Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: lpd
Description: dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase; E3 component of pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenases complexes; glycine cleavage system L protein; dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase
Alias: ECK0115, JW0112, dhl, lpdA
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
- Spencer M, Guest J. Transcription analysis of the sucAB, aceEF and lpd genes of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1985;200:145-54 pubmedTranscript mapping of the Escherichia coli sucAB, aceEF and lpd genes, encoding the five components of the pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes, was carried out using single-stranded M13 probes...
- Plamann M, Rapp W, Stauffer G. Escherichia coli K12 mutants defective in the glycine cleavage enzyme system. Mol Gen Genet. 1983;192:15-20 pubmed..The new mutations, designated gcv, were mapped between the serA and lysA genes on the E. coli chromosome. ..
- Sun Z, Do P, Rhee M, Govindasamy L, Wang Q, Ingram L, et al. Amino acid substitutions at glutamate-354 in dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli lower the sensitivity of pyruvate dehydrogenase to NADH. Microbiology. 2012;158:1350-8 pubmed publisher..This inhibition is partially reversed by mutational alteration of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (LPD) component of the PDH complex (E354K or H322Y)...
- Fischer E, Sauer U. A novel metabolic cycle catalyzes glucose oxidation and anaplerosis in hungry Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:46446-51 pubmed
- Yang Y, Datta A, Hainfeld J, Furuya F, Wall J, Frey P. Mapping the lipoyl groups of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by use of gold cluster labels and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Biochemistry. 1994;33:9428-37 pubmed
- Perham R, Packman L. 2-Oxo acid dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes: domains, dynamics, and design. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1989;573:1-20 pubmed
- Sahlman L, Williams C. Lipoamide dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Steady-state kinetics of the physiological reaction. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:8039-45 pubmed..4 and 7.1, respectively, in a pH jump experiment. The properties of the wild type E. coli enzyme can now be compared with those of several site-directed mutants. ..
- Kikuchi G, Motokawa Y, Yoshida T, Hiraga K. Glycine cleavage system: reaction mechanism, physiological significance, and hyperglycinemia. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci. 2008;84:246-63 pubmed..Putative mechanisms of cellular injuries including those in the central nervous system of patients with nonketotic hyperglycinemia are discussed. ..
- Ghrist A, Stauffer G. Characterization of the Escherichia coli gcvR gene encoding a negative regulator of gcv expression. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:4980-4 pubmed..Models explaining how GcvR and GcvA might interact to regulate gcv expression are proposed. ..
- Langley D, Guest J. Biochemical genetics of the alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes of Escherichia coli K12: isolation and biochemical properties of deletion mutants. J Gen Microbiol. 1977;99:263-76 pubmedMutants of Escherichia coli K12 with deletions in the nadC-lpd region of the chromosome were obtained for use in studies on the expression of the ace (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, specific components) and lpd (lipomide dehydrogenase) ..
- Richarme G. Purification of a new dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:6580-5 pubmedI purified a new dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase from a lpd mutant of Escherichia coli deficient in the lipoamide dehydrogenase (EC 188.8.131.52) common to the pyruvate dehydrogenase (EC 184.108.40.206) and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes...
- Alwine J, Russell R, Murray K. Characterization of an Escherichia coli mutant deficient in dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase activity. J Bacteriol. 1973;115:1-8 pubmedA mutant of Escherichia coli deficient in dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DHL) activity has been isolated and its characteristics have been studied...
- Smith M, Neidhardt F. 2-Oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes of Escherichia coli: cellular amounts and patterns of synthesis. J Bacteriol. 1983;156:81-8 pubmed..These results are discussed with regard to possible mechanisms of regulation of the enzyme complexes in general and of the shared subunit specifically. ..
- Katayama A, Tsujii A, Wada A, Nishino T, Ishihama A. Systematic search for zinc-binding proteins in Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:2403-13 pubmed..coli increased up to more than 30 species (or more than 3% of about 1000 proteins expressed under laboratory culture conditions). The specificity and affinity of zinc-binding were analysed for some of the zinc-binding proteins. ..
