoprotein (Lpp) of Escherichia coli is released from the cytoplasmic membrane into the periplasm as a complex with LolA, a periplasmic chaperone, prior to the localization in the outer membrane...
  8. Suzuki H, Nishimura Y, Yasuda S, Nishimura A, Yamada M, Hirota Y. Murein-lipoprotein of Escherichia coli: a protein involved in the stabilization of bacterial cell envelope. Mol Gen Genet. 1978;167:1-9 pubmed
  9. Ueno H, Yonesaki T. Phage-induced change in the stability of mRNAs. Virology. 2004;329:134-41 pubmed publisher
    The stability of mRNA in Escherichia coli cells changed after phage T4 infection. Stable E. coli mRNAs such as lpp and ompA were drastically destabilized immediately after infection...
  10. Yamane K, Ichihara S, Mizushima S. In vitro translocation of protein across Escherichia coli membrane vesicles requires both the proton motive force and ATP. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:2358-62 pubmed
    ..An ompF-lpp chimeric protein was used as a model secretory protein...
  11. Choi D, Yamada H, Mizuno T, Mizushima S. Trimeric structure and localization of the major lipoprotein in the cell surface of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:8953-7 pubmed
    ..The cross-linking study also revealed interaction between the lipoprotein and the OmpA protein, a major outer membrane protein. ..
  12. Wang J, Chao Y. Immobilization of cells with surface-displayed chitin-binding domain. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:927-31 pubmed
    ..domain (ChBD)-based cell immobilization, a tripartite gene fusion consisting of an in-frame fusion of ChBD to lpp and ompA was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli...
  13. Schwechheimer C, Kulp A, Kuehn M. Modulation of bacterial outer membrane vesicle production by envelope structure and content. BMC Microbiol. 2014;14:324 pubmed publisher
    ..architecture and prior characterization of the hypervesiculation phenotypes for mutants lacking the lipoprotein, Lpp, which is involved in the covalent OM-peptidoglycan (PG) crosslinks, it is expected that an inverse relationship ..
  14. Ni Y, Chen R. Lipoprotein mutation accelerates substrate permeability-limited toluene dioxygenase-catalyzed reaction. Biotechnol Prog. 2005;21:799-805 pubmed
    ..A comparison of the mutation effect with a common permeabilizing procedure, the EDTA treatment, further illustrates the clear advantages of using genetic modification in cellular membrane engineering for improved whole-cell catalysts. ..
  15. Zwiebel L, Inukai M, Nakamura K, Inouye M. Preferential selection of deletion mutations of the outer membrane lipoprotein gene of Escherichia coli by globomycin. J Bacteriol. 1981;145:654-6 pubmed
    ..independently isolated from Escherichia coli K-12 which had a deletion mutation in chromosomal lipoprotein gene (lpp), but contained a plasmid carrying the wild-type lpp gene...
  16. Braun V, Sieglin U. The covalent murein-lipoprotein structure of the Escherichia coli cell wall. The attachment site of the lipoprotein on the murein. Eur J Biochem. 1970;13:336-46 pubmed
  17. Vakharia Rao H, Kastead K, Savenkova M, Bulathsinghala C, Postle K. Deletion and substitution analysis of the Escherichia coli TonB Q160 region. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:4662-70 pubmed
    ..It is hypothesized that the TonB Q160 region may be part of a large disordered region required to span the periplasm and contact an OM transporter. ..
  18. Higgs P, Letain T, Merriam K, Burke N, Park H, Kang C, et al. TonB interacts with nonreceptor proteins in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:1640-8 pubmed
    ..Subsequently, two additional contacts of TonB with the outer membrane proteins Lpp and, putatively, OmpA were identified by in vivo cross-linking...
  19. Yakushi T, Tajima T, Matsuyama S, Tokuda H. Lethality of the covalent linkage between mislocalized major outer membrane lipoprotein and the peptidoglycan of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:2857-62 pubmed
    The major outer membrane lipoprotein (Lpp) of Escherichia coli possesses serine at position 2, which is thought to function as the outer membrane sorting signal, and lysine at the C terminus, through which Lpp covalently associates with ..
  20. Sankaran K, Wu H. Lipid modification of bacterial prolipoprotein. Transfer of diacylglyceryl moiety from phosphatidylglycerol. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:19701-6 pubmed
    ..The revised pathway for the lipoprotein biogenesis in bacteria consists of three successive reactions catalyzed by prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase, signal peptidase II, and apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase. ..
