Gene Symbol: hokA
Description: toxic polypeptide, small
Alias: ECK3544, JW3526, yiaZ
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Gerdes K, Gultyaev A, Franch T, Pedersen K, Mikkelsen N. Antisense RNA-regulated programmed cell death. Annu Rev Genet. 1997;31:1-31 pubmed
..The complex phylogenetic relationships of the plasmid- and chromosome-encoded systems are also presented and discussed. ..
Pedersen K, Gerdes K. Multiple hok genes on the chromosome of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1999;32:1090-102 pubmed
..e. hokA, hokC and hokE), one system is probably inactivated by point mutation (hokB), whereas the fifth system is ..
Goldstein J, Pollitt N, Inouye M. Major cold shock protein of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:283-7 pubmed
..We have cloned the gene encoding this protein and have completed the nucleotide sequence analysis, which revealed that the gene encodes a hydrophilic protein of 70 amino acid residues...
Rudd K, Humphery Smith I, Wasinger V, Bairoch A. Low molecular weight proteins: a challenge for post-genomic research. Electrophoresis. 1998;19:536-44 pubmed publisher
..The problem of accurate protein sequence identification is not limited to small proteins or to E. coli; these problems are encountered to varying degrees throughout all sequence databases...
Gerdes K, Wagner E. RNA antitoxins. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2007;10:117-24 pubmed
..Thus, it is possible that an ancestral antitoxin gene evolved into the present toxin gene (symE) whose translation is repressed by an RNA antitoxin (SymR). ..
Borodovsky M, Koonin E, Rudd K. New genes in old sequence: a strategy for finding genes in the bacterial genome. Trends Biochem Sci. 1994;19:309-13 pubmed
Faridani O, McInerney G, Gradin K, Good L. Specific ligation to double-stranded RNA for analysis of cellular RNA::RNA interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:e99 pubmed publisher
..As examples, we mapped dsRNA/single-stranded RNA junctions within Escherichia coli hok mRNA and the human immunodeficiency virus TAR element using RNA from bacteria and mammalian cells. ..
Kim Y, Wood T. Toxins Hha and CspD and small RNA regulator Hfq are involved in persister cell formation through MqsR in Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:209-13 pubmed publisher
..Furthermore, toxins Hha, CspD, and HokA increase persister cell formation...
Faridani O, Nikravesh A, Pandey D, Gerdes K, Good L. Competitive inhibition of natural antisense Sok-RNA interactions activates Hok-mediated cell killing in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:5915-22 pubmed
..Therefore, it is possible to activate suicide in bacteria by targeting antitoxins. ..