- Langley D, Guest J. Biochemical genetics of the alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes of Escherichia coli K12: genetic characterization and regulatory properties of deletion mutants. J Gen Microbiol. 1978;106:103-17 pubmedTwenty-eight spontaneous auxotrophic aroP mutants with deletions in the azi--nadC--aroP--aceE--aceF--lpd region of the Escherichia coli K12 chromosome were characterized genetically with respect to various azi, nadC, ace and lpd markers ..
- Wagenknecht T, Grassucci R, Schaak D. Cryoelectron microscopy of frozen-hydrated alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:22402-8 pubmed..Images of the E2 cores isolated from pyruvate dehydrogenase complex appear surrounded by a faint fuzz that extends approximately 10 nm from the surface of the core and likely corresponds to the lipoyl domains of the E2. ..
- Guest J, Cole S, Jeyaseelan K. Organization and expression of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex genes of Escherichia coli K12. J Gen Microbiol. 1981;127:65-79 pubmed
- Hopkins N, Williams C. Characterization of lipoamide dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli lacking the redox active disulfide: C44S and C49S. Biochemistry. 1995;34:11757-65 pubmed..However, the FAD of C44S is markedly less completely reduced by 1 equiv of NADH than is the FAD of C49S. Ferricyanide stoichiometrically reoxidizes the FADH2 of both altered forms of the enzyme. ..
- Saumweber H, Binder R, Bisswanger H. Pyruvate dehydrogenase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Escherichia coli K12. Purification and characterization. Eur J Biochem. 1981;114:407-11 pubmed
- Yang H, Hainfeld J, Wall J, Frey P. Quaternary structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:16049-51 pubmed..The mass distributions are fully consistent with a structural model in which 6 E3 dimers are integrated into the six faces of the cubic E2 core, and 12 E1 dimers are associated along the 12 edges of the core enzyme. ..
- Faure M, Bourguignon J, Neuburger M, Macherel D, Sieker L, Ober R, et al. Interaction between the lipoamide-containing H-protein and the lipoamide dehydrogenase (L-protein) of the glycine decarboxylase multienzyme system 2. Crystal structures of H- and L-proteins. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:2890-8 pubmed..Polidori, A.M., Piètre, E., Faure, M., Jourdain, A., Bourguignon, J., Pucci, B. & Douce, R. (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267, 2882-2889] and by small angle X-ray scattering experiments reported herein. ..
- Stephens P, Lewis H, Darlison M, Guest J. Nucleotide sequence of the lipoamide dehydrogenase gene of Escherichia coli K12. Eur J Biochem. 1983;135:519-27 pubmedThe nucleotide sequence of a 1980-base-pair segment of DNA, containing the lpd gene encoding the lipoamide dehydrogenase component (E3) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Escherichia coli K12, has been determined by the dideoxy ..
- Wei W, Li H, Nemeria N, Jordan F. Expression and purification of the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase subunits of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex: a mass spectrometric assay for reductive acetylation of dihydrolipoa. Protein Expr Purif. 2003;28:140-50 pubmed..MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was thus demonstrated to be a fast and precise method for studying the reductive acetylation of the recombinant 1-lip E2 subunit by E1 and pyruvate. ..
- Wilkinson K, Williams C. NADH inhibition and NAD activation of Escherichia coli lipoamide dehydrogenase catalyzing the NADH-lipoamide reaction. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:2307-14 pubmed..coli and pig heart enzymes is explained by quantitative differences in the basic lipoamide dehydrogenase mechanism. A possible physiological role for this type of inhibition as a mechanism of control in E. coli is discussed. ..
- Schmincke Ott E, Bisswanger H. Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Escherichia coli K12. Comparative characterization of the free and the complex-bound component. Eur J Biochem. 1981;114:413-20 pubmed..Rather the further reduction of the catalytically active, half-reduced enzyme form to the catalytically inactive, fully reduced form has to be considered as causing the inhibition. ..
- McGarry J. A comparative study of the reversibility of the reaction catalysed by bacterial lipoamide dehydrogenase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1968;159:9-18 pubmed
- Carothers D, Pons G, Patel M. Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase: functional similarities and divergent evolution of the pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductases. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1989;268:409-25 pubmed..Additionally, the sequence information may help to better understand a divergent evolutionary relationship among these flavoproteins in different species. ..
