Gene Symbol: grcA
Description: autonomous glycyl radical cofactor
Alias: ECK2577, JW2563, yfiD
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Wagner A, Schultz S, Bomke J, Pils T, Lehmann W, Knappe J. YfiD of Escherichia coli and Y06I of bacteriophage T4 as autonomous glycyl radical cofactors reconstituting the catalytic center of oxygen-fragmented pyruvate formate-lyase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;285:456-62 pubmed
    ..A recombinant protein comprising the core of PFL (Ser1-Ser733) is shown here to associate with the YfiD protein (14 kDa) of Escherichia coli and likewise with the homologous T4 encoded Y06I protein, yielding upon ..
  2. Varshney U, Hutcheon T, van de Sande J. Sequence analysis, expression, and conservation of Escherichia coli uracil DNA glycosylase and its gene (ung). J Biol Chem. 1988;263:7776-84 pubmed
    ..No sequence homologies were seen for Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Micrococcus, and several eukaryotic genomes. ..
  3. Green J, Baldwin M, Richardson J. Downregulation of Escherichia coli yfiD expression by FNR occupying a site at -93.5 involves the AR1-containing face of FNR. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:1113-23 pubmed
    The promoter of the FNR-activated yfiD gene of Escherichia coli has an unusual architecture because it contains two FNR sites, an arrangement usually associated with FNR-mediated repression...
  4. Lee J, Lee D, Lee B, Kim H. Global analyses of transcriptomes and proteomes of a parent strain and an L-threonine-overproducing mutant strain. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5442-51 pubmed
    ..and L-threonine), were significantly upregulated, whereas the genes dadAX, hdeA, hdeB, ompF, oppA, oppB, oppF, yfiD, and many ribosomal protein genes were downregulated in TF5015 compared to W3110...
  5. Zhu J, Shalel Levanon S, Bennett G, San K. The YfiD protein contributes to the pyruvate formate-lyase flux in an Escherichia coli arcA mutant strain. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2007;97:138-43 pubmed
    The product of yfiD gene is similar to pyruvate formate-lyase (PFL) activase and it has been reported to activate PFL by replacing the glycyl radical domain...
  6. Freestone P, Grant S, Trinei M, Onoda T, Norris V. Protein phosphorylation in Escherichia coli L. form NC-7. Microbiology. 1998;144 ( Pt 12):3289-95 pubmed
    ..Two new phosphoproteins were identified in the L-form as the DNA-binding protein Dps, and YfiD, a protein of 14 kDa with homology to pyruvate formate-lyase and a region containing a tRNA cluster in ..
  7. Blankenhorn D, Phillips J, Slonczewski J. Acid- and base-induced proteins during aerobic and anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli revealed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:2209-16 pubmed
    ..b>YfiD, a homologue of pyruvate formate lyase, was induced to high levels at pH 4...
  8. Marshall F, Messenger S, Wyborn N, Guest J, Wing H, Busby S, et al. A novel promoter architecture for microaerobic activation by the anaerobic transcription factor FNR. Mol Microbiol. 2001;39:747-53 pubmed
    The yfiD gene of Escherichia coli has an unusual promoter architecture in which an FNR dimer located at -93.5 inhibits transcription activation mediated by another FNR dimer bound at the typical class II position (-40.5)...
  9. Amitai S, Kolodkin Gal I, Hananya Meltabashi M, Sacher A, Engelberg Kulka H. Escherichia coli MazF leads to the simultaneous selective synthesis of both "death proteins" and "survival proteins". PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000390 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Han M, Yoon S, Lee S. Proteome analysis of metabolically engineered Escherichia coli producing Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). J Bacteriol. 2001;183:301-8 pubmed
    ..The expression of the yfiD gene encoding a 14...
  2. Green J, Baldwin M. HlyX, the FNR homologue of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, is a [4Fe-4S]-containing oxygen-responsive transcription regulator that anaerobically activates FNR-dependent class I promoters via an enhanced AR1 contact. Mol Microbiol. 1997;24:593-605 pubmed
    ..Expression of hlyX in E. coli induced the anaerobic production of at least five polypeptides, including the yfiD gene product, which were not induced by fnr...
  3. Kirkpatrick C, Maurer L, Oyelakin N, Yoncheva Y, Maurer R, Slonczewski J. Acetate and formate stress: opposite responses in the proteome of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:6466-77 pubmed
    ..including periplasmic transporters for amino acids and peptides (ArtI, FliY, OppA, and ProX), metabolic enzymes (YfiD and GatY), the RpoS growth phase regulon, and the autoinducer synthesis protein LuxS...
  4. Wyborn N, Messenger S, Henderson R, Sawers G, Roberts R, Attwood M, et al. Expression of the Escherichia coli yfiD gene responds to intracellular pH and reduces the accumulation of acidic metabolic end products. Microbiology. 2002;148:1015-26 pubmed
    The YfiD protein of Escherichia coli has been reported to be an acid-inducible protein. Here it is shown that expression of a yfiD::lac reporter fusion is enhanced up to 3 small middle dot5-fold during acidic growth...
  5. Rosenberg S. Life, death, differentiation, and the multicellularity of bacteria. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000418 pubmed publisher
  6. Perrot F, Hebraud M, Charlionet R, Junter G, Jouenne T. Protein patterns of gel-entrapped Escherichia coli cells differ from those of free-floating organisms. Electrophoresis. 2000;21:645-53 pubmed
    ..Immobilization also induced a decrease in the levels of two proteins, i.e., the YFID protein and a DNA-binding, stationary-phase protein...