Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: hldD
Description: ADP-L-glycero-D-mannoheptose-6-epimerase, NAD(P)-binding
Alias: ECK3609, JW3594, gmhD, htrM, nbsB, rfaD, waaD
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
- Raina S, Georgopoulos C. The htrM gene, whose product is essential for Escherichia coli viability only at elevated temperatures, is identical to the rfaD gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:3811-9 pubmed..Surprisingly, the htrM gene turns out to be identical to rfaD, whose product is required for the biosynthesis of the ADP-L-glycero-D manoheptose lipopolyaccharide precursor [..
- Klena J, Pradel E, Schnaitman C. Comparison of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes rfaK, rfaL, rfaY, and rfaZ of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:4746-52 pubmed..coli K-12 and S. typhimurium, as do the rfaF and rfaD genes which lie beyond it...
- Coleman W, Leive L. Two mutations which affect the barrier function of the Escherichia coli K-12 outer membrane. J Bacteriol. 1979;139:899-910 pubmed..The order of the genes in this region, based on transductional analyses, is proC NbsA plsA purE. The second, NbsB, lies at 80 min. The order of the genes in this region, based on transduction analyses, is xyl cysE NbsB pyrE...
- Deacon A, Ni Y, Coleman W, Ealick S. The crystal structure of ADP-L-glycero-D-mannoheptose 6-epimerase: catalysis with a twist. Structure. 2000;8:453-62 pubmed..This study should prove useful in the design of mechanistic and structure-based inhibitors of the AGME catalyzed reaction. ..
- Ni Y, McPhie P, Deacon A, Ealick S, Coleman W. Evidence that NADP+ is the physiological cofactor of ADP-L-glycero-D-mannoheptose 6-epimerase. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:27329-34 pubmed..A structural comparison of ADP-hep 6-epimerase with UDP-galactose 4-epimerase, which utilizes an NAD(+) cofactor, has identified the regions of ADP-hep 6-epimerase, which defines its specificity for NADP(+). ..
- Morrison J, Read J, Coleman W, Tanner M. Dismutase activity of ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose 6-epimerase: evidence for a direct oxidation/reduction mechanism. Biochemistry. 2005;44:5907-15 pubmed..The epimerase (HldD or AGME, formerly RfaD) operates in the biosynthetic pathway of l-glycero-d-manno-heptose, which is a conserved ..
- Reyes Cortes R, Martínez Peñafiel E, Martínez Pérez F, de la Garza M, Kameyama L. A novel strategy to isolate cell-envelope mutants resistant to phage infection: bacteriophage mEp213 requires lipopolysaccharides in addition to FhuA to enter Escherichia coli K-12. Microbiology. 2012;158:3063-71 pubmed publisher..that we selected, six were in the fhuA gene, two were mutated in the waaC gene, and one was mutated in the gmhD gene. The latter two gene products are involved in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
- Mayer A, Tanner M. Intermediate release by ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose 6-epimerase. Biochemistry. 2007;46:6149-55 pubmedADP-l-glycero-d-manno-heptose 6-epimerase (HldD or AGME, formerly RfaD) catalyzes the interconversion of ADP-beta-d-glycero-d-manno-heptose (ADP-d,d-Hep) and ADP-beta-l-glycero-d-manno-heptose (ADP-l,d-Hep)...
- Roncero C, Casadaban M. Genetic analysis of the genes involved in synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide core in Escherichia coli K-12: three operons in the rfa locus. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3250-60 pubmed..The genetic organization of this locus seems to be identical in E. coli K-12 and S. typhimurium. ..
- Read J, Ahmed R, Morrison J, Coleman W, Tanner M. The mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by ADP-beta-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose 6-epimerase. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:8878-9 pubmedADP-l-glycero-d-manno-heptose 6-epimerase (AGME, RfaD) is a bacterial enzyme that is involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and interconverts ADP-beta-l-glycero-d-manno-heptose (ADP-l,d-Hep) with ADP-beta-d-glycero-d-manno-heptose (..
- Kneidinger B, Marolda C, Graninger M, Zamyatina A, McArthur F, Kosma P, et al. Biosynthesis pathway of ADP-L-glycero-beta-D-manno-heptose in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:363-9 pubmed..A previously characterized epimerase, formerly named WaaD (RfaD) and now renamed HldD, completes the pathway to form the ADP-L-beta-D-heptose precursor utilized in the assembly of inner core LPS.
- Sirisena D, MacLachlan P, Liu S, Hessel A, Sanderson K. Molecular analysis of the rfaD gene, for heptose synthesis, and the rfaF gene, for heptose transfer, in lipopolysaccharide synthesis in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:2379-85 pubmed..typhimurium LT2 which we identified as rfaF, the structural gene for ADP-heptose:LPS heptosyltransferase II; rfaD, the structural gene for ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose-6-epimerase; and part of kbl, the structural gene for 2-..
- Holland A, Rather P. Evidence for extracellular control of RpoS proteolysis in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;286:50-9 pubmed publisher..However, protease treatment drastically reduced signal activity. Extracellular signal activity was absent in an hldD (rfaD) mutant, but was present in cell lysates, suggesting that signal was unable to be exported in an hldD mutant.
- Karow M, Raina S, Georgopoulos C, Fayet O. Complex phenotypes of null mutations in the htr genes, whose products are essential for Escherichia coli growth at elevated temperatures. Res Microbiol. 1991;142:289-94 pubmed..The htrM gene is identical to the rfaD gene, whose product is required for the biosynthesis of the lipopolysaccharide precursor ADP-L-glycero-D-..