Gene Symbol: hns
Description: global DNA-binding transcriptional dual regulator H-NS
Alias: ECK1232, JW1225, bglY, cur, drc, drdX, drs, fimG, hnsA, irk, msyA, osmZ, pilG, topS, topX, verA, virR
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Stratmann T, Madhusudan S, Schnetz K. Regulation of the yjjQ-bglJ operon, encoding LuxR-type transcription factors, and the divergent yjjP gene by H-NS and LeuO. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:926-35 pubmed
  2. Navarre W, Porwollik S, Wang Y, McClelland M, Rosen H, Libby S, et al. Selective silencing of foreign DNA with low GC content by the H-NS protein in Salmonella. Science. 2006;313:236-8 pubmed
    ..Mutations in hns are lethal in Salmonella unless accompanied by compensatory mutations in other regulatory loci...
  3. Giangrossi M, Zattoni S, Tramonti A, De Biase D, Falconi M. Antagonistic role of H-NS and GadX in the regulation of the glutamate decarboxylase-dependent acid resistance system in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:21498-505 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our results indicate that H-NS directly inhibits gadA and gadX transcription and, by controlling the intracellular level of the activator GadX, indirectly affects the expression of the whole gad system. ..
  4. Dorman C. H-NS: a universal regulator for a dynamic genome. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004;2:391-400 pubmed
  5. Spurio R, Dürrenberger M, Falconi M, La Teana A, Pon C, Gualerzi C. Lethal overproduction of the Escherichia coli nucleoid protein H-NS: ultramicroscopic and molecular autopsy. Mol Gen Genet. 1992;231:201-11 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli hns gene, which encodes the nucleoid protein H-NS, was deprived of its natural promoter and placed under the control of the inducible lambda PL promoter...
  6. Grainger D, Hurd D, Goldberg M, Busby S. Association of nucleoid proteins with coding and non-coding segments of the Escherichia coli genome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:4642-52 pubmed
    ..Hence some targets are associated with combinations of bound FIS, H-NS and IHF. In addition, many regions associated with FIS and H-NS are also associated with RNA polymerase. ..
  7. Dorman C. H-NS, the genome sentinel. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007;5:157-61 pubmed
    ..Broadly similar conclusions have emerged from a study of H-NS binding to DNA in Escherichia coli. How do these findings affect our view of H-NS and its ability to influence bacterial evolution? ..
  8. Dame R, Noom M, Wuite G. Bacterial chromatin organization by H-NS protein unravelled using dual DNA manipulation. Nature. 2006;444:387-90 pubmed
    ..Finally, our experimental approach is widely applicable to other DNA bridging proteins, as well as to complex DNA interactions involving multiple DNA molecules. ..
  9. Williams R, Rimsky S, Buc H. Probing the structure, function, and interactions of the Escherichia coli H-NS and StpA proteins by using dominant negative derivatives. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:4335-43 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that the N-terminal domain of H-NS can be chemically cross-linked to both full-length H-NS and StpA. We account for these observations by proposing that H-NS and StpA have the ability to form hybrid species. ..

More Information


  1. Oshima T, Ishikawa S, Kurokawa K, Aiba H, Ogasawara N. Escherichia coli histone-like protein H-NS preferentially binds to horizontally acquired DNA in association with RNA polymerase. DNA Res. 2006;13:141-53 pubmed
    ..coli genome, sheds light on the mechanism underlying the transcriptional regulation by H-NS, and provides new insight into bacterial genome evolution. ..
  2. Pul U, Wurm R, Arslan Z, Geissen R, Hofmann N, Wagner R. Identification and characterization of E. coli CRISPR-cas promoters and their silencing by H-NS. Mol Microbiol. 2010;75:1495-512 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate an active involvement of H-NS in the induction of the CRISPR-cas system and suggest a potential link between two prokaryotic defence systems against foreign DNA. ..
