Gene Symbol: ilvI
Description: acetolactate synthase 3 large subunit
Alias: ECK0079, JW0076
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Guardiola J, De Felice M, Lamberti A, Iaccarino M. The acetolactate synthase isoenzymes of Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Gen Genet. 1977;156:17-25 pubmed
  2. Vyazmensky M, Sella C, Barak Z, Chipman D. Isolation and characterization of subunits of acetohydroxy acid synthase isozyme III and reconstitution of the holoenzyme. Biochemistry. 1996;35:10339-46 pubmed
    ..The large, catalytic subunit (62 kDa ilvI product) was isolated by standard techniques, to > or = 95% purity...
  3. Jafri S, Chen S, Calvo J. ilvIH operon expression in Escherichia coli requires Lrp binding to two distinct regions of DNA. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:5293-300 pubmed
  4. Engel S, Vyazmensky M, Geresh S, Barak Z, Chipman D. Acetohydroxyacid synthase: a new enzyme for chiral synthesis of R-phenylacetylcarbinol. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2003;83:833-40 pubmed
    ..Acetohydroxyacid synthase isozyme I is particularly efficient. The reaction is not limited to condensation of pyruvate with benzaldehyde and other aromatic aldehydes may be used. ..
  5. Barak Z, Chipman D, Gollop N. Physiological implications of the specificity of acetohydroxy acid synthase isozymes of enteric bacteria. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:3750-6 pubmed
    ..Although AHAS II and III are well suited to producing the branched-chain amino acid precursors during growth on glucose, they would fail to provide appropriate quantities of AL when the concentration of pyruvate is relatively low. ..
  6. Lago C, Sannia G, Marino G, Squires C, Calvo J, De Felice M. The ilvIH operon of Escherichia coli K-12. Identification of the gene products and recognition of the translational start by polypeptide microsequencing. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1985;824:74-9 pubmed
    The ilvI and ilvH gene products were identified physically by electrophoretic analysis of in vivo-labelled polypeptides produced in minicells from plasmids carrying the wild-type ilvIH operon of Escherichia coli K-12 and derivatives of it...
  7. Barak Z, Calvo J, Schloss J. Acetolactate synthase isozyme III from Escherichia coli. Methods Enzymol. 1988;166:455-8 pubmed
  8. Platko J, Willins D, Calvo J. The ilvIH operon of Escherichia coli is positively regulated. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:4563-70 pubmed
    ..We propose that the designation lrp be used in the future instead of oppI or ihb and that Lrp (leucine-responsive regulatory protein) be used in place of IHB. ..
  9. Weinstock O, Sella C, Chipman D, Barak Z. Properties of subcloned subunits of bacterial acetohydroxy acid synthases. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:5560-6 pubmed
    ..The small subunits are required, however, for specific stabilization of an active conformation of the large subunits as well as for value sensitivity. ..

More Information


  1. Baccigalupi L, Marasco R, Ricca E, De Felice M, Sacco M. Control of ilvIH transcription during amino acid downshift in stringent and relaxed strains of Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1995;131:95-8 pubmed
    ..No effect of amino acid downshift was observed on the synthesis of lrp mRNA, encoding the positive regulator (Lrp) of ilvIH transcription. ..
  2. Yang C, Shapiro B, Hung S, Mjolsness E, Hatfield G. A mathematical model for the branched chain amino acid biosynthetic pathways of Escherichia coli K12. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:11224-32 pubmed
    ..This model simulates the results of experimental measurements. ..
  3. Fang M, Wu H. Suppression of leu-500 mutation in topA+ Salmonella typhimurium strains. The promoter relay at work. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:29929-34 pubmed
    ..It appears that the leu-500 suppression in a topA- strain is due to the constant ilvIH transcription activity. ..
  4. Sakai T, Nakamura N, Umitsuki G, Nagai K, Wachi M. Increased production of pyruvic acid by Escherichia coli RNase G mutants in combination with cra mutations. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;76:183-92 pubmed
    ..In fact, the rng cra double mutant produced increased amount of pyruvate in the medium. These results suggest that the RNase G mutation could be applied in the breeding of producer strains of pyruvate and its derivatives such as valine. ..
