Gene Symbol: gyrA
Description: DNA gyrase (type II topoisomerase), subunit A
Alias: ECK2223, JW2225, hisW, nalA, nfxA, norA, parD
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Gellert M, Mizuuchi K, O Dea M, Nash H. DNA gyrase: an enzyme that introduces superhelical turns into DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976;73:3872-6 pubmed
    ..The enzyme acts equally well on relaxed closed-circular colicin E1, phage lambda, and simian virus 40 DNA. The final superhelix density of the DNA can be considerably greater than that found in intracellularly supercoiled DNA. ..
  2. DiNardo S, Voelkel K, Sternglanz R, Reynolds A, Wright A. Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I mutants have compensatory mutations in DNA gyrase genes. Cell. 1982;31:43-51 pubmed
    ..Several of these compensatory mutations have been found to map at or near the genes encoding DNA gyrase, gyrA and gyrB. DNA gyrase assays of crude extracts show that strains carrying the mutations have lower gyrase activity...
  3. Espeli O, Boccard F. In vivo cleavage of Escherichia coli BIME-2 repeats by DNA gyrase: genetic characterization of the target and identification of the cut site. Mol Microbiol. 1997;26:767-77 pubmed
    ..DNA gyrase cleavage at repetitive BIME-2 elements may have consequences for DNA topology and genomic rearrangements. ..
  4. Chatterji M, Nagaraja V. GyrI: a counter-defensive strategy against proteinaceous inhibitors of DNA gyrase. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:261-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, GyrI is an antidote to DNA gyrase-specific proteinaceous poisons encoded by plasmid addiction systems. ..
  5. Steck T, Pruss G, Manes S, Burg L, Drlica K. DNA supercoiling in gyrase mutants. J Bacteriol. 1984;158:397-403 pubmed
    Nucleoids isolated from Escherichia coli strains carrying temperature-sensitive gyrA or gyrB mutations were examined by sedimentation in ethidium bromide-containing sucrose density gradients...
  6. Kampranis S, Howells A, Maxwell A. The interaction of DNA gyrase with the bacterial toxin CcdB: evidence for the existence of two gyrase-CcdB complexes. J Mol Biol. 1999;293:733-44 pubmed
    ..An initial complex (alpha) is formed by direct interaction between GyrA and CcdB; this complex can be detected by affinity column and gel-shift analysis, and has a proteolytic signature ..
  7. Jones P, Krah R, Tafuri S, Wolffe A. DNA gyrase, CS7.4, and the cold shock response in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:5798-802 pubmed
    ..4. The promoter of the gyrA gene contains specific binding sites for the CS7.4 protein, suggesting that CS7...
  8. Gellert M, Fisher L, O Dea M. DNA gyrase: purification and catalytic properties of a fragment of gyrase B protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:6289-93 pubmed
    A protein isolated from Escherichia coli complements the DNA gyrase A (NalA) protein to generate an activity that relaxes supercoiled DNA...
  9. Heddle J, Mitelheiser S, Maxwell A, Thomson N. Nucleotide binding to DNA gyrase causes loss of DNA wrap. J Mol Biol. 2004;337:597-610 pubmed

More Information


  1. Ashiuchi M, Kuwana E, Yamamoto T, Komatsu K, Soda K, Misono H. Glutamate racemase is an endogenous DNA gyrase inhibitor. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:39070-3 pubmed
    ..This is the first finding of the enzyme protein participating in both d-amino acid metabolism and DNA processing. ..
  2. Miki T, Park J, Nagao K, Murayama N, Horiuchi T. Control of segregation of chromosomal DNA by sex factor F in Escherichia coli. Mutants of DNA gyrase subunit A suppress letD (ccdB) product growth inhibition. J Mol Biol. 1992;225:39-52 pubmed
    ..three mutants were shown, by phage P1-mediated transduction and complementation analysis, to have mutations in the gyrA gene and the other six in the groE genes...
  3. Ullsperger C, Cozzarelli N. Contrasting enzymatic activities of topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:31549-55 pubmed
    ..This ability of Topo IV to selectively unlink catenated molecules mirrors its key role in decatenation of replicating chromosomes in vivo. ..