- Allison N, Williams C, Guest J. Overexpression and mutagenesis of the lipoamide dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. Biochem J. 1988;256:741-9 pubmed..The lipoamide dehydrogenase gene, lpd, was dissected into two fragments which were separately subcloned into M13 vectors for mutagenesis in vitro ..
- Williams K, Leadlay P, Lowe P. Inhibition of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Trichomonas vaginalis by pyruvate and its analogues. Comparison with the pyruvate decarboxylase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Biochem J. 1990;268:69-75 pubmed
- Argyrou A, Blanchard J. Flavoprotein disulfide reductases: advances in chemistry and function. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 2004;78:89-142 pubmed..Selection of the particular nonflavin redox center and utilization of a second, or even a third, nonflavin redox center in some cases presumably represents the most efficient strategy for reduction of the individual substrate. ..
- Maeda Yorita K, Russell G, Guest J, Massey V, Williams C. Modulation of the oxidation-reduction potential of the flavin in lipoamide dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli by alteration of a nearby charged residue, K53R. Biochemistry. 1994;33:6213-20 pubmed..The rate of this reduction is lowered by approximately 3-fold relative to the wild-type enzyme.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
- Koike M, Reed L, Carroll W. alpha-Keto acid dehydrogenation complexes. IV. Resolution and reconstitution of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenation complex. J Biol Chem. 1963;238:30-9 pubmed
- Li M, Ho P, Yao S, Shimizu K. Effect of lpdA gene knockout on the metabolism in Escherichia coli based on enzyme activities, intracellular metabolite concentrations and metabolic flux analysis by 13C-labeling experiments. J Biotechnol. 2006;122:254-66 pubmedThe lipoamide dehydrogenase (LPD) encoded by lpdA gene is a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc), alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (AKGDH) and the glycine cleavage multi-enzyme (GCV) systems...
- Stephens P, Darlison M, Lewis H, Guest J. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Escherichia coli K12. Nucleotide sequence encoding the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase component. Eur J Biochem. 1983;133:481-9 pubmed..The subunit binding and catalytic domain occupies most of the residual polypeptide in the carboxy-terminal segment. ..
- Russell G, Machado R, Guest J. Overproduction of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Escherichia coli and site-directed substitutions in the E1p and E2p subunits. Biochem J. 1992;287 ( Pt 2):611-9 pubmedThe aceEF-lpd operon of Escherichia coli encodes the pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1p), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2p) and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) subunits of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDH complex)...
- Cunningham L, Georgellis D, Green J, Guest J. Co-regulation of lipoamide dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase synthesis in Escherichia coli: characterisation of an ArcA binding site in the lpd promoter. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1998;169:403-8 pubmedThe lipoamide dehydrogenase gene (lpdA) encoding the E3 subunits of both the pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes of Escherichia coli, is expressed from the upstream pdh and internal lpd promoters of the pdh ..
- CaJacob C, Frey P, Hainfeld J, Wall J, Yang H. Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: particle masses of the complex and component enzymes measured by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Biochemistry. 1985;24:2425-31 pubmed..The mass measurements by STEM are consistent with the subunit composition 24:24:12 when interpreted in the light of the flavin content of the complex and assuming 24 subunits in the core enzyme (E2). ..
- Stanley C, Packman L, Danson M, Henderson C, Perham R. Intramolecular coupling of active sites in the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes from bacterial and mammalian sources. Biochem J. 1981;195:715-21 pubmed..It is clear that active-site coupling is a general property of pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes of octahedral and icosahedral symmetries, the large numbers of subunits in each E2 core enhancing the effect. ..
- Kirkpatrick C, Maurer L, Oyelakin N, Yoncheva Y, Maurer R, Slonczewski J. Acetate and formate stress: opposite responses in the proteome of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:6466-77 pubmed
- Bates D, Danson M, Hale G, Hooper E, Perham R. Self-assembly and catalytic activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Escherichia coli. Nature. 1977;268:313-6 pubmed
- Pettit F, Reed L. Alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes. 8. Comparison of dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenases from pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1967;58:1126-30 pubmed
- Perham R, Packman L, Radford S. 2-Oxo acid dehydrogenase multi-enzyme complexes: in the beginning and halfway there. Biochem Soc Symp. 1987;54:67-81 pubmed..m.r. spectroscopy and the methods of protein engineering are providing important insights into the mechanics of these processes, with more general implications for the design principles of macromolecular assemblies. ..