  21. Giam C, Hayashi S, Wu H. Characterization of a novel lipoprotein mutant in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:5601-5 pubmed
    ..DNA sequence analysis of the mutant lpp allele and determination of the amino acid composition of the mutant lipoprotein revealed a single amino acid ..
  22. Hiemstra H, Nanninga N, Woldringh C, Inouye M, Witholt B. Distribution of newly synthesized lipoprotein over the outer membrane and the peptidoglycan sacculus of an Escherichia coli lac-lpp strain. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:5434-44 pubmed
    ..Lipoprotein was briefly induced with isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside in cells carrying lac-lpp on a low-copy-number plasmid in an E. coli lpp host...
  23. Bjelic S, Karshikoff A, Jelesarov I. Stability and folding/unfolding kinetics of the homotrimeric coiled coil Lpp-56. Biochemistry. 2006;45:8931-9 pubmed
    The 56 amino acid long protein moiety of the E. coli outer membrane lipoprotein (Lpp-56) contains a 4,3 hydrophobic heptad repeat and forms a parallel, in-register trimeric coiled coil in solution...
  24. Tefsen B, Geurtsen J, Beckers F, Tommassen J, de Cock H. Lipopolysaccharide transport to the bacterial outer membrane in spheroplasts. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:4504-9 pubmed
    ..In contrast to LPS, de novo synthesized phospholipids were not transported to the outer membrane in spheroplasts. Apparently, LPS and phospholipids have different requirements for their transport to the outer membrane...
  25. Mizushima S. Post-translational modification and processing of outer membrane prolipoproteins in Escherichia coli. Mol Cell Biochem. 1984;60:5-15 pubmed
    ..In this review these chemical and topographical events are discussed step by step especially in relation to the process of protein secretion across the cytoplasmic membrane. ..
  26. Zheng C, Yang L, Hoopmann M, Eng J, Tang X, Weisbrod C, et al. Cross-linking measurements of in vivo protein complex topologies. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2011;10:M110.006841 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our unbiased data provide novel in vivo topological information that can impact understanding of biological function, even for cases where high resolution structures are not yet available. ..
  27. Liu J, Zheng Q, Deng Y, Kallenbach N, Lu M. Conformational transition between four and five-stranded phenylalanine zippers determined by a local packing interaction. J Mol Biol. 2006;361:168-79 pubmed
  28. Hayashi S, Chang S, Chang S, Giam C, Wu H. Modification and processing of internalized signal sequences of prolipoprotein in Escherichia coli and in Bacillus subtilis. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:5753-9 pubmed
    We have cloned the Escherichia coli lipoprotein structural gene (lpp) into a shuttle vector and studied its expression in both E. coli and in Bacillus subtilis...
  29. Braun V, Bosch V. Sequence of the murein-lipoprotein and the attachment site of the lipid. Eur J Biochem. 1972;28:51-69 pubmed
  30. Dev I, Harvey R, Ray P. Inhibition of prolipoprotein signal peptidase by globomycin. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:5891-4 pubmed
    ..Globomycin inhibits the prolipoprotein-specific signal peptidase activity by binding to the enzyme in a noncompetitive manner (Ki = 36 nM). The Km of prolipoprotein signal peptidase for the prolipoprotein substrate is 6 (+/- 1) microM. ..
  31. McLachlan A. The double helix coiled coil structure of murein lipoprotein from Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1978;121:493-506 pubmed
  32. Clavel T, Germon P, Vianney A, Portalier R, Lazzaroni J. TolB protein of Escherichia coli K-12 interacts with the outer membrane peptidoglycan-associated proteins Pal, Lpp and OmpA. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:359-67 pubmed
    ..It was shown that TolB could be cross-linked in vivo with Pal, OmpA and Lpp, while Pal was associated with TolB and OmpA...
  33. Dailey F, Macnab R. Effects of lipoprotein biogenesis mutations on flagellar assembly in Salmonella. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:771-6 pubmed
    ..diacylglycerol transferase [lgt(Ts)] mutants were motile at 42 degrees C, provided the strains carried an lpp (Braun lipoprotein) mutation to permit growth...
