Gene Symbol: kdpE
Description: response regulator in two-component regulatory system with KdpD
Alias: ECK0682, JW5096
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Nakashima K, Sugiura A, Kanamaru K, Mizuno T. Signal transduction between the two regulatory components involved in the regulation of the kdpABC operon in Escherichia coli: phosphorylation-dependent functioning of the positive regulator, KdpE. Mol Microbiol. 1993;7:109-16 pubmed
    The proteins KdpD and KdpE are crucial to the osmotic regulation of the kdpABC operon that is responsible for the high-affinity K+ ion transport system in Escherichia coli...
  2. Toro Roman A, Wu T, Stock A. A common dimerization interface in bacterial response regulators KdpE and TorR. Protein Sci. 2005;14:3077-88 pubmed
    ..8 A), Ca(2+)-bound KdpE (2.0 A), and Mg(2+)/BeF(3)(-)-bound KdpE (2.2 A), both members of the OmpR/ PhoB subfamily from Escherichia coli...
  3. Sugiura A, Nakashima K, Tanaka K, Mizuno T. Clarification of the structural and functional features of the osmoregulated kdp operon of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:1769-76 pubmed
    ..e. in addition to them, a cis-acting sequence located upstream of the -35 region was essential for full activation of the promoter. This upstream sequence was demonstrated to be the target site for the trans-acting activator, KdpE.
  4. Nakashima K, Sugiura A, Momoi H, Mizuno T. Phosphotransfer signal transduction between two regulatory factors involved in the osmoregulated kdp operon in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:1777-84 pubmed
    The proteins KdpD and KdpE are regulatory factors critically involved in the osmotic regulation of the kdpABC operon that is responsible for a high-affinity transport system in Escherichia coli...
  5. Heermann R, Altendorf K, Jung K. The N-terminal input domain of the sensor kinase KdpD of Escherichia coli stabilizes the interaction between the cognate response regulator KdpE and the corresponding DNA-binding site. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:51277-84 pubmed
    The sensor kinase/response regulator system KdpD/KdpE of Escherichia coli regulates expression of the kdpFABC operon, which encodes the high affinity K+ transport system KdpFABC...
  6. Ohwada T, Sagisaka S. An immediate and steep increase in ATP concentration in response to reduced turgor pressure in Escherichia coli B. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1987;259:157-63 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that a major fraction of the stress-increased ATP resulted from de novo synthesis, and that it was mainly dependent upon the reaction of substrate-level phosphorylation, which is regulated by turgor pressure. ..
  7. Lüttmann D, Heermann R, Zimmer B, Hillmann A, Rampp I, Jung K, et al. Stimulation of the potassium sensor KdpD kinase activity by interaction with the phosphotransferase protein IIA(Ntr) in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2009;72:978-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcription initiation at the kdpFABC promoter is positively controlled by the two-component system KdpD/KdpE in response to K+ availability...
  8. Laimins L, Rhoads D, Epstein W. Osmotic control of kdp operon expression in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981;78:464-8 pubmed
    ..The kdp operon thus appears to be controlled by changes in a physical force, the turgor pressure. ..
  9. Asha H, Gowrishankar J. Regulation of kdp operon expression in Escherichia coli: evidence against turgor as signal for transcriptional control. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:4528-37 pubmed
    ..coli, is encoded by genes of the kdpABC operon, and its expression is regulated by the products of kdpD and kdpE. Loss of cell turgor has been proposed to be the signal which induces kdp expression (L. A. Laimins, D. B...

More Information


  1. Jung K, Tjaden B, Altendorf K. Purification, reconstitution, and characterization of KdpD, the turgor sensor of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:10847-52 pubmed
    In response to K+ availability or medium osmolality, the sensor kinase KdpD and the response regulator KdpE control the expression of the kdpFABC operon, coding for the high affinity K+-translocating Kdp ATPase of Escherichia coli...
  2. Heermann R, Weber A, Mayer B, Ott M, Hauser E, Gabriel G, et al. The universal stress protein UspC scaffolds the KdpD/KdpE signaling cascade of Escherichia coli under salt stress. J Mol Biol. 2009;386:134-48 pubmed publisher
    The sensor kinase KdpD and the response regulator KdpE control induction of the kdpFABC operon encoding the high-affinity K(+)-transport system KdpFABC in response to K(+) limitation or salt stress...
  3. Heermann R, Jung K. The complexity of the 'simple' two-component system KdpD/KdpE in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010;304:97-106 pubmed publisher
    The KdpD/KdpE two-component system of Escherichia coli activates the expression of the kdpFABC operon encoding the high-affinity K(+) uptake system KdpFABC in response to K(+) limitation or salt stress...
