Gene Symbol: grxB
Description: glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2)
Alias: ECK1049, JW1051
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     grxB

Top Publications

  1. Fernandes A, Holmgren A. Glutaredoxins: glutathione-dependent redox enzymes with functions far beyond a simple thioredoxin backup system. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2004;6:63-74 pubmed
    ..Glutaredoxins also catalyze formation of mixed disulfides (glutathionylation), which is an important redox regulatory mechanism, particularly in mammalian cells under oxidative stress conditions, to sense cellular redox potential. ..
  2. Fernandes A, Fladvad M, Berndt C, Andrésen C, Lillig C, Neubauer P, et al. A novel monothiol glutaredoxin (Grx4) from Escherichia coli can serve as a substrate for thioredoxin reductase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24544-52 pubmed
    ..Grx4 was highly elevated upon iron depletion, suggesting an iron-related function for the protein. ..
  3. Lillig C, Potamitou A, Schwenn J, Vlamis Gardikas A, Holmgren A. Redox regulation of 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate reductase from Escherichia coli by glutathione and glutaredoxins. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:22325-30 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli lacking glutathione reductase and glutaredoxins (gor-grxA-grxB-grxC-) barely grows on sulfate...
  4. Achebach S, Tran Q, Vlamis Gardikas A, Müllner M, Holmgren A, Unden G. Stimulation of Fe-S cluster insertion into apoFNR by Escherichia coli glutaredoxins 1, 2 and 3 in vitro. FEBS Lett. 2004;565:203-6 pubmed
    ..Thioredoxin (Trx) 1 showed no stimulation of FNR reconstitution in vitro. It is suggested that the function of Grx might be of significance for the insertion of FeS cluster in proteins containing disulfides. ..
  5. Eser M, Masip L, Kadokura H, Georgiou G, Beckwith J. Disulfide bond formation by exported glutaredoxin indicates glutathione's presence in the E. coli periplasm. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:1572-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provides in vivo evidence suggesting that oxidized glutathione is present in the E. coli periplasm in biologically significant concentrations...
  6. Sheng J, Ye J, Rosen B. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Escherichia coliglutaredoxin 2 in complex with glutathione and of a cysteine-less variant without glutathione. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2007;63:280-2 pubmed
    ..The crystals diffracted to 2.40 A and belong to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The unit-cell parameters are a = 28.16, b = 78.65, c = 89.16 A. ..
  7. Toledano M, Kumar C, Le Moan N, Spector D, Tacnet F. The system biology of thiol redox system in Escherichia coli and yeast: differential functions in oxidative stress, iron metabolism and DNA synthesis. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:3598-607 pubmed
    ..We show that although prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems have a similar architecture, they profoundly differ in their overall cellular functions. ..
  8. Aslund F, Ehn B, Miranda Vizuete A, Pueyo C, Holmgren A. Two additional glutaredoxins exist in Escherichia coli: glutaredoxin 3 is a hydrogen donor for ribonucleotide reductase in a thioredoxin/glutaredoxin 1 double mutant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:9813-7 pubmed
    ..The physiological functions of Grx2 and Grx3 remain to be determined. ..
  9. Vlamis Gardikas A, Aslund F, Spyrou G, Bergman T, Holmgren A. Cloning, overexpression, and characterization of glutaredoxin 2, an atypical glutaredoxin from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:11236-43 pubmed
    ..To characterize Grx2, a chromosomal fragment containing the E. coli Grx2 gene (grxB) was cloned and sequenced...

More Information


  1. Shi J, Vlamis Gardikas A, Aslund F, Holmgren A, Rosen B. Reactivity of glutaredoxins 1, 2, and 3 from Escherichia coli shows that glutaredoxin 2 is the primary hydrogen donor to ArsC-catalyzed arsenate reduction. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:36039-42 pubmed
    ..This suggests that, during the catalytic cycle, ArsC forms a mixed disulfide with GSH before being reduced by glutaredoxin to regenerate the active ArsC reductase. ..
  2. Potamitou A, Holmgren A, Vlamis Gardikas A. Protein levels of Escherichia coli thioredoxins and glutaredoxins and their relation to null mutants, growth phase, and function. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:18561-7 pubmed
    ..The levels of Grx2 and Grx3 behaved exactly the opposite, suggesting that the transcription factor OxyR does not regulate their expression. ..
  3. Potamitou A, Neubauer P, Holmgren A, Vlamis Gardikas A. Expression of Escherichia coli glutaredoxin 2 is mainly regulated by ppGpp and sigmaS. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:17775-80 pubmed
    Escherichia coli glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2, encoded by grxB) differs greatly from the other two glutaredoxins in structure and catalytic properties...
  4. Meyer Y, Buchanan B, Vignols F, Reichheld J. Thioredoxins and glutaredoxins: unifying elements in redox biology. Annu Rev Genet. 2009;43:335-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The new information will be important not only to our understanding of the role of Trx and Grx in fundamental cell processes but also to future societal benefits as the proteins find new applications in a range of fields. ..
  5. Gildenhuys S, Wallace L, Dirr H. Stability and unfolding of reduced Escherichia coli glutaredoxin 2: a monomeric structural homologue of the glutathione transferase family. Biochemistry. 2008;47:10801-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The kinetics data are, therefore, consistent with the existence of cooperativity between the domains, in agreement with the equilibrium data. ..