  34. Cascales E, Bernadac A, Gavioli M, Lazzaroni J, Lloubes R. Pal lipoprotein of Escherichia coli plays a major role in outer membrane integrity. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:754-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, the roles of Pal and major lipoprotein Lpp were compared in Escherichia coli...
  35. Cascales E, Gavioli M, Sturgis J, Lloubes R. Proton motive force drives the interaction of the inner membrane TolA and outer membrane pal proteins in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2000;38:904-15 pubmed
    ..Any defect in the Tol-Pal proteins or in the major lipoprotein (Lpp) results in the loss of outer membrane integrity giving hypersensitivity to drugs and detergents, periplasmic ..
  36. Bernstein H. The double life of a bacterial lipoprotein. Mol Microbiol. 2011;79:1128-31 pubmed publisher
    It has been known for many years that the small lipoprotein Lpp, which is the most abundant protein in E. coli, exists in two forms...
  37. Gennity J, Kim H, Inouye M. Structural determinants in addition to the amino-terminal sorting sequence influence membrane localization of Escherichia coli lipoproteins. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2095-101 pubmed
    ..Therefore, structural determinants in addition to the amino-terminal sorting sequence influence the membrane localization of lipoproteins. ..
  38. Inouye M, Shaw J, Shen C. The assembly of a structural lipoprotein in the envelope of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1972;247:8154-9 pubmed
  39. Hantke K, Braun V. Covalent binding of lipid to protein. Diglyceride and amide-linked fatty acid at the N-terminal end of the murein-lipoprotein of the Escherichia coli outer membrane. Eur J Biochem. 1973;34:284-96 pubmed
  40. Park H, Kim Y, Choi C, Kim S. Tripodal Lipoprotein Variants with C-Terminal Hydrophobic Residues Allosterically Modulate Activity of the DegP Protease. J Mol Biol. 2017;429:3090-3101 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that a mutant variant of an outer-membrane lipoprotein, Lpp+Leu, can function as a novel allosteric effector that changes the dynamic range of DegP activity...
  41. Mohanty B, Kushner S. The majority of Escherichia coli mRNAs undergo post-transcriptional modification in exponentially growing cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:5695-704 pubmed
    ..real-time PCR analysis indicates that the extent of polyadenylation of individual full-length transcripts such as lpp and ompA varies significantly in wild-type cells. The data presented here demonstrates that polyadenylation in E...
  42. Nakamura K, Inouye M. DNA sequence of the gene for the outer membrane lipoprotein of E. coli: an extremely AT-rich promoter. Cell. 1979;18:1109-17 pubmed
    ..Fourth, a sequence homologous to the "RNA polymerase recognition site" exists on both strands between positions -27 and -39. Finally, there is a long dyad symmetry centered at the transcription initiation site. ..
  43. Braun V, Rehn K. Chemical characterization, spatial distribution and function of a lipoprotein (murein-lipoprotein) of the E. coli cell wall. The specific effect of trypsin on the membrane structure. Eur J Biochem. 1969;10:426-38 pubmed
  44. Liu J, Cao W, Lu M. Core side-chain packing and backbone conformation in Lpp-56 coiled-coil mutants. J Mol Biol. 2002;318:877-88 pubmed
    ..Here we investigate the role of core packing in determining the conformation and stability of the Lpp-56 trimerization domain...
  45. Yokota N, Kuroda T, Matsuyama S, Tokuda H. Characterization of the LolA-LolB system as the general lipoprotein localization mechanism of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:30995-9 pubmed
    The major outer membrane lipoprotein (Lpp) of Escherichia coli requires LolA for its release from the cytoplasmic membrane, and LolB for its localization to the outer membrane...
  46. Inouye S, Wang S, Sekizawa J, Halegoua S, Inouye M. Amino acid sequence for the peptide extension on the prolipoprotein of the Escherichia coli outer membrane. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977;74:1004-8 pubmed
    ..The significance of the amino acid sequence is discussed in terms of the mechanism of biosynthesis and assembly of the lipoprotein in the E. coli outer membrane. ..
  47. Watanabe T, Hayashi S, Wu H. Synthesis and export of the outer membrane lipoprotein in Escherichia coli mutants defective in generalized protein export. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:4001-7 pubmed
    ..coli carrying a null secB::Tn5 mutation; on the other hand, the export of an OmpF::Lpp hybrid protein, consisting of the signal sequence plus 11 amino acid residues of mature OmpF and mature lipoprotein,..
