Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: hokC
Description: toxic membrane protein, small
Alias: ECK0018, JW5879, gef
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
- Torensma R, Visser M, Aarsman C, Poppelier M, Fluit A, Verhoef J. Monoclonal antibodies that react with live Listeria spp. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993;59:2713-6 pubmed..strains, one Escherichia coli strain, and one Citrobacter sp. strain. In Western blots (immunoblots) MAbs 55-23, 55-44, and 34-9 exhibited reactivity; all other MAbs were negative in this assay. ..
- Boulaiz H, Prados J, Marchal J, García A, Alvarez L, Melguizo C, et al. Transfection of MS-36 melanoma cells with gef gene inhibits proliferation and induces modulation of the cell cycle. Cancer Sci. 2003;94:564-8 pubmedThe gef gene, found in Escherichia coli DNA, encodes a small (50 amino acids) protein which is related to cell-killing functions...
- Westwater C, Kasman L, Schofield D, Werner P, Dolan J, Schmidt M, et al. Use of genetically engineered phage to deliver antimicrobial agents to bacteria: an alternative therapy for treatment of bacterial infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:1301-7 pubmed..concept of using phage as a lethal-agent delivery vehicle, we used the M13 phagemid system and the addiction toxins Gef and ChpBK...
- Poulsen L, Refn A, Molin S, Andersson P. Topographic analysis of the toxic Gef protein from Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1991;5:1627-37 pubmedThe chromosomal gef gene of Escherichia coli is a member of the gef gene family which encodes strongly toxic proteins of about 50 amino acids. We demonstrate here that the Gef protein is detectable by anti-peptide antibodies...
- Faridani O, Nikravesh A, Pandey D, Gerdes K, Good L. Competitive inhibition of natural antisense Sok-RNA interactions activates Hok-mediated cell killing in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:5915-22 pubmed..Therefore, it is possible to activate suicide in bacteria by targeting antitoxins. ..
- Sengeløv G, Sørensen S. Methods for detection of conjugative plasmid transfer in aquatic environments. Curr Microbiol. 1998;37:274-80 pubmed..A strain with two copies of the suicide gene gef was successfully eliminated in filter-matings, but elimination of the donor in microcosms by induction of the ..
- Lishchenko N, Basnak ian I. [The role of plasmid gef-like genes in eliminating from bacterial populations the specimens that have lost these plasmids]. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1997;:90-4 pubmed
- Klemm P, Jensen L, Molin S. A stochastic killing system for biological containment of Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995;61:481-6 pubmed..located upstream of the fimA gene from Escherichia coli was inserted as expression cassette in front of the lethal gef gene deleted of its own natural promoter. The resulting fusion was placed on a plasmid and transformed to E. coli...
- Poulsen L, Larsen N, Molin S, Andersson P. A family of genes encoding a cell-killing function may be conserved in all gram-negative bacteria. Mol Microbiol. 1989;3:1463-72 pubmed..coli lead to collapse of the membrane potential and cell death. A third gene, designated gef, which encodes a homologous cell-toxic protein, has been isolated from E. coli DNA...
- Soberón Chávez G. Evaluation of the biological containment system based on the Escherichia coli gef gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa W51D. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1996;46:549-53 pubmedThe cell-killing gef gene was introduced, under the control of the lac promoter and as part of a transposon, into Pseudomonas aeruginosa W51D, a strain able to degrade branched-chain alkylbenzene sulfonates...
- Gerdes K, Wagner E. RNA antitoxins. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2007;10:117-24 pubmed..Thus, it is possible that an ancestral antitoxin gene evolved into the present toxin gene (symE) whose translation is repressed by an RNA antitoxin (SymR). ..