  4. Zechiedrich E, Khodursky A, Bachellier S, Schneider R, Chen D, Lilley D, et al. Roles of topoisomerases in maintaining steady-state DNA supercoiling in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:8103-13 pubmed
    ..09), greatly stimulating transcription from the supercoiling sensitive leu-500 promoter and increasing the number of supercoils trapped by lambda integrase site-specific recombination. ..
  5. Edwards M, Flatman R, Mitchenall L, Stevenson C, Le T, Clarke T, et al. A crystal structure of the bifunctional antibiotic simocyclinone D8, bound to DNA gyrase. Science. 2009;326:1415-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results should facilitate the design of drug molecules that target these unexploited binding pockets. ..
  6. Jeong K, Xie Y, Hiasa H, Khodursky A. Analysis of pleiotropic transcriptional profiles: a case study of DNA gyrase inhibition. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e152 pubmed
    ..We conclude that modeling compound transcriptional profiles as a combination of downstream transcriptional effects allows for a more realistic, accurate, and meaningful representation of the transcriptional activity of a genome. ..
  7. Dao Thi M, Van Melderen L, De Genst E, Afif H, Buts L, Wyns L, et al. Molecular basis of gyrase poisoning by the addiction toxin CcdB. J Mol Biol. 2005;348:1091-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of GyrA14 protects Escherichia coli cells against CcdB, mimicking the action of the antidote CcdA...
  8. Truong Q, Nguyen Van J, Shlaes D, Gutmann L, Moreau N. A novel, double mutation in DNA gyrase A of Escherichia coli conferring resistance to quinolone antibiotics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997;41:85-90 pubmed
    ..The different mutations leading to Gly81Asp, Asp82Gly, and Gly81AspAsp82Gly were introduced into the gyrA gene harbored on plasmid pJSW102, and the resulting plasmids were introduced into E...
  9. Fisher L, Mizuuchi K, O Dea M, Ohmori H, Gellert M. Site-specific interaction of DNA gyrase with DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981;78:4165-9 pubmed
    ..This result supports the view that, in the DNA gyrase--DNA complex, the DNA is largely wrapped on the outside of the enzyme. ..
  10. Sugino A, Higgins N, Cozzarelli N. DNA gyrase subunit stoichiometry and the covalent attachment of subunit A to DNA during DNA cleavage. Nucleic Acids Res. 1980;8:3865-74 pubmed
    Escherichia coli DNA gyrase contains a 1:1 ratio of protomers coded by the genes gyrA and gyrB. This along with previous results shows that the enzyme has two copies of each protomer and thus a molecular weight of 400,000...
  11. Ali J, Jackson A, Howells A, Maxwell A. The 43-kilodalton N-terminal fragment of the DNA gyrase B protein hydrolyzes ATP and binds coumarin drugs. Biochemistry. 1993;32:2717-24 pubmed
    ..The implications of these results with respect to the mechanism of supercoiling by DNA gyrase and the inhibition of gyrase by coumarin drugs are discussed. ..
  12. Chen C, Malik M, Snyder M, Drlica K. DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV on the bacterial chromosome: quinolone-induced DNA cleavage. J Mol Biol. 1996;258:627-37 pubmed
    ..Ciprofloxacin also killed a gyrase (gyrA) mutant resistant to the prototype of quinolone, nalidixic acid, and created complexes on DNA detected by DNA ..
  13. Morais Cabral J, Jackson A, Smith C, Shikotra N, Maxwell A, Liddington R. Crystal structure of the breakage-reunion domain of DNA gyrase. Nature. 1997;388:903-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations that confer resistance to the quinolone antibacterial agents cluster at the new dimer interface, indicating how these drugs might interact with the gyrase-DNA complex...
  14. Sheridan S, Opel M, Hatfield G. Activation and repression of transcription initiation by a distant DNA structural transition. Mol Microbiol. 2001;40:684-90 pubmed
    ..sequence on the basal levels of expression of two supercoiling-sensitive promoters of Escherichia coli, ilvPG and gyrA. We demonstrate transcriptional repression of the ilvPG promoter and activation of the gyrA promoter...
  15. Kreuzer K, Cozzarelli N. Escherichia coli mutants thermosensitive for deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase subunit A: effects on deoxyribonucleic acid replication, transcription, and bacteriophage growth. J Bacteriol. 1979;140:424-35 pubmed
    Temperature-sensitive nalA mutants of Escherichia coli have been used to investigate the structure and functions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) gyrase...
