Gene Symbol: hemG
Description: protoporphyrin oxidase, flavoprotein
Alias: ECK3842, JW3827, yihB
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Jacobs N, Jacobs J. Quinones as hydrogen carriers for a late step in anaerobic heme biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978;544:540-6 pubmed
    ..These findings have implications for the mechanism and regulation of microbial heme and chlorophyll synthesis and for the physiology of cytochrome synthesis in anaerobic microorganisms. ..
  2. Grandori R, Carey J. Six new candidate members of the alpha/beta twisted open-sheet family detected by sequence similarity to flavodoxin. Protein Sci. 1994;3:2185-93 pubmed
    ..coli, MioC and the hypothetical protein YihB. We discuss sequence conservation with reference to the known 3-dimensional structures of flavodoxins...
  3. Jacobs N, Jacobs J. Evidence for involvement of the electron transport system at a late step of anaerobic microbial heme synthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1977;459:141-4 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the aerobic oxidation of protoporphyrinogen, which occurs in mammalian and yeast mitochondria, is known to be linked directly to oxygen without the mediation of an electron transport system. ..
  4. Jacobs N, Jacobs J. Nitrate, fumarate, and oxygen as electron acceptors for a late step in microbial heme synthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976;449:1-9 pubmed
    ..It is known that these two facultative organisms also differ in that E. coli synthesizes cytochrome during both aerobic and anaerobic growth, while Staphylococcus only synthesizes cytochromes when grown aerobically. ..
  5. Matsudaira P. Sequence from picomole quantities of proteins electroblotted onto polyvinylidene difluoride membranes. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:10035-8 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that PVDF membranes are superior supports for sequence analysis of picomole quantities of proteins purified by gel electrophoresis. ..
  6. Boynton T, Daugherty L, Dailey T, Dailey H. Identification of Escherichia coli HemG as a novel, menadione-dependent flavodoxin with protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity. Biochemistry. 2009;48:6705-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In E. coli SASX38, the knockout of hemG causes a loss of measurable PPO activity. HemG is a small soluble protein typical of long chain flavodoxins...
  7. Sasarman A, Chartrand P, Lavoie M, Tardif D, Proschek R, Lapointe C. Mapping of a new hem gene in Escherichia coli K12. J Gen Microbiol. 1979;113:297-303 pubmed
    ..The gene affected in the mutant was designated hemG. Mapping of the hemG gene by phage P1-mediated transduction showed that it was located very close to the chlB gene (..
  8. Sasarman A, Letowski J, Czaika G, Ramirez V, Nead M, Jacobs J, et al. Nucleotide sequence of the hemG gene involved in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity of Escherichia coli K12. Can J Microbiol. 1993;39:1155-61 pubmed
    The hemG gene of Escherichia coli K12 is involved in the activity of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of protoporphyrinogen IX into protoporphyrin IX during heme and chlorophyll biosynthesis...
  9. Nakahigashi K, Inokuchi H. Nucleotide sequence between the fadB gene and the rrnA operon from Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:6439 pubmed

More Information


  1. Narita S, Taketani S, Inokuchi H. Oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX in Escherichia coli is mediated by the aerobic coproporphyrinogen oxidase. Mol Gen Genet. 1999;261:1012-20 pubmed
    ..In Escherichia coli, this enzyme is encoded by the hemG gene...
  2. Breckau D, Mahlitz E, Sauerwald A, Layer G, Jahn D. Oxygen-dependent coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (HemF) from Escherichia coli is stimulated by manganese. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:46625-31 pubmed
    ..Moreover, mutation of a potential nucleotide binding motif (GGGXXTP) did not affect HemF activity. Two alternative routes for HemF-mediated catalysis, one metal-dependent, the other metal-independent, are proposed. ..
  3. Yang H, Sasarman A, Inokuchi H, Adler J. Non-iron porphyrins cause tumbling to blue light by an Escherichia coli mutant defective in hemG. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:2459-63 pubmed
    ..Here we explore the effect of a hemG mutant, defective in the penultimate step, protoporphyrinogen oxidase...
  4. Ericsson U, Hallberg B, DeTitta G, Dekker N, Nordlund P. Thermofluor-based high-throughput stability optimization of proteins for structural studies. Anal Biochem. 2006;357:289-98 pubmed
    ..This suggests that thermofluor constitutes an efficient generic high-throughput method for identification of protein properties predictive of crystallizability. ..
  5. Jacobs J, Jacobs N. Protoporphyrinogen oxidation, an enzymatic step in heme and chlorophyll synthesis: partial characterization of the reaction in plant organelles and comparison with mammalian and bacterial systems. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1984;229:312-9 pubmed
    ..The activity extracted from spinach chloroplasts was mostly inactivated by trypsin digestion, which was additional evidence for the protein nature of the plant activity. ..
  6. Nishimura K, Nakayashiki T, Inokuchi H. Cloning and identification of the hemG gene encoding protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) of Escherichia coli K-12. DNA Res. 1995;2:1-8 pubmed
    ..we concluded that strain VSR751 must be defective in protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO), the product of the hemG gene. By complementation analysis using VSR751, we isolated and identified this gene...