  4. Walderhaug M, Polarek J, Voelkner P, Daniel J, Hesse J, Altendorf K, et al. KdpD and KdpE, proteins that control expression of the kdpABC operon, are members of the two-component sensor-effector class of regulators. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2152-9 pubmed
    ..Expression requires KdpD, a 99-kDa membrane protein, and KdpE, a 25-kDa soluble cytoplasmic protein...
  5. Narayanan A, PAUL L, Tomar S, Patil D, Kumar P, YERNOOL D. Structure-function studies of DNA binding domain of response regulator KdpE reveals equal affinity interactions at DNA half-sites. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30102 pubmed publisher
    Expression of KdpFABC, a K(+) pump that restores osmotic balance, is controlled by binding of the response regulator KdpE to a specific DNA sequence (kdpFABC(BS)) via the winged helix-turn-helix type DNA binding domain (KdpE(DBD))...
  6. Frymier J, Reed T, Fletcher S, Csonka L. Characterization of transcriptional regulation of the kdp operon of Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:3061-3 pubmed
    ..This result, which has not been reported for Escherichia coli, is inconsistent with the model in which the signal for the induction of the kdp operon is turgor loss. ..
  7. Ballal A, Heermann R, Jung K, Gassel M, Apte K, Altendorf K. A chimeric Anabaena/ Escherichia coli KdpD protein (Anacoli KdpD) functionally interacts with E. coli KdpE and activates kdp expression in E. coli. Arch Microbiol. 2002;178:141-8 pubmed
    ..Expression of the operon is regulated by the membrane-bound sensor kinase KdpD and the cytosolic response regulator KdpE. From a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. strain L-31, a kdpDgene was cloned (GenBank accession no...
  8. Narayanan A, Kumar S, Evrard A, PAUL L, YERNOOL D. An asymmetric heterodomain interface stabilizes a response regulator-DNA complex. Nat Commun. 2014;5:3282 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present structures of DNA complexed with the response regulator KdpE, a member of the OmpR/PhoB family...
  9. Nakashima K, Sugiura A, Mizuno T. Functional reconstitution of the putative Escherichia coli osmosensor, KdpD, into liposomes. J Biochem. 1993;114:615-21 pubmed
    ..The solubilized KdpD itself did not exhibit the ability to phosphorylate the cognate response-regulator, KdpE. Upon reconstitution into liposomes, however, KdpD exhibited its kinase activity...
  10. Sutherland L, Cairney J, Elmore M, Booth I, Higgins C. Osmotic regulation of transcription: induction of the proU betaine transport gene is dependent on accumulation of intracellular potassium. J Bacteriol. 1986;168:805-14 pubmed
    ..The different mechanisms of proU and kdp regulation reflect the different physiological roles of these two osmoprotectants. ..
  11. Trchounian A. Ion exchange in facultative anaerobes: does a proton-potassium pump exist in anaerobic Escherichia Coli?. Anaerobe. 1997;3:355-71 pubmed
  12. Njoroge J, Nguyen Y, Curtis M, Moreira C, Sperandio V. Virulence meets metabolism: Cra and KdpE gene regulation in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. MBio. 2012;3:e00280-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This sugar-dependent regulation is achieved through two transcription factors: KdpE and Cra...
  13. Jung K, Altendorf K. Truncation of amino acids 12-128 causes deregulation of the phosphatase activity of the sensor kinase KdpD of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:17406-10 pubmed
    ..the high affinity K+ transport complex KdpFABC, is regulated by the sensor kinase KdpD and the response regulator KdpE. KdpD is a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the autophosphorylation by ATP and the dephosphorylation of the ..
  14. Brandon L, Dorus S, Epstein W, Altendorf K, Jung K. Modulation of KdpD phosphatase implicated in the physiological expression of the kdp ATPase of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2000;38:1086-92 pubmed
    The KdpD sensor kinase and the KdpE response regulator control the expression of the kdpFABC operon, encoding the KdpFABC high-affinity K+ transport system of Escherichia coli...
  15. Sardesai A, Gowrishankar J. trans-acting mutations in loci other than kdpDE that affect kdp operon regulation in Escherichia coli: effects of cytoplasmic thiol oxidation status and nucleoid protein H-NS on kdp expression. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:86-93 pubmed
    ..of a sensor kinase (integral membrane protein), KdpD, and a DNA-binding response regulator (cytoplasmic protein), KdpE. In this study, we screened for new dke (named dke for decreased kdp expression) mutations (in loci other than ..