  16. Snoep J, van der Weijden C, Andersen H, Westerhoff H, Jensen P. DNA supercoiling in Escherichia coli is under tight and subtle homeostatic control, involving gene-expression and metabolic regulation of both topoisomerase I and DNA gyrase. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:1662-9 pubmed
    ..3% change of DNA supercoiling only. We conclude that the homeostatic regulation of the nonequilibrium DNA structure in wild-type Escherichia coli is almost complete and subtle (i.e. involving at least three regulatory mechanisms). ..
  17. Peter B, Arsuaga J, Breier A, Khodursky A, Brown P, Cozzarelli N. Genomic transcriptional response to loss of chromosomal supercoiling in Escherichia coli. Genome Biol. 2004;5:R87 pubmed
    ..We propose that supercoiling acts as a second messenger that transmits information about the environment to many regulatory networks in the cell. ..
  18. Costenaro L, Grossmann J, Ebel C, Maxwell A. Small-angle X-ray scattering reveals the solution structure of the full-length DNA gyrase a subunit. Structure. 2005;13:287-96 pubmed
    ..From biophysical experiments in solution, we report the low-resolution structure of the full-length A subunit (GyrA). Analytical ultracentrifugation shows that GyrA is dimeric, but nonglobular...
  19. Pohlhaus J, Kreuzer K. Norfloxacin-induced DNA gyrase cleavage complexes block Escherichia coli replication forks, causing double-stranded breaks in vivo. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:1416-29 pubmed
    ..Additionally, some branched plasmid DNA isolated under resealing conditions nonetheless contained broken DNA ends. We discuss a model for the creation of double-stranded breaks by an indirect mechanism after quinolone treatment. ..
  20. Reece R, Maxwell A. DNA gyrase: structure and function. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 1991;26:335-75 pubmed
    ..In this review we summarize the current knowledge concerning DNA gyrase by addressing a wide range of aspects of the study of this enzyme. ..
  21. Thornton M, Armitage M, Maxwell A, Dosanjh B, Howells A, Norris V, et al. Immunogold localization of GyrA and GyrB proteins in Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 1994;140 ( Pt 9):2371-82 pubmed
    Immunogold preparations of Escherichia coli, using anti-GyrA and anti-GyrB antibodies to the subunits of DNA gyrase, showed clear labelling with both secondary antibody and protein A-gold conjugates...
  22. Wigley D, Davies G, Dodson E, Maxwell A, Dodson G. Crystal structure of an N-terminal fragment of the DNA gyrase B protein. Nature. 1991;351:624-9 pubmed
    ..The C-terminal domains form the sides of a 20 A hole through the protein dimer which may play a role in DNA strand passage during the supercoiling reaction. ..
  23. Hallett P, Grimshaw A, Wigley D, Maxwell A. Cloning of the DNA gyrase genes under tac promoter control: overproduction of the gyrase A and B proteins. Gene. 1990;93:139-42 pubmed
    The construction of plasmids which over-produce the Escherichia coli DNA gyrase A and B proteins (GyrA and GyrB) is described...
  24. Pierrat O, Maxwell A. The action of the bacterial toxin microcin B17. Insight into the cleavage-religation reaction of DNA gyrase. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:35016-23 pubmed
    ..Based on these results and on the observations that MccB17 only slowly inhibits the supercoiling and relaxation reactions, we suggest a model of the interaction of MccB17 with gyrase. ..
  25. Pruss G, Franco R, Chevalier S, Manes S, Drlica K. Effects of DNA gyrase inhibitors in Escherichia coli topoisomerase I mutants. J Bacteriol. 1986;168:276-82 pubmed
    ..increased by adding oxolinic acid to a strain that carries three topoisomerase mutations: delta topA, gyrB225, and gyrA (Nalr) (S. H. Manes, G. J. Pruss, and K. Drlica, J. Bacteriol. 155:420-423, 1983)...
  26. Menzel R, Gellert M. Regulation of the genes for E. coli DNA gyrase: homeostatic control of DNA supercoiling. Cell. 1983;34:105-13 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that DNA supercoiling in E. coli is controlled by a homeostatic mechanism. Synthesis of the RecA protein and several other proteins is also increased by treatments that relax intracellular DNA. ..
  27. Zechiedrich E, Cozzarelli N. Roles of topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase in DNA unlinking during replication in Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2859-69 pubmed
    ..We conclude that catenanes are kinetic intermediates in DNA replication and that the essential role of topo IV is to unlink daughter replicons. ..
