Gene Symbol: grxD
Description: glutaredoxin-4
Alias: ECK1650, JW1646, ydhD
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Gerdes S, Scholle M, Campbell J, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty M, et al. Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5673-84 pubmed
    ..coli genes to be preserved throughout the bacterial kingdom. Projection of these data over metabolic subsystems reveals topologic modules with essential and evolutionarily preserved enzymes with reduced capacity for error tolerance. ..
  2. Meyer Y, Buchanan B, Vignols F, Reichheld J. Thioredoxins and glutaredoxins: unifying elements in redox biology. Annu Rev Genet. 2009;43:335-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The new information will be important not only to our understanding of the role of Trx and Grx in fundamental cell processes but also to future societal benefits as the proteins find new applications in a range of fields. ..
  3. Molina Navarro M, Casas C, Piedrafita L, Belli G, Herrero E. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic monothiol glutaredoxins are able to perform the functions of Grx5 in the biogenesis of Fe/S clusters in yeast mitochondria. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:2273-80 pubmed
    ..The chicken cGRX5 gene was significantly expressed throughout the embryo stages in different tissues. These results underline the functional conservation of Grx5 homologues throughout evolution. ..
  4. Bolstad H, Botelho D, Wood M. Proteomic analysis of protein-protein interactions within the Cysteine Sulfinate Desulfinase Fe-S cluster biogenesis system. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:5358-69 pubmed publisher
    ..By comparison with previous analysis of SufE, we demonstrate that there is some overlap in the CsdE and SufE interactomes. ..
  5. Reuven N, Koonin E, Rudd K, Deutscher M. The gene for the longest known Escherichia coli protein is a member of helicase superfamily II. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:5393-400 pubmed
    ..Southern analysis showed that no other gene closely related to lhr is present on the E. coli chromosome. These data expand the known size range of E. coli proteins and suggest that very large helicases are present in this organism. ..
  6. Toledano M, Kumar C, Le Moan N, Spector D, Tacnet F. The system biology of thiol redox system in Escherichia coli and yeast: differential functions in oxidative stress, iron metabolism and DNA synthesis. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:3598-607 pubmed
    ..We show that although prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems have a similar architecture, they profoundly differ in their overall cellular functions. ..
  7. Fernandes A, Fladvad M, Berndt C, Andrésen C, Lillig C, Neubauer P, et al. A novel monothiol glutaredoxin (Grx4) from Escherichia coli can serve as a substrate for thioredoxin reductase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24544-52 pubmed
    ..Grx4 was highly elevated upon iron depletion, suggesting an iron-related function for the protein. ..
  8. Fladvad M, Bellanda M, Fernandes A, Mammi S, Vlamis Gardikas A, Holmgren A, et al. Molecular mapping of functionalities in the solution structure of reduced Grx4, a monothiol glutaredoxin from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24553-61 pubmed
    ..Structural and functional implications are discussed with particular emphasis on identifying common monothiol glutaredoxin properties in substrate specificity and ligand binding events, linking the thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems. ..
  9. Iwema T, Picciocchi A, Traore D, Ferrer J, Chauvat F, Jacquamet L. Structural basis for delivery of the intact [Fe2S2] cluster by monothiol glutaredoxin. Biochemistry. 2009;48:6041-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We present here the structure of a monothiol GRX homodimer (Escherichia coli GRX4) coordinating a [Fe2S2] cluster that reveals the structural basis of intact iron-sulfur cluster delivery. ..

More Information


  1. Bolstad H, Wood M. An in vivo method for characterization of protein interactions within sulfur trafficking systems of E. coli. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:6740-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that this method could serve as a general tool for the determination of sulfur trafficking mechanisms. ..
  2. Yeung N, Gold B, Liu N, Prathapam R, Sterling H, Willams E, et al. The E. coli monothiol glutaredoxin GrxD forms homodimeric and heterodimeric FeS cluster containing complexes. Biochemistry. 2011;50:8957-69 pubmed publisher
    ..lethality (combination of mutations leading to cell death; mutation of only one of these genes does not) of a grxD mutation when combined with strains defective in FeS cluster biosynthesis (isc operon) functions [Butland, G...
  3. Boutigny S, Saini A, Baidoo E, Yeung N, Keasling J, Butland G. Physical and functional interactions of a monothiol glutaredoxin and an iron sulfur cluster carrier protein with the sulfur-donating radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine enzyme MiaB. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:14200-11 pubmed publisher
    ..initial cluster assembly and transfer to FeS carrier proteins, accessory factors such as monothiol glutaredoxin, GrxD, and the FeS carrier protein NfuA are located outside of these defined systems...