Gene Symbol: grxA
Description: glutaredoxin 1, redox coenzyme for ribonucleotide reductase (RNR1a)
Alias: ECK0840, JW0833, grx
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Achebach S, Tran Q, Vlamis Gardikas A, Müllner M, Holmgren A, Unden G. Stimulation of Fe-S cluster insertion into apoFNR by Escherichia coli glutaredoxins 1, 2 and 3 in vitro. FEBS Lett. 2004;565:203-6 pubmed
    ..Addition of E. coli glutaredoxins (Grx) 1, 2 or 3 decreased the lag phase greatly and stimulated the reconstitution rate slightly (about twofold)...
  2. Sodano P, Chary K, Bjornberg O, Holmgren A, Kren B, Fuchs J, et al. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of recombinant Escherichia coli glutaredoxin. Sequence-specific assignments and secondary structure determination of the oxidized form. Eur J Biochem. 1991;200:369-77 pubmed
    ..The protein further contains three helices extending approximately from residues 13-28, 45-54 and 72-84. ..
  3. Fernandes A, Holmgren A. Glutaredoxins: glutathione-dependent redox enzymes with functions far beyond a simple thioredoxin backup system. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2004;6:63-74 pubmed
    ..Glutaredoxins also catalyze formation of mixed disulfides (glutathionylation), which is an important redox regulatory mechanism, particularly in mammalian cells under oxidative stress conditions, to sense cellular redox potential. ..
  4. Aslund F, Nordstrand K, Berndt K, Nikkola M, Bergman T, Ponstingl H, et al. Glutaredoxin-3 from Escherichia coli. Amino acid sequence, 1H AND 15N NMR assignments, and structural analysis. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:6736-45 pubmed
    ..Thus, despite an identical active site disulfide motif and a similar secondary structure and tertiary fold, Grx3 and Grx1 display large functional differences in in vitro protein disulfide oxido-reduction reactions. ..
  5. Hoog J, Jornvall H, Holmgren A, Carlquist M, Persson M. The primary structure of Escherichia coli glutaredoxin. Distant homology with thioredoxins in a superfamily of small proteins with a redox-active cystine disulfide/cysteine dithiol. Eur J Biochem. 1983;136:223-32 pubmed
    ..The mixed properties are compatible with this conclusion, the superfamily assignment, and the differences in biological activity. ..
  6. Meyer Y, Buchanan B, Vignols F, Reichheld J. Thioredoxins and glutaredoxins: unifying elements in redox biology. Annu Rev Genet. 2009;43:335-67 pubmed publisher
    ..their discovery as a substrate for ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), the role of thioredoxin (Trx) and glutaredoxin (Grx) has been largely extended through their regulatory function...
  7. Tao K. oxyR-dependent induction of Escherichia coli grx gene expression by peroxide stress. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:5967-70 pubmed
    ..Analyses of the cloned fragment indicate that the grx gene, encoding glutaredoxin 1, is inducible by hydrogen peroxide in an oxyR-dependent fashion.
  8. Russel M, Model P, Holmgren A. Thioredoxin or glutaredoxin in Escherichia coli is essential for sulfate reduction but not for deoxyribonucleotide synthesis. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:1923-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that X is a cysA mutation. Our data suggest that the inviability of a trxA grx double mutant is due to the accumulation of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), an intermediate in the ..
  9. Amegbey G, Monzavi H, Habibi Nazhad B, Bhattacharyya S, Wishart D. Structural and functional characterization of a thioredoxin-like protein (Mt0807) from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Biochemistry. 2003;42:8001-10 pubmed
    ..thermoautotrophicum, while Mt0895 plays a minor or supportive role. We also suggest that these two molecules (Mt0807 and Mt0895) may represent a group of ancient proteins that were ancestral to both thioredoxins and glutaredoxins. ..

More Information


  1. Waldman H. Baby fat is cute, but chubby kids may be in danger. ASDC J Dent Child. 2000;67:15-7, 8 pubmed
    ..An increasing percent of children are overweight. A review of the prevalence of overweight children in different demographic groups is provided in an effort to alert dentists to the role they could play in preventing medical complications. ..
  2. De Spiegeleer P, Sermon J, Lietaert A, Aertsen A, Michiels C. Source of tryptone in growth medium affects oxidative stress resistance in Escherichia coli. J Appl Microbiol. 2004;97:124-33 pubmed
    ..This work highlights the importance of controlling very subtle differences in composition of nonselective growth media in studies on bacterial physiology. ..
