Gene Symbol: kdpA
Description: potassium translocating ATPase, subunit A
Alias: ECK0686, JW0686, kac
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Heitkamp T, Kalinowski R, Bottcher B, Börsch M, Altendorf K, Greie J. K+-translocating KdpFABC P-type ATPase from Escherichia coli acts as a functional and structural dimer. Biochemistry. 2008;47:3564-75 pubmed publisher
  2. Jung K, Krabusch M, Altendorf K. Cs(+) induces the kdp operon of Escherichia coli by lowering the intracellular K(+) concentration. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:3800-3 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the results imply that the signal transduction cascade mediated by KdpD and KdpE is able to integrate multiple signals. ..
  3. Jung K, Altendorf K. Towards an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stimulus perception and signal transduction by the KdpD/KdpE system of Escherichia coli. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2002;4:223-8 pubmed
    ..Instead, various--mainly intracellular parameters--that are related to changes of environmental conditions influence the activities of KdpD. ..
  4. Sutherland L, Cairney J, Elmore M, Booth I, Higgins C. Osmotic regulation of transcription: induction of the proU betaine transport gene is dependent on accumulation of intracellular potassium. J Bacteriol. 1986;168:805-14 pubmed
    ..The different mechanisms of proU and kdp regulation reflect the different physiological roles of these two osmoprotectants. ..
  5. Gowrishankar J. Identification of osmoresponsive genes in Escherichia coli: evidence for participation of potassium and proline transport systems in osmoregulation. J Bacteriol. 1985;164:434-45 pubmed
  6. Bramkamp M, Altendorf K. Single amino acid substitution in the putative transmembrane helix V in KdpB of the KdpFABC complex of Escherichia coli uncouples ATPase activity and ion transport. Biochemistry. 2005;44:8260-6 pubmed
    ..movement of the charged side chains could have a direct influence on the free energy profile within the potassium transporting subunit KdpA, thereby facilitating ion transport against the concentration gradient into the cytosol.
  7. Sardesai A, Gowrishankar J. Improvement in K+-limited growth rate associated with expression of the N-terminal fragment of one subunit (KdpA) of the multisubunit Kdp transporter in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:3515-20 pubmed
    Mutations in any one of three genes, kdpA, -B, or -C, in Escherichia coli abolish the activity of Kdp, a multisubunit K+-ATPase that belongs to the P-type ATPase family of cation transporters...
  8. Ukai H, Matsuzawa H, Ito K, Yamada M, Nishimura A. ftsE(Ts) affects translocation of K+-pump proteins into the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:3663-70 pubmed
    ..We expressed alkaline phosphatase (PhoA) fusion proteins of KdpA, Kup, and TrkH, all of which proved functional in vivo as K+ ion pumps, in the mutant cells...
  9. Csonka L, Hanson A. Prokaryotic osmoregulation: genetics and physiology. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1991;45:569-606 pubmed

More Information


  1. Schniederberend M, Zimmann P, Bogdanov M, Dowhan W, Altendorf K. Influence of K+-dependent membrane lipid composition on the expression of the kdpFABC operon in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1798:32-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that kinase activity of KdpD is stimulated in its native membrane environment by fusion with liposomes of anionic, but reduced with liposomes of zwitterionic phospholipids. ..
  2. Siebers A, Altendorf K. The K+-translocating Kdp-ATPase from Escherichia coli. Purification, enzymatic properties and production of complex- and subunit-specific antisera. Eur J Biochem. 1988;178:131-40 pubmed
    ..1 mM). The purification protocol was likewise applicable to the isolation of a KdpA mutant ATPase which in contrast to the wild-type enzyme exhibited an increased Km value for K+ of 6 mM and a 10-..
  3. Epstein W, Davies M. Potassium-dependant mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1970;101:836-43 pubmed
    ..1 mm. The mutants do not appear to have a primary alteration in K transport, and are therefore referred to as K-dependent. The abbreviation kdp is proposed for this class of mutant. ..
  4. Hesse J, Wieczorek L, Altendorf K, Reicin A, Dorus E, Epstein W. Sequence homology between two membrane transport ATPases, the Kdp-ATPase of Escherichia coli and the Ca2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:4746-50 pubmed
    ..The phosphorylated aspartate residue of the latter is within a region of homology. ..
  5. Rhoads D, Epstein W. Cation transport in Escherichia coli. IX. Regulation of K transport. J Gen Physiol. 1978;72:283-95 pubmed
    ..The protonmotive-force dependence of the TrkA system is interpreted as a regulatory influence, limiting this system to exchange except when the protonmotive force is high. ..
  6. Altendorf K, Gassel M, Puppe W, Möllenkamp T, Zeeck A, Boddien C, et al. Structure and function of the Kdp-ATPase of Escherichia coli. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl. 1998;643:137-46 pubmed
    The kdpFABC operon of Escherichia coli consists of the four structural genes kdpF, kdpA, kdpB, and kdpC. Expression of the kdpF gene was demonstrated using minicells of E. coli...