  3. Lang B, Blot N, Bouffartigues E, Buckle M, Geertz M, Gualerzi C, et al. High-affinity DNA binding sites for H-NS provide a molecular basis for selective silencing within proteobacterial genomes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:6330-7 pubmed
  4. Ko M, Park C. H-NS-Dependent regulation of flagellar synthesis is mediated by a LysR family protein. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:4670-2 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the expression of the hdfR gene was shown to be negatively regulated by H-NS. ..
  5. Rimsky S. Structure of the histone-like protein H-NS and its role in regulation and genome superstructure. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2004;7:109-14 pubmed
    ..Recent advances have been made in elucidating the structure and oligomerisation properties of this protein, thus aiding in the understanding of the molecular relationship between its two major functions. ..
  6. Luijsterburg M, Noom M, Wuite G, Dame R. The architectural role of nucleoid-associated proteins in the organization of bacterial chromatin: a molecular perspective. J Struct Biol. 2006;156:262-72 pubmed
    ..In this review, we provide an overview of the major nucleoid-associated proteins from a structural perspective and we discuss their possible roles in dynamically shaping the bacterial nucleoid. ..
  7. Chen C, Chou M, Huang C, Majumder A, Wu H. A cis-spreading nucleoprotein filament is responsible for the gene silencing activity found in the promoter relay mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:5101-12 pubmed
    ..The geometric requirement, which was revealed for this silencing activity, explains the decisive role of transcription-generated DNA supercoiling found in the promoter relay mechanism. ..
  8. Dole S, Nagarajavel V, Schnetz K. The histone-like nucleoid structuring protein H-NS represses the Escherichia coli bgl operon downstream of the promoter. Mol Microbiol. 2004;52:589-600 pubmed
    ..This suggests that H-NS induces polarity of transcription by acting as a roadblock to the elongating RNA polymerase. The control of the bgl operon by H-NS at two levels results in a highly specific repression. ..
  9. Grainger D, Goldberg M, Lee D, Busby S. Selective repression by Fis and H-NS at the Escherichia coli dps promoter. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:1366-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest a simple model to explain how the Dps-dependent super-compaction of the folded chromosome is triggered as cell growth ceases. ..
  10. Dame R, Wyman C, Goosen N. H-NS mediated compaction of DNA visualised by atomic force microscopy. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:3504-10 pubmed
    ..The formation of these globular structures appeared not to be dependent on any specific sequence. On the basis of the AFM images, a model for global condensation of the chromosomal DNA by H-NS is proposed. ..
  11. Bertin P, Benhabiles N, Krin E, Laurent Winter C, Tendeng C, Turlin E, et al. The structural and functional organization of H-NS-like proteins is evolutionarily conserved in gram-negative bacteria. Mol Microbiol. 1999;31:319-29 pubmed
    ..sphaeroides, XrvA in Xanthomonas oryzae and VicH in Vibrio cholerae. These results demonstrate that proteins structurally and functionally related to H-NS are widespread in Gram-negative bacteria. ..
  12. Dame R, Luijsterburg M, Krin E, Bertin P, Wagner R, Wuite G. DNA bridging: a property shared among H-NS-like proteins. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:1845-8 pubmed
    ..Homologues, often with very low sequence identity, are found in most gram-negative bacteria. Microscopic analysis reveals that, despite limited sequence identity, their structural organization results in similar DNA binding properties. ..
  13. Dame R, Wuite G. On the role of H-NS in the organization of bacterial chromatin: from bulk to single molecules and back. Biophys J. 2003;85:4146-8 pubmed
  14. Ali Azam T, Iwata A, Nishimura A, Ueda S, Ishihama A. Growth phase-dependent variation in protein composition of the Escherichia coli nucleoid. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:6361-70 pubmed
    ..These changes in the composition of nucleoid-associated proteins in the stationary phase are accompanied by compaction of the genome DNA and silencing of the genome functions. ..
  15. Dame R, Wyman C, Goosen N. Structural basis for preferential binding of H-NS to curved DNA. Biochimie. 2001;83:231-4 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these data we present a model for the specific recognition of DNA by H-NS as a function of DNA curvature. ..