  3. Kelley J, Caputo T, Eaton S, Laue T, Bushweller J. Comparison of backbone dynamics of reduced and oxidized Escherichia coli glutaredoxin-1 using 15N NMR relaxation measurements. Biochemistry. 1997;36:5029-44 pubmed
    ..The role of the observed differences in the dynamic behavior in the two forms, particularly in the active site, in glutaredoxin-1's role as a protein disulfide reductant is discussed. ..
  4. Russel M, Holmgren A. Construction and characterization of glutaredoxin-negative mutants of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:990-4 pubmed
    ..In rich medium, very slowly growing, unstable transductants were obtained that at high frequency gave rise to better growing cells. One such isolate, A410, was shown to still lack glutaredoxin and thioredoxin. ..
  5. Sodano P, Xia T, Bushweller J, Bjornberg O, Holmgren A, Billeter M, et al. Sequence-specific 1H n.m.r. assignments and determination of the three-dimensional structure of reduced Escherichia coli glutaredoxin. J Mol Biol. 1991;221:1311-24 pubmed
    ..The active site Cys11-Pro-Tyr-Cys14 is located after the first beta-strand and occupies the latter part of the loop connecting this strand with the first helix. ..
  6. Saaranen M, Salo K, Latva Ranta M, Kinnula V, Ruddock L. The C-terminal active site cysteine of Escherichia coli glutaredoxin 1 determines the glutathione specificity of the second step of peptide deglutathionylation. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2009;11:1819-28 pubmed publisher
    ..coli Grx1 for glutathione over the corresponding tripeptide Glu-Cys-Gly, which has a normal peptide bond linking Glu-Cys instead of the gamma-linkage present in glutathione, in the second step of deglutathionylation. ..
  7. Gallardo Madueño R, Leal J, Dorado G, Holmgren A, Lopez Barea J, Pueyo C. In vivo transcription of nrdAB operon and of grxA and fpg genes is triggered in Escherichia coli lacking both thioredoxin and glutaredoxin 1 or thioredoxin and glutathione, respectively. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:18382-8 pubmed
    ..Likewise, a dramatic increase of 36-fold in grxA mRNA was observed in bacteria simultaneously deficient in thioredoxin and GSH (the physiological reductant of all ..
  8. Oden K, Gladysheva T, Rosen B. Arsenate reduction mediated by the plasmid-encoded ArsC protein is coupled to glutathione. Mol Microbiol. 1994;12:301-6 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the trx and grx genes for thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, respectively, had no effect on arsenate resistance...
  9. Harrison J, Tremaroli V, Stan M, Chan C, Vacchi Suzzi C, Heyne B, et al. Chromosomal antioxidant genes have metal ion-specific roles as determinants of bacterial metal tolerance. Environ Microbiol. 2009;11:2491-509 pubmed publisher
    ..This characterized approximately 250 gene-metal combinations and identified that sodA, sodB, gor, trxA, gshA, grxA and marR have distinct roles in safeguarding or sensitizing cells to different toxic metal ions (Cr(2)O(7)(2-), Co(..
  10. Oktiabr skiĭ O, Ushakov V, Muzyka N, Smirnova G. [The role of thiol redox systems in response of Escherichia coli to distant UV irradiation]. Mikrobiologiia. 2009;78:328-33 pubmed
  11. Gon S, Faulkner M, Beckwith J. In vivo requirement for glutaredoxins and thioredoxins in the reduction of the ribonucleotide reductases of Escherichia coli. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006;8:735-42 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate a role for these enzymes either for NrdDG reactivation or some other essential anaerobic process. ..
  12. Berardi M, Bushweller J. Binding specificity and mechanistic insight into glutaredoxin-catalyzed protein disulfide reduction. J Mol Biol. 1999;292:151-61 pubmed
    ..for the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR)-catalyzed production of deoxyribonucleotides are provided by glutaredoxin (Grx) or thioredoxin (Trx)...
  13. Lillig C, Potamitou A, Schwenn J, Vlamis Gardikas A, Holmgren A. Redox regulation of 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate reductase from Escherichia coli by glutathione and glutaredoxins. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:22325-30 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli lacking glutathione reductase and glutaredoxins (gor-grxA-grxB-grxC-) barely grows on sulfate...