  7. Buurman E, Kim K, Epstein W. Genetic evidence for two sequentially occupied K+ binding sites in the Kdp transport ATPase. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:6678-85 pubmed
    ..Most of the mutants have an altered KdpA subunit, a hydrophobic subunit not found in other P-type ATPases...
  8. Stumpe -, Bakker -. Requirement of a large K+-uptake capacity and of extracytoplasmic protease activity for protamine resistance of Escherichia coli. Arch Microbiol. 1997;167:126-36 pubmed
    ..Cells that cannot take up K+ rapidly remain metabolically compromised to such an extent that extracytoplasmic protease activity is not induced, leading to a prolonged susceptibility of the cells to the toxic peptide. ..
  9. Siebers A, Altendorf K. Characterization of the phosphorylated intermediate of the K+-translocating Kdp-ATPase from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:5831-8 pubmed
    ..level and on the ATPase activity was analyzed in purified wild-type enzyme (apparent Km = 10 microM) and a KdpA mutant ATPase exhibiting a lower affinity for K+ (Km = 6 mM)...
  10. Brandon L, Dorus S, Epstein W, Altendorf K, Jung K. Modulation of KdpD phosphatase implicated in the physiological expression of the kdp ATPase of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2000;38:1086-92 pubmed
    ..The data also suggest that levels of activity in vitro may differ from what occurs in vivo, because in vitro conditions cannot replicate those in vivo. ..
  11. Trchounian A, Bagramyan K, Poladian A. Formate hydrogenlyase is needed for proton-potassium exchange through the F0F1-ATPase and the TrkA system in anaerobically grown and glycolysing Escherichia coli. Curr Microbiol. 1997;35:201-6 pubmed
    ..H2 production was observed in the trkA trkD kdpA mutant...
  12. Ohashi K, Yamashino T, Mizuno T. Molecular basis for promoter selectivity of the transcriptional activator OmpR of Escherichia coli: isolation of mutants that can activate the non-cognate kdpABC promoter. J Biochem. 2005;137:51-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that the promoter selectivity of OmpR is determined not only by its DNA-binding specificity, but also by the spatial configuration of the promoter on which OmpR must properly associate with RNA polymerase. ..
  13. Asha H, Gowrishankar J. Regulation of kdp operon expression in Escherichia coli: evidence against turgor as signal for transcriptional control. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:4528-37 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these data, we discuss alternative candidates that might serve as the signal for control of kdp operon transcription. ..
  14. Greie J, Altendorf K. The K+-translocating KdpFABC complex from Escherichia coli: a P-type ATPase with unique features. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2007;39:397-402 pubmed
    ..However, the translocation of the transport substrate, potassium, is mediated by the KdpA subunit, which comprises structural as well as functional homologies to MPM-type potassium channels like KcsA from ..
  15. Nakashima K, Sugiura A, Momoi H, Mizuno T. Phosphotransfer signal transduction between two regulatory factors involved in the osmoregulated kdp operon in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:1777-84 pubmed
    ..We also developed a procedure for preparing cytoplasmic membrane enriched with the KdpD protein that exhibits in vitro ability with regard to phosphorylation of KdpE protein. ..
  16. Epstein W, Kim B. Potassium transport loci in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1971;108:639-44 pubmed
    ..The trk loci are widely scattered over the E. coli chromosome; none of them is very near any other trk locus or near the kdp genes. ..
  17. Ferguson G, Chacko A, Lee C, Booth I, Lee C. The activity of the high-affinity K+ uptake system Kdp sensitizes cells of Escherichia coli to methylglyoxal. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:3957-61 pubmed
  18. Stumpe S, Bakker E. Requirement of a large K+-uptake capacity and of extracytoplasmic protease activity for protamine resistance of Escherichia coli. Arch Microbiol. 1997;167:126-36 pubmed
    ..Cells that cannot take up K+ rapidly remain metabolically compromised to such an extent that extracytoplasmic protease activity is not induced, leading to a prolonged susceptibility of the cells to the toxic peptide. ..
  19. Frymier J, Reed T, Fletcher S, Csonka L. Characterization of transcriptional regulation of the kdp operon of Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:3061-3 pubmed
    ..This result, which has not been reported for Escherichia coli, is inconsistent with the model in which the signal for the induction of the kdp operon is turgor loss. ..
  20. Altendorf K, Siebers A, Epstein W. The KDP ATPase of Escherichia coli. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992;671:228-43 pubmed
  21. Roe A, McLaggan D, O Byrne C, Booth I. Rapid inactivation of the Escherichia coli Kdp K+ uptake system by high potassium concentrations. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:1235-43 pubmed
  22. Heitkamp T, Bottcher B, Greie J. Solution structure of the KdpFABC P-type ATPase from Escherichia coli by electron microscopic single particle analysis. J Struct Biol. 2009;166:295-302 pubmed publisher
    ..The model showed that the K+-translocating KdpA subunit is in close contact with the transmembrane region of the ATP-hydrolyzing subunit KdpB...