  16. Krin E, Danchin A, Soutourina O. RcsB plays a central role in H-NS-dependent regulation of motility and acid stress resistance in Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 2010;161:363-71 pubmed publisher
    In Escherichia coli, hns mutants lack flagellar motility and display an increase in acid stress resistance. Spontaneous phenotypic revertants showed reversion of both H-NS-controlled phenotypes...
  17. Nagarajavel V, Madhusudan S, Dole S, Rahmouni A, Schnetz K. Repression by binding of H-NS within the transcription unit. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:23622-30 pubmed
    ..Inefficient repression of strong promoters by H-NS via a DRE may account for high induction levels of proU at high osmolarity and for bgl upon disruption of the URE. ..
  18. McLeod S, Johnson R. Control of transcription by nucleoid proteins. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2001;4:152-9 pubmed
  19. Landini P, Zehnder A. The global regulatory hns gene negatively affects adhesion to solid surfaces by anaerobically grown Escherichia coli by modulating expression of flagellar genes and lipopolysaccharide production. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:1522-9 pubmed
    ..Inactivation of the global regulatory hns gene counteracts increased production of LPS and flagella in response to anoxia and allows E...
  20. Müller C, Dobrindt U, Nagy G, Emody L, Uhlin B, Hacker J. Role of histone-like proteins H-NS and StpA in expression of virulence determinants of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:5428-38 pubmed
    ..coli isolate by using DNA arrays. Expression profiling revealed that more than 500 genes were affected by an hns mutation, whereas no effect of StpA alone was observed...
  21. Zimmerman S. Cooperative transitions of isolated Escherichia coli nucleoids: implications for the nucleoid as a cellular phase. J Struct Biol. 2006;153:160-75 pubmed
  22. Repoila F, Majdalani N, Gottesman S. Small non-coding RNAs, co-ordinators of adaptation processes in Escherichia coli: the RpoS paradigm. Mol Microbiol. 2003;48:855-61 pubmed
    ..However, in addition to regulating RpoS translation, DsrA represses the translation of HNS (a global regulator of gene expression), whereas OxyS represses the translation of FhlA (a transcriptional ..
  23. Ma Z, Richard H, Tucker D, Conway T, Foster J. Collaborative regulation of Escherichia coli glutamate-dependent acid resistance by two AraC-like regulators, GadX and GadW (YhiW). J Bacteriol. 2002;184:7001-12 pubmed
    ..These complex control circuits impose tight rein over expression of the gadA and gadBC system yet provide flexibility for inducing acid resistance under many conditions that presage acid stress...
  24. Madhusudan S, Paukner A, Klingen Y, Schnetz K. Independent regulation of H-NS-mediated silencing of the bgl operon at two levels: upstream by BglJ and LeuO and downstream by DnaKJ. Microbiology. 2005;151:3349-59 pubmed
    ..Together, the data show that the two levels of bgl silencing by H-NS are regulated independently. ..
  25. Azam T, Hiraga S, Ishihama A. Two types of localization of the DNA-binding proteins within the Escherichia coli nucleoid. Genes Cells. 2000;5:613-26 pubmed
    ..coli could be classified into two groups. One group proteins was distributed uniformly within the nucleoid, but the other group of proteins showed an irregular distribution, forming immuno-stained spots or clumps. ..
  26. Dame R, Wyman C, Wurm R, Wagner R, Goosen N. Structural basis for H-NS-mediated trapping of RNA polymerase in the open initiation complex at the rrnB P1. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:2146-50 pubmed
    ..The SFM images show that the DNA flanking the RNA polymerase in open initiation complexes is bridged by H-NS. On the basis of these data, we present a model for the specific repression of transcription initiation at the rrnB P1 by H-NS. ..
  27. Westra E, Pul U, Heidrich N, Jore M, Lundgren M, Stratmann T, et al. H-NS-mediated repression of CRISPR-based immunity in Escherichia coli K12 can be relieved by the transcription activator LeuO. Mol Microbiol. 2010;77:1380-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of LeuO in E. coli K12 containing an anti-Lambda CRISPR leads to an enhanced protection against phage infection. This study demonstrates that in E. coli H-NS and LeuO are antagonistic regulators of CRISPR-based immunity...