  14. Kren B, Parsell D, Fuchs J. Isolation and characterization of an Escherichia coli K-12 mutant deficient in glutaredoxin. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:308-15 pubmed
    ..J.-O. Hoog, H. von Bahr-Lindstrom, H. Jornvall, and A. Holmgren, Gene 43:13-21, 1986). ..
  15. Eser M, Masip L, Kadokura H, Georgiou G, Beckwith J. Disulfide bond formation by exported glutaredoxin indicates glutathione's presence in the E. coli periplasm. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:1572-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provides in vivo evidence suggesting that oxidized glutathione is present in the E. coli periplasm in biologically significant concentrations...
  16. Peltoniemi M, Karala A, Jurvansuu J, Kinnula V, Ruddock L. Insights into deglutathionylation reactions. Different intermediates in the glutaredoxin and protein disulfide isomerase catalyzed reactions are defined by the gamma-linkage present in glutathione. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:33107-14 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, in contrast to the glutaredoxin-GSH mixed disulfide intermediate, the only intermediate in the PDI-catalyzed reaction was PDI peptide mixed disulfide. ..
  17. Potamitou A, Holmgren A, Vlamis Gardikas A. Protein levels of Escherichia coli thioredoxins and glutaredoxins and their relation to null mutants, growth phase, and function. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:18561-7 pubmed
    ..The levels of Grx2 and Grx3 behaved exactly the opposite, suggesting that the transcription factor OxyR does not regulate their expression. ..
  18. Fernandes A, Fladvad M, Berndt C, Andrésen C, Lillig C, Neubauer P, et al. A novel monothiol glutaredoxin (Grx4) from Escherichia coli can serve as a substrate for thioredoxin reductase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24544-52 pubmed
    ..Grx4 was highly elevated upon iron depletion, suggesting an iron-related function for the protein. ..
  19. Xia T, Bushweller J, Sodano P, Billeter M, Bjornberg O, Holmgren A, et al. NMR structure of oxidized Escherichia coli glutaredoxin: comparison with reduced E. coli glutaredoxin and functionally related proteins. Protein Sci. 1992;1:310-21 pubmed
    ..coli glutaredoxin showed a general trend to increase upon reduction. Only the sulfhydryl group of Cys 11 is exposed to the solvent, whereas that of Cys 14 is buried and solvent inaccessible. ..
  20. Bushweller J, Aslund F, Wuthrich K, Holmgren A. Structural and functional characterization of the mutant Escherichia coli glutaredoxin (C14----S) and its mixed disulfide with glutathione. Biochemistry. 1992;31:9288-93 pubmed
  21. Hosoya Matsuda N, Motohashi K, Yoshimura H, Nozaki A, Inoue K, Ohmori M, et al. Anti-oxidative stress system in cyanobacteria. Significance of type II peroxiredoxin and the role of 1-Cys peroxiredoxin in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:840-6 pubmed
    ..The results indicate the physiological significance of two different peroxiredoxins as an anti-oxidative stress system in cyanobacteria. ..
  22. Toledano M, Kumar C, Le Moan N, Spector D, Tacnet F. The system biology of thiol redox system in Escherichia coli and yeast: differential functions in oxidative stress, iron metabolism and DNA synthesis. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:3598-607 pubmed
    ..We show that although prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems have a similar architecture, they profoundly differ in their overall cellular functions. ..
  23. Ortenberg R, Gon S, Porat A, Beckwith J. Interactions of glutaredoxins, ribonucleotide reductase, and components of the DNA replication system of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7439-44 pubmed
    ..Our results also suggest an unexpected regulatory interaction between the DnaA and DnaN proteins. ..
  24. Miranda Vizuete A, Rodriguez Ariza A, Toribio F, Holmgren A, Lopez Barea J, Pueyo C. The levels of ribonucleotide reductase, thioredoxin, glutaredoxin 1, and GSH are balanced in Escherichia coli K12. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:19099-103 pubmed
    ..and the glutathione redox status in new Escherichia coli K12 strains lacking thioredoxin (trxA-), glutaredoxin 1 (grxA-), and/or GSH (gshA-) or overproducing Trx or Grx1 from multicopy plasmids...
  25. Hoog J, von Bahr Lindström H, Jornvall H, Holmgren A. Cloning and expression of the glutaredoxin (grx) gene of Escherichia coli. Gene. 1986;43:13-21 pubmed
    Two DNA segments, together comprising 1147 bp and containing the glutaredoxin (GRX) gene, grx, from Escherichia coli K-12 were cloned and characterized in M13mp9...