  23. Rhoads D, Laimins L, Epstein W. Functional organization of the kdp genes of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1978;135:445-52 pubmed
    ..Deletions extending clockwise from kdp as far as the gltA locus were isolated from strains with bacteriophage lambda integrated into kdpD. Plaque-forming transducing lambda phages carrying the kdpABC operon were isolated. ..
  24. Gassel M, Möllenkamp T, Puppe W, Altendorf K. The KdpF subunit is part of the K(+)-translocating Kdp complex of Escherichia coli and is responsible for stabilization of the complex in vitro. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:37901-7 pubmed
    ..polypeptide, KdpF, could be identified on high resolution SDS-polyacrylamide gels in addition to the subunits KdpA, KdpB, and KdpC. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that KdpF remains associated with the purified complex...
  25. Nakashima K, Sugiura A, Kanamaru K, Mizuno T. Signal transduction between the two regulatory components involved in the regulation of the kdpABC operon in Escherichia coli: phosphorylation-dependent functioning of the positive regulator, KdpE. Mol Microbiol. 1993;7:109-16 pubmed
  26. Sugiura A, Nakashima K, Tanaka K, Mizuno T. Clarification of the structural and functional features of the osmoregulated kdp operon of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:1769-76 pubmed
    ..e. in addition to them, a cis-acting sequence located upstream of the -35 region was essential for full activation of the promoter. This upstream sequence was demonstrated to be the target site for the trans-acting activator, KdpE. ..
  27. Gassel M, Siebers A, Epstein W, Altendorf K. Assembly of the Kdp complex, the multi-subunit K+-transport ATPase of Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1415:77-84 pubmed
    ..the high affinity ATP-driven K+-transport system of Escherichia coli, is a complex of the membrane-bound subunits KdpA, KdpB, KdpC and the small peptide KdpF...
  28. Buurman E, McLaggan D, Naprstek J, Epstein W. Multiple paths for nonphysiological transport of K+ in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:4238-45 pubmed
    ..These results support the view that TrkF is composed of multiple, "aberrant" K+ transport activities, i.e., paths that, regardless of their physiological function, allow K+ to cross the cell membrane by a uniport process. ..
  29. Bertrand J, Altendorf K, Bramkamp M. Amino acid substitutions in putative selectivity filter regions III and IV in KdpA alter ion selectivity of the KdpFABC complex from Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:5519-22 pubmed
    ..The KdpA subunit, which has sequence homology to potassium channels of the KcsA type, has been shown to be important for ..
  30. Trchounian A. Ion exchange in facultative anaerobes: does a proton-potassium pump exist in anaerobic Escherichia Coli?. Anaerobe. 1997;3:355-71 pubmed
  31. Bramkamp M, Altendorf K, Greie J. Common patterns and unique features of P-type ATPases: a comparative view on the KdpFABC complex from Escherichia coli (Review). Mol Membr Biol. 2007;24:375-86 pubmed
    ..This review compares generic features of P-type ATPases with the rather unique KdpFABC complex and gives a comprehensive overview of common principles of catalysis as well as of special aspects connected to distinct enzyme functions. ..
  32. Meury J, Lebail S, Kepes A. Opening of potassium channels in Escherichia coli membranes by thiol reagents and recovery of potassium tightness. Eur J Biochem. 1980;113:33-8 pubmed
  33. Hu G, Rice W, Dröse S, Altendorf K, Stokes D. Three-dimensional structure of the KdpFABC complex of Escherichia coli by electron tomography of two-dimensional crystals. J Struct Biol. 2008;161:411-8 pubmed
    ..oligomeric composition and is notable for segregating K+ transport and ATP hydrolysis onto separate subunits (KdpA and KdpB, respectively)...
  34. Goldman D, Schultz S, Epstein W. Repressive control of potassium transport in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1966;130:546-8 pubmed
  35. Damnjanović B, Weber A, Potschies M, Greie J, Apell H. Mechanistic analysis of the pump cycle of the KdpFABC P-type ATPase. Biochemistry. 2013;52:5563-76 pubmed publisher
  36. Gassel M, Altendorf K. Analysis of KdpC of the K(+)-transporting KdpFABC complex of Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:1772-81 pubmed
    ..ATP-driven K(+) transport system of Escherichia coli, is composed of the four membrane-bound subunits KdpF, KdpA, KdpB and KdpC...
  37. Sugiura A, Nakashima K, Mizuno T. Sequence-directed DNA curvature in activator-binding sequence in the Escherichia coli kdp ABC promoter. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1993;57:356-7 pubmed
  38. Rhoads D, Waters F, Epstein W. Cation transport in Escherichia coli. VIII. Potassium transport mutants. J Gen Physiol. 1976;67:325-41 pubmed
    ..All transport systems are able to extrude Na during K uptake. The measurements of cell Na suggest that growing cells of E. coli have very low concentrations of Na, considerably lower than indicated by earlier studies. ..