  28. Tupper A, Owen Hughes T, Ussery D, Santos D, Ferguson D, Sidebotham J, et al. The chromatin-associated protein H-NS alters DNA topology in vitro. EMBO J. 1994;13:258-68 pubmed
    ..The data presented here provide direct support for the hypothesis that H-NS acts at specific sites to influence DNA topology and, hence, transcription. ..
  29. Tramonti A, Visca P, De Canio M, Falconi M, De Biase D. Functional characterization and regulation of gadX, a gene encoding an AraC/XylS-like transcriptional activator of the Escherichia coli glutamic acid decarboxylase system. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:2603-13 pubmed
    ..Transcription of gadX is derepressed in an hns mutant and strongly reduced in both rpoS and hns rpoS mutants, consistent with the expression profile of gad ..
  30. Zhou Y, Gottesman S. Modes of regulation of RpoS by H-NS. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:7022-5 pubmed
    Regulated degradation of RpoS requires RssB and ClpXP protease. Mutations in hns increase both RpoS synthesis and stability, causing a twofold increase in synthesis and almost complete stabilization of RpoS, independent of effects on ..
  31. Wyborn N, Stapleton M, Norte V, Roberts R, Grafton J, Green J. Regulation of Escherichia coli hemolysin E expression by H-NS and Salmonella SlyA. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:1620-8 pubmed
    ..Finally, the identification of a SlyA binding site that overlaps the H-NS I site in PhlyE suggests a mechanism to explain how SlyA overproduction enhances hlyE expression by antagonizing the negative effects of H-NS. ..
  32. Brescia C, Kaw M, Sledjeski D. The DNA binding protein H-NS binds to and alters the stability of RNA in vitro and in vivo. J Mol Biol. 2004;339:505-14 pubmed
    ..Quantitative RT-PCR of RNA isolated from wild-type and hns- strains revealed that H-NS also affects the stability of DsrA in vivo...
  33. Weber H, Pesavento C, Possling A, Tischendorf G, Hengge R. Cyclic-di-GMP-mediated signalling within the sigma network of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2006;62:1014-34 pubmed
  34. Azam T, Ishihama A. Twelve species of the nucleoid-associated protein from Escherichia coli. Sequence recognition specificity and DNA binding affinity. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:33105-13 pubmed
  35. Hardy C, Cozzarelli N. A genetic selection for supercoiling mutants of Escherichia coli reveals proteins implicated in chromosome structure. Mol Microbiol. 2005;57:1636-52 pubmed
    ..We suggest that at least H-NS, Fis and perhaps TktA assist directly in the supercoiling of domains by forming topological barriers on the E. coli chromosome. ..
  36. Lease R, Belfort M. A trans-acting RNA as a control switch in Escherichia coli: DsrA modulates function by forming alternative structures. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:9919-24 pubmed
    ..regulatory RNA of Escherichia coli that acts in trans by RNA-RNA interactions with two different mRNAs, hns and rpoS. DsrA has opposite effects on these transcriptional regulators...
  37. Bouvier J, Gordia S, Kampmann G, Lange R, Hengge Aronis R, Gutierrez C. Interplay between global regulators of Escherichia coli: effect of RpoS, Lrp and H-NS on transcription of the gene osmC. Mol Microbiol. 1998;28:971-80 pubmed
    ..The effect on osmCp2 is probably mediated by the increase in sigma(s) concentration in the cytoplasm of hns- mutants, while the effect on osmCp1 is independent of sigma(s)...
  38. Hulton C, Seirafi A, Hinton J, Sidebotham J, Waddell L, Pavitt G, et al. Histone-like protein H1 (H-NS), DNA supercoiling, and gene expression in bacteria. Cell. 1990;63:631-42 pubmed
    ..Extensive genetic analyses have implicated the osmZ gene in this regulatory process: osmZ mutations are highly pleiotropic and alter the topology of cellular DNA...