- Heil G, Stauffer L, Stauffer G. Glycine binds the transcriptional accessory protein GcvR to disrupt a GcvA/GcvR interaction and allow GcvA-mediated activation of the Escherichia coli gcvTHP operon. Microbiology. 2002;148:2203-14 pubmed publisher..Amino acid changes in GcvR that reduce glycine binding result in a loss of glycine-mediated activation in vivo...
- Guest J, Stephens P. Molecular cloning of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex genes of Escherichia coli. J Gen Microbiol. 1980;121:277-92 pubmed..by three linked genes, ace E (pyruvate dehydrogenase, E1), aceF (dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, E2) and lpd (lipoamide dehydrogenase, E3, situated close to the nadC (quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase) and aroP (general ..
- Coggins J, Hooper E, Perham R. Use of dimethyl suberimidate and novel periodate-cleavable bis(imido esters) to study the quaternary structure of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1976;15:2527-33 pubmed
- Murphy G, Jensen G. Electron cryotomography of the E. coli pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes. Structure. 2005;13:1765-73 pubmed..This result demonstrates unambiguously that electron cryotomography can reveal the relative positions of features as small as 80 kDa in individual complexes, elucidating quaternary structure and conformational flexibility. ..
- Williams C, Zanetti G, Arscott L, McAllister J. Lipoamide dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase, and thioredoxin. J Biol Chem. 1967;242:5226-31 pubmed
- Lindsay H, Beaumont E, Richards S, Kelly S, Sanderson S, Price N, et al. FAD insertion is essential for attaining the assembly competence of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) monomer from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:36665-70 pubmed..Thus cofactor insertion represents a key step in the assembly of this enzyme, although its initial presence appears not to be required to promote the correct folding pathway. ..
- Swim H, Krampitz L. Acetic acid oxidation by Escherichia coli; evidence for the occurrence of a tricarboxylic acid cycle. J Bacteriol. 1954;67:419-25 pubmed
- Patel M, Roche T. Molecular biology and biochemistry of pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes. FASEB J. 1990;4:3224-33 pubmed..Although much is known about the means of effector modulation of mammalian complex activity, identification of the signal eliciting its regulation by insulin still poses an exciting challenge. ..
- Cunningham L, Guest J. Transcription and transcript processing in the sdhCDAB-sucABCD operon of Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 1998;144 ( Pt 8):2113-23 pubmed..encoding the lipoamide dehydrogenase component of both the 2-oxoglutarate and pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes (E3; lpdA) is the distal gene of another cluster containing two promoters located at 2.7 min: Ppdh pdhR-aceEF-Plpd lpdA...
- Graham L, Packman L, Perham R. Kinetics and specificity of reductive acylation of lipoyl domains from 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes. Biochemistry. 1989;28:1574-81 pubmed..coli. The 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes are specific for their particular 2-oxo acid substrates. The specificity of the E1 components was found to extend also to the lipoyl domains.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
- Kim P, Lee D, Kim T, Lee K, Jeong H, Lee S, et al. Metabolite essentiality elucidates robustness of Escherichia coli metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:13638-42 pubmed..This approach of analyzing metabolite essentiality provides insight into cellular robustness and concomitant fragility, which can be used for several applications, including the development of new drugs for treating pathogens. ..
- Guest J, Roberts R, Stephens P. Hybrid plasmids containing the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex genes and gene-DNA relationships in the 2 to 3 minute region of the Escherichia coli chromosome. J Gen Microbiol. 1983;129:671-80 pubmed..lesion of a deletion strain lacking all components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, delta (aroP aceE aceF lpd). Two ColE1-lpd+ hybrid plasmids were identified: pGS2 (ColE1-ace lpd+; 24 kb) and pGS5 (ColE1-lpd+; 14 kb)...
- Cassey B, Guest J, Attwood M. Environmental control of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex expression in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1998;159:325-9 pubmed..Expression of the pdh operon was shown to be tightly controlled in response to environmental stimuli, consistent with its importance in defining metabolic flux. ..