  5. Wang Q, Calvo J. Lrp, a global regulatory protein of Escherichia coli, binds co-operatively to multiple sites and activates transcription of ilvIH. J Mol Biol. 1993;229:306-18 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which multiple binding sites contribute to the formation of a nucleoprotein complex, but only a particular proximal site positions Lrp properly so that it interacts with RNA polymerase. ..
  6. Gollop N, Tavori H, Barak Z. Acetohydroxy acid synthase is a target for leucine containing peptide toxicity in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1982;149:387-90 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that acetohydroxy acid synthase is a target for the toxicity of the high concentrations of leucine brought into Escherichia coli K-12 by leucine-containing peptides. ..
  7. Chen S, Iannolo M, Calvo J. Cooperative binding of the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) to DNA. J Mol Biol. 2005;345:251-64 pubmed
  8. De Felice M, Guardiola J, Schreil W, Levinthal M, Iaccarino M. Metabolic interlock between the acetolactate synthase isoenzymes and lysine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Gen Genet. 1977;156:9-16 pubmed
  9. Davis E, Blatt J, Henderson E, Whittaker J, Jackson J. Valine-sensitive acetohydroxy acid synthases in Escherichia coli K-12: unique regulation modulated by multiple genetic sites. Mol Gen Genet. 1977;156:239-49 pubmed
  10. Gollop N, Chipman D, Barak Z. Inhibition of acetohydroxy acid synthase by leucine. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1983;748:34-9 pubmed
    ..coli K-12. ..
  11. Fang M, Wu H. A promoter relay mechanism for sequential gene activation. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:626-33 pubmed
    ..This is the first example of several related genes communicating via a promoter relay mechanism for their coordinated expression. ..
  12. Gollop N, Damri B, Barak Z, Chipman D. Kinetics and mechanism of acetohydroxy acid synthase isozyme III from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1989;28:6310-7 pubmed
    ..The substrate specificity in the second phase is an intrinsic property of the enzyme, unaffected by pH or feedback inhibitors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  13. La Cara F, De Felice M. Chromatographic detection of the acetohydroxy acid synthase isoenzymes of Escherichia coli K-12. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1979;91:319-26 pubmed
  14. Squires C, De Felice M, Devereux J, Calvo J. Molecular structure of ilvIH and its evolutionary relationship to ilvG in Escherichia coli K12. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983;11:5299-313 pubmed
    ..Open reading frames and appropriate translation signals exist for two polypeptides, one containing 565 amino acids (ilvI polypeptide) and the other 160 amino acids (ilvH polypeptide)...
  15. Sutton A, Newman T, Francis M, Freundlich M. Valine-resistant Escherichia coli K-12 strains with mutations in the ilvB operon. J Bacteriol. 1981;148:998-1001 pubmed
    ..These strains contained mutations in the ilvB operon effecting either the regulation of acetohydroxy acid synthase I or the sensitivity of the enzyme to end product inhibition by valine. ..
  16. Squires C, De Felice M, Wessler S, Calvo J. Physical characterization of the ilvHI operon of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1981;147:797-804 pubmed
    ..Hybridization experiments showed that the expression of ilvHI is regulated chiefly at the level of transcription. The size of the ilvHI messenger ribonucleic acid is estimated to be 2,550 bases. ..
  17. Park J, Lee K, Kim T, Lee S. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of L-valine based on transcriptome analysis and in silico gene knockout simulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7797-802 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that an industrially competitive strain can be efficiently developed by metabolic engineering based on combined rational modification, transcriptome profiling, and systems-level in silico analysis. ..
  18. De Felice M, Guardiola J, Esposito B, Iaccarino M. Structural genes for a newly recognized acetolactate synthase in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1974;120:1068-77 pubmed
    ..This enzyme is the product of two genes, ilvH and ilvI, both located very close to leu...
  19. Haughn G, Squires C, De Felice M, Largo C, Calvo J. Unusual organization of the ilvIH promoter of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1985;163:186-98 pubmed
    ..coli ilvIH promoter and sequences sufficient to cause leucine repression lie within 363 base pairs (bp) of ilvI. Experiments designed to locate the promoter and regulatory sequences more precisely gave the following results...