Gene Symbol: hokB
Description: toxic polypeptide, small
Alias: ECK1412, JW5225, ydcB
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Gerdes K, Gultyaev A, Franch T, Pedersen K, Mikkelsen N. Antisense RNA-regulated programmed cell death. Annu Rev Genet. 1997;31:1-31 pubmed
..The complex phylogenetic relationships of the plasmid- and chromosome-encoded systems are also presented and discussed. ..
Pedersen K, Gerdes K. Multiple hok genes on the chromosome of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1999;32:1090-102 pubmed
..e. hokA, hokC and hokE), one system is probably inactivated by point mutation (hokB), whereas the fifth system is inactivated by a major genetic rearrangement (hokD)...
Faridani O, Nikravesh A, Pandey D, Gerdes K, Good L. Competitive inhibition of natural antisense Sok-RNA interactions activates Hok-mediated cell killing in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:5915-22 pubmed
..Therefore, it is possible to activate suicide in bacteria by targeting antitoxins. ..
Verstraeten N, Knapen W, Kint C, Liebens V, Van den Bergh B, Dewachter L, et al
. Obg and Membrane Depolarization Are Part of a Microbial Bet-Hedging Strategy that Leads to Antibiotic Tolerance. Mol Cell. 2015;59:9-21 pubmed publisher
..persistence requires the stringent response alarmone (p)ppGpp and proceeds through transcriptional control of the hokB-sokB type I toxin-antitoxin module...
Nakamura H, Murakami H, Yamato I, Anraku Y. Nucleotide sequence of the cybB gene encoding cytochrome b561 in Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1988;212:1-5 pubmed
..No significant homology of the primary structure of cytochrome b561 with those of other bacterial b-type cytochromes was observed. ..
Woods R, Schneider D, Winkworth C, Riley M, Lenski R. Tests of parallel molecular evolution in a long-term experiment with Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9107-12 pubmed publisher
..genes were identified based on parallel phenotypic changes, here we sequenced four loci (pykF, nadR, pbpA-rodA, and hokB/sokB) in which mutations of unknown effect had been discovered in one population, and then we compared the ..
Rudd K, Humphery Smith I, Wasinger V, Bairoch A. Low molecular weight proteins: a challenge for post-genomic research. Electrophoresis. 1998;19:536-44 pubmed publisher
..The problem of accurate protein sequence identification is not limited to small proteins or to E. coli; these problems are encountered to varying degrees throughout all sequence databases...
Salassa R, Bennett W, Keating F, SPRAGUE R. Postoperative adrenal cortical insufficiency; occurrence in patients previously treated with cortisone. J Am Med Assoc. 1953;152:1509-15 pubmed
Gerdes K, Wagner E. RNA antitoxins. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2007;10:117-24 pubmed
..Thus, it is possible that an ancestral antitoxin gene evolved into the present toxin gene (symE) whose translation is repressed by an RNA antitoxin (SymR). ..