  28. Maxwell A, Gellert M. The DNA dependence of the ATPase activity of DNA gyrase. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:14472-80 pubmed
    ..To account for these data we propose a model for the interaction of gyrase with ATP and DNA in which ATP hydrolysis requires the binding of DNA to two sites on the enzyme. ..
  29. Yang Y, Ames G. DNA gyrase binds to the family of prokaryotic repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:8850-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, we speculate that these interactions may be of a structural nature, such as involvement in the higher-order structure of the bacterial chromosome. ..
  30. Loris R, Dao Thi M, Bahassi E, Van Melderen L, Poortmans F, Liddington R, et al. Crystal structure of CcdB, a topoisomerase poison from E. coli. J Mol Biol. 1999;285:1667-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the CcdB dimer binds into the central hole of the 59 kDa N-terminal fragment of GyrA, after disruption of the head dimer interface of GyrA.
  31. Nollmann M, Crisona N, Arimondo P. Thirty years of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase: from in vivo function to single-molecule mechanism. Biochimie. 2007;89:490-9 pubmed to introduce negative supercoils into DNA, a unique ability that arises from the specialized C-terminal DNA wrapping domain of the GyrA subunit. Here, we review the biological roles of gyrase in vivo and its mechanism in vitro.
  32. Khodursky A, Peter B, Schmid M, DeRisi J, Botstein D, Brown P, et al. Analysis of topoisomerase function in bacterial replication fork movement: use of DNA microarrays. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:9419-24 pubmed
    ..Topo IV activity was sufficient to prevent accumulation of (+) supercoils in plasmid DNA in vivo, suggesting that topo IV can promote replication by removing (+) supercoils in front of the chromosomal fork. ..
  33. Travers A, Muskhelishvili G. DNA supercoiling - a global transcriptional regulator for enterobacterial growth?. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005;3:157-69 pubmed
  34. Maxwell A, Howells A. Overexpression and purification of bacterial DNA gyrase. Methods Mol Biol. 1999;94:135-44 pubmed
  35. Hockings S, Maxwell A. Identification of four GyrA residues involved in the DNA breakage-reunion reaction of DNA gyrase. J Mol Biol. 2002;318:351-9 pubmed
    ..The cleavage-religation reaction involves the formation of a 5'-phosphotyrosine intermediate with the GyrA subunit of the gyrase (A(2)B(2)) complex...
  36. Schneider R, Travers A, Kutateladze T, Muskhelishvili G. A DNA architectural protein couples cellular physiology and DNA topology in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:953-64 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that, in addition, FIS represses the gyrA and gyrB promoters and reduces DNA gyrase activity...
  37. Menzel R, Gellert M. Fusions of the Escherichia coli gyrA and gyrB control regions to the galactokinase gene are inducible by coumermycin treatment. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:1272-8 pubmed
    ..When the DNA encoding the gyrA and gyrB genes is relaxed, both genes are expressed at a high level; in negatively supercoiled DNA they are ..
  38. Menzel R, Gellert M. Modulation of transcription by DNA supercoiling: a deletion analysis of the Escherichia coli gyrA and gyrB promoters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:4185-9 pubmed
    Expression of the genes determining the subunits of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) is known to be induced by relaxation of the template DNA. In this paper we report a deletion analysis of the gyrA and gyrB promoter regions...
  39. Richter S, Giaretta G, Comuzzi V, Leo E, Mitchenall L, Fisher L, et al. Hot-spot consensus of fluoroquinolone-mediated DNA cleavage by Gram-negative and Gram-positive type II DNA topoisomerases. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:6075-85 pubmed
  40. Dorman C, Corcoran C. Bacterial DNA topology and infectious disease. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:672-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Knowledge of the molecular connections between physiology, DNA topology and gene expression offers new opportunities to fight infection. ..
  41. Oram M, Fisher L. An Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I mutant has a compensatory mutation that alters two residues between functional domains of the DNA gyrase A protein. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:4175-8 pubmed
    Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the compensatory gyrA mutation in Escherichia coli DM750 affects DNA supercoiling by interchanging the identities of Ala-569 and Thr-586 in the DNA gyrase A subunit...