  39. Hommais F, Krin E, Laurent Winter C, Soutourina O, Malpertuy A, Le Caer J, et al. Large-scale monitoring of pleiotropic regulation of gene expression by the prokaryotic nucleoid-associated protein, H-NS. Mol Microbiol. 2001;40:20-36 pubmed
    ..of approximately 5% of the genes and/or the accumulation of their protein was directly or indirectly altered in the hns mutant strain...
  40. Dame R. The role of nucleoid-associated proteins in the organization and compaction of bacterial chromatin. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:858-70 pubmed
    ..Many of these new insights can be attributed to the use of recently developed biophysical techniques. ..
  41. Soutourina O, Kolb A, Krin E, Laurent Winter C, Rimsky S, Danchin A, et al. Multiple control of flagellum biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: role of H-NS protein and the cyclic AMP-catabolite activator protein complex in transcription of the flhDC master operon. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:7500-8 pubmed
    ..In the present paper, we show that crp and hns mutants are nonmotile due to a complete lack of flagellin accumulation...
  42. Lucht J, Dersch P, Kempf B, Bremer E. Interactions of the nucleoid-associated DNA-binding protein H-NS with the regulatory region of the osmotically controlled proU operon of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:6578-8 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli hns gene encodes the abundant nucleoid-associated DNA-binding protein H-NS...
  43. Shin M, Song M, Rhee J, Hong Y, Kim Y, Seok Y, et al. DNA looping-mediated repression by histone-like protein H-NS: specific requirement of Esigma70 as a cofactor for looping. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2388-98 pubmed
    ..Expression of this class of genes by Esigma38 in the stationary phase is not due to its promoter specificity but to the architecture of the promoter . Esigma38 complex. ..
  44. Williams R, Rimsky S. Molecular aspects of the E. coli nucleoid protein, H-NS: a central controller of gene regulatory networks. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1997;156:175-85 pubmed
    ..Factors have now been discovered which can backup or antagonise H-NS action at certain promoters. These recent findings are summarised and discussed in relationship to the role of H-NS in DNA packaging and nucleoid structure. ..
  45. Hansen A, Qiu Y, Yeh N, Blattner F, Durfee T, Jin D. SspA is required for acid resistance in stationary phase by downregulation of H-NS in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:719-34 pubmed
    ..As SspA and H-NS are highly conserved among Gram-negative bacteria, of which many are pathogenic, the global role of SspA in the stress response and pathogenesis is discussed. ..
  46. Urban J, Vogel J. Translational control and target recognition by Escherichia coli small RNAs in vivo. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:1018-37 pubmed
    ..We expect our GFP fusion approach to be applicable to sRNA targets of other bacteria, and also demonstrate that Vibrio RyhB sRNA represses a Vibrio sodB fusion when co-expressed in E.coli. ..
  47. Yamada H, Muramatsu S, Mizuno T. An Escherichia coli protein that preferentially binds to sharply curved DNA. J Biochem. 1990;108:420-5 pubmed
    ..coli. Its preferential binding to the curved DNA was found to be inhibited by distamycin, which removes the curvature from appropriate DNA sequences. The purified protein was identified as the E. coli nucleoid protein, H-NS. ..
  48. Rami A, Toutain C, Jacq A. An increased level of alternative sigma factor RpoS partially suppresses drug hypersensitivity associated with inactivation of the multidrug resistance pump AcrAB in Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 2005;156:356-60 pubmed
  49. White Ziegler C, Malhowski A, Young S. Human body temperature (37degrees C) increases the expression of iron, carbohydrate, and amino acid utilization genes in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:5429-40 pubmed
    ..Together, these studies indicate that temperature is a broadly used cue for regulating gene expression in E. coli and that H-NS regulates iron, carbohydrate, and amino acid utilization gene expression. ..
