Gene Symbol: hokB
Description: toxic polypeptide, small
Alias: ECK1412, JW5225, ydcB
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Gerdes K, Gultyaev A, Franch T, Pedersen K, Mikkelsen N. Antisense RNA-regulated programmed cell death. Annu Rev Genet. 1997;31:1-31 pubmed
    ..The complex phylogenetic relationships of the plasmid- and chromosome-encoded systems are also presented and discussed. ..
  2. Pedersen K, Gerdes K. Multiple hok genes on the chromosome of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1999;32:1090-102 pubmed
    ..e. hokA, hokC and hokE), one system is probably inactivated by point mutation (hokB), whereas the fifth system is inactivated by a major genetic rearrangement (hokD)...
  3. Faridani O, Nikravesh A, Pandey D, Gerdes K, Good L. Competitive inhibition of natural antisense Sok-RNA interactions activates Hok-mediated cell killing in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:5915-22 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is possible to activate suicide in bacteria by targeting antitoxins. ..
  4. Verstraeten N, Knapen W, Kint C, Liebens V, Van den Bergh B, Dewachter L, et al. Obg and Membrane Depolarization Are Part of a Microbial Bet-Hedging Strategy that Leads to Antibiotic Tolerance. Mol Cell. 2015;59:9-21 pubmed publisher
    ..persistence requires the stringent response alarmone (p)ppGpp and proceeds through transcriptional control of the hokB-sokB type I toxin-antitoxin module...
  5. Nakamura H, Murakami H, Yamato I, Anraku Y. Nucleotide sequence of the cybB gene encoding cytochrome b561 in Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1988;212:1-5 pubmed
    ..No significant homology of the primary structure of cytochrome b561 with those of other bacterial b-type cytochromes was observed. ..
  6. Woods R, Schneider D, Winkworth C, Riley M, Lenski R. Tests of parallel molecular evolution in a long-term experiment with Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9107-12 pubmed publisher
    ..genes were identified based on parallel phenotypic changes, here we sequenced four loci (pykF, nadR, pbpA-rodA, and hokB/sokB) in which mutations of unknown effect had been discovered in one population, and then we compared the ..
  7. Rudd K, Humphery Smith I, Wasinger V, Bairoch A. Low molecular weight proteins: a challenge for post-genomic research. Electrophoresis. 1998;19:536-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The problem of accurate protein sequence identification is not limited to small proteins or to E. coli; these problems are encountered to varying degrees throughout all sequence databases...
  8. Salassa R, Bennett W, Keating F, SPRAGUE R. Postoperative adrenal cortical insufficiency; occurrence in patients previously treated with cortisone. J Am Med Assoc. 1953;152:1509-15 pubmed
  9. Gerdes K, Wagner E. RNA antitoxins. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2007;10:117-24 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is possible that an ancestral antitoxin gene evolved into the present toxin gene (symE) whose translation is repressed by an RNA antitoxin (SymR). ..

More Information


  1. Ostrowski E, Woods R, Lenski R. The genetic basis of parallel and divergent phenotypic responses in evolving populations of Escherichia coli. Proc Biol Sci. 2008;275:277-84 pubmed
    ..Substitutions in the same locus clustered together phenotypically, indicating concordance between molecular and phenotypic measures of divergence. ..