  42. Kowalczykowski S, Dixon D, Eggleston A, Lauder S, Rehrauer W. Biochemistry of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Microbiol Rev. 1994;58:401-65 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these steps, with particular emphases on the activities of the proteins involved and on the integration of these activities into likely biochemical pathways for recombination. ..
  43. Figueroa N, Wills N, Bossi L. Common sequence determinants of the response of a prokaryotic promoter to DNA bending and supercoiling. EMBO J. 1991;10:941-9 pubmed
    ..Three additional promoter mutations correcting (or alleviating) the effects of the upstream alteration (including a change at -8) are described and discussed. ..
  44. Varughese L, Rajpoot M, Goyal S, Mehra R, Chhokar V, Beniwal V. Analytical profiling of mutations in quinolone resistance determining region of gyrA gene among UPEC. PLoS ONE. 2018;13:e0190729 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in gyrA are the primary cause of quinolone resistance encountered in gram-negative clinical isolates. The prospect of this work was to analyze the role of gyrA mutations in eliciting high quinolone resistance in uropathogenic E...
  45. Miura Masuda A, Ikeda H. The DNA gyrase of Escherichia coli participates in the formation of a spontaneous deletion by recA-independent recombination in vivo. Mol Gen Genet. 1990;220:345-52 pubmed
    ..The reversion frequencies of temperature sensitive mutants of gyrA gene are 10 to 100 times lower than that of the wild-type strain. These results indicate that the DNA gyrase of E...
  46. Higgins N, Cozzarelli N. The binding of gyrase to DNA: analysis by retention by nitrocellulose filters. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982;10:6833-47 pubmed
    ..The first and second complexes require Mg++ for optimal formation. The third form has been shown previously to contain denatured A protomers covalently linked to DNA that is broken at the site of attachment. ..
  47. Rudd K, Menzel R. his operons of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium are regulated by DNA supercoiling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:517-21 pubmed
    ..The hisW mutations are highly linked to a naladixic acid-resistant gyrA mutation of S. typhimurium...
  48. Nakamura S, Nakamura M, Kojima T, Yoshida H. gyrA and gyrB mutations in quinolone-resistant strains of Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989;33:254-5 pubmed
    The proportion of gyrA and gyrB mutations in quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli strains was examined by introducing cloned wild-type gyrA and gyrB genes. In 25 spontaneous mutants of strain KL16, 13 had gyrA and 12 had gyrB mutations...
  49. Sissi C, Marangon E, Chemello A, Noble C, Maxwell A, Palumbo M. The effects of metal ions on the structure and stability of the DNA gyrase B protein. J Mol Biol. 2005;353:1152-60 pubmed
  50. Anderle C, Stieger M, Burrell M, Reinelt S, Maxwell A, Page M, et al. Biological activities of novel gyrase inhibitors of the aminocoumarin class. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:1982-90 pubmed publisher
    ..coli by using gyrA and sulA promoter fusions with the luxCDABE operon...
  51. Reckinger A, Jeong K, Khodursky A, Hiasa H. RecA can stimulate the relaxation activity of topoisomerase I: Molecular basis of topoisomerase-mediated genome-wide transcriptional responses in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:79-86 pubmed
    ..transcriptional responses: (i) steady-state changes elicited by a mutation in gyrase, such as the D82G mutation in GyrA, and (ii) dynamic changes elicited by the inhibition of gyrase...
  52. Mustaev A, Malik M, Zhao X, Kurepina N, Luan G, Oppegard L, et al. Fluoroquinolone-gyrase-DNA complexes: two modes of drug binding. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:12300-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, cross-linking was also readily seen with complexes formed by mutant GyrA-G81C gyrase, thereby revealing a novel drug-gyrase interaction not observed in crystal structures...
  53. Ogata Y, Mizushima T, Kataoka K, Miki T, Sekimizu K. Identification of DNA topoisomerases involved in immediate and transient DNA relaxation induced by heat shock in Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;244:451-5 pubmed
    ..These results are interpreted as indicating that both DNA topoisomerase I and DNA gyrase are involved in the DNA relaxation induced by heat shock. ..
  54. Blandamer M, Briggs B, Cullis P, Jackson A, Maxwell A, Reece R. Domain structure of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase as revealed by differential scanning calorimetry. Biochemistry. 1994;33:7510-6 pubmed
    ..Further evidence for the assignment of transitions to particular domains has been obtained by studying the effects of tight-binding ligands such as novobiocin on the thermal stabilities of the various protein fragments. ..