  50. Harinarayanan R, Gowrishankar J. Host factor titration by chromosomal R-loops as a mechanism for runaway plasmid replication in transcription termination-defective mutants of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2003;332:31-46 pubmed
  51. Johansson J, Dagberg B, Richet E, Uhlin B. H-NS and StpA proteins stimulate expression of the maltose regulon in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:6117-25 pubmed
    ..Its role in gene regulation is manifested by the increased expression of several gene products in hns mutant strains...
  52. Brandi A, Pon C, Gualerzi C. Interaction of the main cold shock protein CS7.4 (CspA) of Escherichia coli with the promoter region of hns. Biochimie. 1994;76:1090-8 pubmed
    ..class of eukaryotic Y-box DNA-binding proteins, is a cold shock transcriptional activator of at least two genes, hns and gyrA...
  53. Moreira R, Dressaire C, Domingues S, Arraiano C. A new target for an old regulator: H-NS represses transcription of bolA morphogene by direct binding to both promoters. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;411:50-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide a new insight into the bolA regulation network demonstrating that H-NS represses the transcription of this important gene. ..
  54. Uyar E, Kurokawa K, Yoshimura M, Ishikawa S, Ogasawara N, Oshima T. Differential binding profiles of StpA in wild-type and h-ns mutant cells: a comparative analysis of cooperative partners by chromatin immunoprecipitation-microarray analysis. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:2388-91 pubmed publisher
    ..StpA binding regions essentially overlap those of H-NS in wild-type cells, while they are reduced to one-third in the hns mutant. The H-NS binding profile was unaffected by stpA inactivation.
  55. Laoudj D, Andersen C, Bras A, Goldberg M, Jacq A, Holland I. EGTA induces the synthesis in Escherichia coli of three proteins that cross-react with calmodulin antibodies. Mol Microbiol. 1994;13:445-57 pubmed
    Escherichia coli mutants, (verA, dilA) specifically resistant to the Ca2+ channel inhibitors verapamil and diltiazem, respectively, are hypersensitive to EGTA and BAPTA...
  56. Butala M, Busby S, Lee D. DNA sampling: a method for probing protein binding at specific loci on bacterial chromosomes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:e37 pubmed publisher
    ..We illustrate the method by investigating the proteins bound to the colicin K gene regulatory region, either before or after induction of the colicin K gene promoter...
  57. Kahramanoglou C, Seshasayee A, Prieto A, Ibberson D, Schmidt S, Zimmermann J, et al. Direct and indirect effects of H-NS and Fis on global gene expression control in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:2073-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study serves as a proof-of-principle for the use of ChIP-seq for global DNA-binding proteins in bacteria, which should become significantly more economical and feasible with the development of multiplexing techniques. ..
  58. Bhat A, Shin M, Choy H. Identification of high-specificity H-NS binding site in LEE5 promoter of enteropathogenic Esherichia coli (EPEC). J Microbiol. 2014;52:626-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that H-NS exerts maximum repression via the specific sequence at around -138 and subsequently contacts a subunit of RNAP through oligomerization. ..
  59. Forns N, Juárez A, Madrid C. Osmoregulation of the HtrA (DegP) protease of Escherichia coli: an Hha-H-NS complex represses HtrA expression at low osmolarity. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;251:75-80 pubmed
    ..Low osmolarity conditions result in htrA repression. We report, as well, the role of the nucleoid associated proteins H-NS and Hha in the repression of htrA expression at low osmolarity. ..
  60. Ferianc P, Farewell A, Nystrom T. The cadmium-stress stimulon of Escherichia coli K-12. Microbiology. 1998;144 ( Pt 4):1045-50 pubmed
    ..The role of the CDPs is discussed in view of their physiological assignments in the cell. ..
  61. Bloch V, Yang Y, Margeat E, Chavanieu A, Augé M, Robert B, et al. The H-NS dimerization domain defines a new fold contributing to DNA recognition. Nat Struct Biol. 2003;10:212-8 pubmed
    ..Using mutational analysis, we also show that this N-terminal domain actively contributes to DNA binding, conversely to the current paradigm. Together, our data allows us to propose a model for the action of full length H-NS. ..