  16. Parkinson J. Signal transduction schemes of bacteria. Cell. 1993;73:857-71 pubmed
  17. Polarek J, Williams G, Epstein W. The products of the kdpDE operon are required for expression of the Kdp ATPase of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2145-51 pubmed
    The expression of the Kdp system for K+ uptake in Escherichia coli requires the products of two genes, kdpD and kdpE. These genes constitute an operon adjacent to the kdpABC operon that encodes the three membrane protein subunits of Kdp...
  18. Stock J, Stock A, Mottonen J. Signal transduction in bacteria. Nature. 1990;344:395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..This phosphotransfer network couples environmental signals to an array of response elements that control cell motility and regulate gene expression...
  19. Gowrishankar J. Identification of osmoresponsive genes in Escherichia coli: evidence for participation of potassium and proline transport systems in osmoregulation. J Bacteriol. 1985;164:434-45 pubmed
  20. Jung K, Veen M, Altendorf K. K+ and ionic strength directly influence the autophosphorylation activity of the putative turgor sensor KdpD of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:40142-7 pubmed
    ..histidine kinase KdpD is a putative turgor sensor that regulates, together with the response regulator KdpE, the expression of the kdpFABC operon coding for the high affinity K(+)-uptake system KdpFABC of Escherichia coli...
  21. Parkinson J, Kofoid E. Communication modules in bacterial signaling proteins. Annu Rev Genet. 1992;26:71-112 pubmed
  22. Kremling A, Heermann R, Centler F, Jung K, Gilles E. Analysis of two-component signal transduction by mathematical modeling using the KdpD/KdpE system of Escherichia coli. Biosystems. 2004;78:23-37 pubmed
    A mathematical model for the KdpD/KdpE two-component system is presented and its dynamical behavior is analyzed...
  23. Voelkner P, Puppe W, Altendorf K. Characterization of the KdpD protein, the sensor kinase of the K(+)-translocating Kdp system of Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 1993;217:1019-26 pubmed
    KdpD and KdpE, proteins that control expression of the kdpFABC operon, are members of the class of sensor kinase/response regulator proteins...
  24. Malli R, Epstein W. Expression of the Kdp ATPase is consistent with regulation by turgor pressure. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:5102-8 pubmed
  25. Altendorf K, Voelkner P, Puppe W. The sensor kinase KdpD and the response regulator KdpE control expression of the kdpFABC operon in Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 1994;145:374-81 pubmed
  26. Pao G, Saier M. Response regulators of bacterial signal transduction systems: selective domain shuffling during evolution. J Mol Evol. 1995;40:136-54 pubmed
    ..Sequence data were correlated with structure/function when such information was available.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  27. Jung K, Altendorf K. Towards an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stimulus perception and signal transduction by the KdpD/KdpE system of Escherichia coli. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2002;4:223-8 pubmed
    ..histidine kinase KdpD is a putative turgor sensor that regulates, together with the response regulator KdpE, expression of the kdpFABC operon...
  28. Epstein W, Walderhaug M, Polarek J, Hesse J, Dorus E, Daniel J. The bacterial Kdp K(+)-ATPase and its relation to other transport ATPases, such as the Na+/K(+)- and Ca2(+)-ATPases in higher organisms. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1990;326:479-86; discussion 486-7 pubmed
    ..Turgor pressure controls the expression of Kdp. This action is dependent on the 70 kDa KdpD and 23 kDa KdpE proteins. We are in the process of sequencing these genes...
  29. Roe A, McLaggan D, O Byrne C, Booth I. Rapid inactivation of the Escherichia coli Kdp K+ uptake system by high potassium concentrations. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:1235-43 pubmed
  30. Ballal A, Basu B, Apte S. The Kdp-ATPase system and its regulation. J Biosci. 2007;32:559-68 pubmed
    ..The E.coli kdp expression is transcriptionally regulated by the KdpD and KdpE proteins, which together constitute a typical bacterial two-component signal transduction system...
  31. Gao R, Tao Y, Stock A. System-level mapping of Escherichia coli response regulator dimerization with FRET hybrids. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:1358-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Weak hetero-pair interactions were also identified between several different RRs, suggesting potential cross-regulation between distinct pathways. ..
  32. Jung K, Krabusch M, Altendorf K. Cs(+) induces the kdp operon of Escherichia coli by lowering the intracellular K(+) concentration. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:3800-3 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the results imply that the signal transduction cascade mediated by KdpD and KdpE is able to integrate multiple signals.