  55. Celia H, Hoermann L, Schultz P, Lebeau L, Mallouh V, Wigley D, et al. Three-dimensional model of Escherichia coli gyrase B subunit crystallized in two-dimensions on novobiocin-linked phospholipid films. J Mol Biol. 1994;236:618-28 pubmed
    ..Electron microscopic structural data were compared with the crystallographic structure of the 43 kDa N-terminal fragment of the B subunit complexed with a non hydrolysable ATP analogue. ..
  56. Lopez E, Elez M, Matic I, Blazquez J. Antibiotic-mediated recombination: ciprofloxacin stimulates SOS-independent recombination of divergent sequences in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:83-93 pubmed
  57. Middendorf A, Schweizer H, Vreemann J, Boos W. Mapping of markers in the gyrA-his region of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;197:175-81 pubmed
    ..the current linkage map of Escherichia coli (Bachmann 1983) led us to reinvestigate the mapping of markers in the gyrA-his region by P1 transduction...
  58. Hane M, Wood T. Escherichia coli K-12 mutants resistant to nalidixic acid: genetic mapping and dominance studies. J Bacteriol. 1969;99:238-41 pubmed
    ..on nutrient agar supplemented with nalidixic acid (NAL): (i) Nal(s) or wild type (no growth at 1 to 2 mug/ml); (ii) NalA(r) (growth at 40 mug/ml or higher); and (iii) NalB(r) (growth at 4 mug/ml, but no growth at 10 mug/ml)...
  59. Bianco P, Tracy R, Kowalczykowski S. DNA strand exchange proteins: a biochemical and physical comparison. Front Biosci. 1998;3:D570-603 pubmed
    ..coli, UvsX protein from Bacteriophage T4, and RAD51 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ..
  60. Malik M, Zhao X, Drlica K. Lethal fragmentation of bacterial chromosomes mediated by DNA gyrase and quinolones. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:810-25 pubmed
    ..A GyrA amino acid substitution (A67S) expected to perturb a GyrA-GyrA dimer interface allowed nalidixic acid to fragment ..
  61. Malik M, Hussain S, Drlica K. Effect of anaerobic growth on quinolone lethality with Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:28-34 pubmed
  62. Saing K, Orii H, Tanaka Y, Yanagisawa K, Miura A, Ikeda H. Formation of deletion in Escherichia coli between direct repeats located in the long inverted repeats of a cellular slime mold plasmid: participation of DNA gyrase. Mol Gen Genet. 1988;214:1-5 pubmed
    ..not observed when the plasmid was introduced into a strain that was an isogenic temperature-sensitive mutant of the gyrA gene. These results suggest that E. coli DNA gyrase is involved in the mechanisms of the deletion formation...
  63. Shkundina I, Serebryakova M, Severinov K. The C-terminal part of microcin B is crucial for DNA gyrase inhibition and antibiotic uptake by sensitive cells. J Bacteriol. 2014;196:1759-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The results highlight the importance of unmodified McB amino acids for function and open the way for creation of recombinant McB derivatives with an altered or expanded spectrum of antibacterial action. ..
  64. Dao Thi M, Van Melderen L, De Genst E, Buts L, Ranquin A, Wyns L, et al. Crystallization of CcdB in complex with a GyrA fragment. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004;60:1132-4 pubmed
    ..4, c = 89.4 angstroms, and diffract to 2.4 angstroms. Crystals of the (GyrA14)(2)-(CcdB)(2) complex belong to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with a = 52.1, b = 83.3, c = 110.9 angstroms, and diffract to 2.8 angstroms resolution. ..
  65. Simic M, De Jonge N, Loris R, Vesnaver G, Lah J. Driving forces of gyrase recognition by the addiction toxin CcdB. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:20002-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we performed a detailed thermodynamic analysis of CcdB binding to several fragments of gyrase A subunit (GyrA) that contain the CcdB-binding site...
  66. Cullen M, Wyke A, Kuroda R, Fisher L. Cloning and characterization of a DNA gyrase A gene from Escherichia coli that confers clinical resistance to 4-quinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989;33:886-94 pubmed
    ..Using a DNA fragment enrichment procedure, we isolated the gyrA gene from a uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain that encodes a gyrase A protein cross-resistant to a variety of ..