Gene Symbol: grxC
Description: glutaredoxin 3
Alias: ECK3600, JW3585, yibM
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Ortenberg R, Gon S, Porat A, Beckwith J. Interactions of glutaredoxins, ribonucleotide reductase, and components of the DNA replication system of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7439-44 pubmed
    ..Our results also suggest an unexpected regulatory interaction between the DnaA and DnaN proteins. ..
  2. Porat A, Lillig C, Johansson C, Fernandes A, Nilsson L, Holmgren A, et al. The reducing activity of glutaredoxin 3 toward cytoplasmic substrate proteins is restricted by methionine 43. Biochemistry. 2007;46:3366-77 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Grx3-Met43Val shows an 11 mV lower redox potential than the wild-type Grx3. These findings provide biochemical and structural explanations for the increased reductive efficiency of the mutant Grx3. ..
  3. Elgán T, Berndt K. Quantifying Escherichia coli glutaredoxin-3 substrate specificity using ligand-induced stability. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:32839-47 pubmed publisher
  4. Aslund F, Ehn B, Miranda Vizuete A, Pueyo C, Holmgren A. Two additional glutaredoxins exist in Escherichia coli: glutaredoxin 3 is a hydrogen donor for ribonucleotide reductase in a thioredoxin/glutaredoxin 1 double mutant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:9813-7 pubmed
    ..The physiological functions of Grx2 and Grx3 remain to be determined. ..
  5. Aslund F, Nordstrand K, Berndt K, Nikkola M, Bergman T, Ponstingl H, et al. Glutaredoxin-3 from Escherichia coli. Amino acid sequence, 1H AND 15N NMR assignments, and structural analysis. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:6736-45 pubmed
    ..Thus, despite an identical active site disulfide motif and a similar secondary structure and tertiary fold, Grx3 and Grx1 display large functional differences in in vitro protein disulfide oxido-reduction reactions. ..
  6. Potamitou A, Holmgren A, Vlamis Gardikas A. Protein levels of Escherichia coli thioredoxins and glutaredoxins and their relation to null mutants, growth phase, and function. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:18561-7 pubmed
    ..The levels of Grx2 and Grx3 behaved exactly the opposite, suggesting that the transcription factor OxyR does not regulate their expression. ..
  7. Lillig C, Potamitou A, Schwenn J, Vlamis Gardikas A, Holmgren A. Redox regulation of 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate reductase from Escherichia coli by glutathione and glutaredoxins. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:22325-30 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli lacking glutathione reductase and glutaredoxins (gor-grxA-grxB-grxC-) barely grows on sulfate...
  8. Fernandes A, Holmgren A. Glutaredoxins: glutathione-dependent redox enzymes with functions far beyond a simple thioredoxin backup system. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2004;6:63-74 pubmed
    ..Glutaredoxins also catalyze formation of mixed disulfides (glutathionylation), which is an important redox regulatory mechanism, particularly in mammalian cells under oxidative stress conditions, to sense cellular redox potential. ..
  9. Eser M, Masip L, Kadokura H, Georgiou G, Beckwith J. Disulfide bond formation by exported glutaredoxin indicates glutathione's presence in the E. coli periplasm. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:1572-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provides in vivo evidence suggesting that oxidized glutathione is present in the E. coli periplasm in biologically significant concentrations...

More Information


  1. Meyer Y, Buchanan B, Vignols F, Reichheld J. Thioredoxins and glutaredoxins: unifying elements in redox biology. Annu Rev Genet. 2009;43:335-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The new information will be important not only to our understanding of the role of Trx and Grx in fundamental cell processes but also to future societal benefits as the proteins find new applications in a range of fields. ..
  2. Elgán T, Planson A, Beckwith J, Güntert P, Berndt K. Determinants of activity in glutaredoxins: an in vitro evolved Grx1-like variant of Escherichia coli Grx3. Biochem J. 2010;430:487-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the Grx1-like activity of the Grx3(M43V/C65Y) mutant may be explained by enhanced intrinsic motion allowing for increased specificity towards larger substrates such as RR. ..
  3. Nordstrand K, slund F, Holmgren A, Otting G, Berndt K. NMR structure of Escherichia coli glutaredoxin 3-glutathione mixed disulfide complex: implications for the enzymatic mechanism. J Mol Biol. 1999;286:541-52 pubmed
    ..A comparison of glutathione binding in Grx3-SG and ligand binding in other members of the thioredoxin superfamily is presented, which illustrates the highly conserved intermolecular interactions in this protein family. ..
  4. Achebach S, Tran Q, Vlamis Gardikas A, Müllner M, Holmgren A, Unden G. Stimulation of Fe-S cluster insertion into apoFNR by Escherichia coli glutaredoxins 1, 2 and 3 in vitro. FEBS Lett. 2004;565:203-6 pubmed
    ..Thioredoxin (Trx) 1 showed no stimulation of FNR reconstitution in vitro. It is suggested that the function of Grx might be of significance for the insertion of FeS cluster in proteins containing disulfides. ..
  5. Toledano M, Kumar C, Le Moan N, Spector D, Tacnet F. The system biology of thiol redox system in Escherichia coli and yeast: differential functions in oxidative stress, iron metabolism and DNA synthesis. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:3598-607 pubmed
    ..We show that although prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems have a similar architecture, they profoundly differ in their overall cellular functions. ..