  48. Ingle C, Kushner S. Development of an in vitro mRNA decay system for Escherichia coli: poly(A) polymerase I is necessary to trigger degradation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:12926-31 pubmed
    ..The in vitro decay of two different mRNAs (trxA and lpp) is triggered by the addition of ATP only when polysomes are prepared from s strain carrying the wild-type gene for ..
  49. Shu W, Liu J, Ji H, Lu M. Core structure of the outer membrane lipoprotein from Escherichia coli at 1.9 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 2000;299:1101-12 pubmed
    ..The 56-residue polypeptide moiety of the lipoprotein, designated Lpp-56, folds into a stable, trimeric helical structure in aqueous solution. The 1...
  50. Ni Y, Reye J, Chen R. lpp deletion as a permeabilization method. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2007;97:1347-56 pubmed
    Our earlier studies with outer membrane permeability in E. coli showed that an insertion mutation in lpp gene (encoding Braun's lipoprotein) drastically changed the outer membrane permeability, resulting in significant acceleration of ..
  51. Liu J, Dai J, Lu M. Zinc-mediated helix capping in a triple-helical protein. Biochemistry. 2003;42:5657-64 pubmed
    ..The observed synergy between the protein-zinc ion recognition and the helix-packing arrangements would contribute to the conformational specificity of the Ala-10(56) trimer. ..
  52. Watanabe S, Matsuyama S, Tokuda H. Roles of the hydrophobic cavity and lid of LolA in the lipoprotein transfer reaction in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:3335-42 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that both the hydrophobic cavity and the lid are critically important for not only the binding of lipoproteins but also their transfer. ..
  53. Shi -, Wen Su W -. Display of green fluorescent protein on Escherichia coli cell surface. Enzyme Microb Technol. 2001;28:25-34 pubmed
    ..protein (GFP) on the external surface of Escherichia coli was achieved by construction of a fusion protein between Lpp-OmpA hybrid and a GFP variant, GFPmut2...
  54. Robichon C, Vidal Ingigliardi D, Pugsley A. Depletion of apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase causes mislocalization of outer membrane lipoproteins in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:974-83 pubmed
    ..The apo-form of peptidoglycan-anchored major lipoprotein (Lpp) and two other outer membrane lipoproteins accumulated in the plasma membrane when lnt expression was reduced...
  55. Zhang W, Inouye M, Wu H. Neither lipid modification nor processing of prolipoprotein is essential for the formation of murein-bound lipoprotein in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:19631-5 pubmed
    ..coli strain producing OmpF-Lpp hybrid protein...
  56. Jasiecki J, Wegrzyn G. Growth-rate dependent RNA polyadenylation in Escherichia coli. EMBO Rep. 2003;4:172-7 pubmed
    ..two transcripts, which were shown previously to be substrates for poly(A) polymerase I (PAP I), Escherichia coli lpp messenger RNA and bacteriophage lambda oop RNA, are polyadenylated more efficiently in slowly growing bacteria than ..
  57. Nakamura K, Pirtle R, Pirtle I, Takeishi K, Inouye M. Messenger ribonucleic acid of the lipoprotein of the Escherichia coli outer membrane. II. The complete nucleotide sequence. J Biol Chem. 1980;255:210-6 pubmed
    ..c) There are many repeating sequences including one repeat of 40 nucleotides. (d) There are a few other features which could be important for efficient translation of the mRNA. ..
  58. Sung C, Gennity J, Pollitt N, Inouye M. A positive residue in the hydrophobic core of the Escherichia coli lipoprotein signal peptide suppresses the secretion defect caused by an acidic amino terminus. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:997-1000 pubmed
    ..This effect was position-specific, did not require precursor translocation, and was dominant to the inhibition of synthesis caused by an acidic amino terminus. ..
  59. Haynes L, Thomas G, Burgoyne R. Interaction of neuronal calcium sensor-1 and ADP-ribosylation factor 1 allows bidirectional control of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase beta and trans-Golgi network-plasma membrane traffic. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:6047-54 pubmed
    ..The NCS-1-ARF1 interaction provides evidence for functional cross-talk between Ca(2+)-dependent and ARF-dependent pathways in TGN to plasma membrane traffic. ..