Gene Symbol: glpT
Description: sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transporter
Alias: ECK2232, JW2234
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Fann M, Busch A, Maloney P. Functional characterization of cysteine residues in GlpT, the glycerol 3-phosphate transporter of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:3863-70 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, the GlpT transporter, a member of the major facilitator superfamily, moves external glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) into the cytoplasm in exchange for cytoplasmic phosphate...
  2. Gott P, Boos W. The transmembrane topology of the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate permease of Escherichia coli analysed by phoA and lacZ protein fusions. Mol Microbiol. 1988;2:655-63 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli glpT gene encodes a transport protein that mediates uptake of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate...
  3. Auer M, Kim M, Lemieux M, Villa A, Song J, Li X, et al. High-yield expression and functional analysis of Escherichia coli glycerol-3-phosphate transporter. Biochemistry. 2001;40:6628-35 pubmed
    The glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) transporter, GlpT, from Escherichia coli mediates G3P and inorganic phosphate exchange across the bacterial inner membrane...
  4. Sakamoto Y, Furukawa S, Ogihara H, Yamasaki M. Fosmidomycin resistance in adenylate cyclase deficient (cya) mutants of Escherichia coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2003;67:2030-3 pubmed
    ..E. coli glpT mutants were resistant to fosfomycin and also to fosmidomycin...
  5. Law C, Almqvist J, Bernstein A, Goetz R, Huang Y, Soudant C, et al. Salt-bridge dynamics control substrate-induced conformational change in the membrane transporter GlpT. J Mol Biol. 2008;378:828-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) transporter (GlpT) of the E...
  6. Abramson J, Kaback H, Iwata S. Structural comparison of lactose permease and the glycerol-3-phosphate antiporter: members of the major facilitator superfamily. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2004;14:413-9 pubmed
    ..All three structures reveal 12 transmembrane helices forming two distinct domains, and could imply that members of this superfamily have preserved both secondary and tertiary structure elements during evolution. ..
  7. Brzoska P, Rimmele M, Brzostek K, Boos W. The pho regulon-dependent Ugp uptake system for glycerol-3-phosphate in Escherichia coli is trans inhibited by Pi. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:15-20 pubmed
    ..taking up G3P via the Ugp system but large amounts of Pi are released when the cells are taking up G3P via the GlpT system...
  8. Wong K, Kwan H. Transcription of glpT of Escherichia coli K12 is regulated by anaerobiosis and fnr. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992;73:15-8 pubmed
    The transcriptional expression of the sn-glycerol 3-phosphate transport gene, glpT, was studied with a glpT-lac fusion contained on a low-copy-number plasmid pFZY1...
  9. Eiglmeier K, Boos W, Cole S. Nucleotide sequence and transcriptional startpoint of the glpT gene of Escherichia coli: extensive sequence homology of the glycerol-3-phosphate transport protein with components of the hexose-6-phosphate transport system. Mol Microbiol. 1987;1:251-8 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequences of the glpT gene of Escherichia coli and its regulatory region have been elucidated and the primary structure of the glycerol-3-phosphate transport protein deduced...

More Information


  1. Sobczak I, Lolkema J. Structural and mechanistic diversity of secondary transporters. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2005;8:161-7 pubmed
    ..Biochemical evidence for pore-loop structures in several other families suggest that they might be common in secondary transporters, adding to the structural and mechanistic diversity of secondary transporters. ..
  2. Freedberg W, Lin E. Three kinds of controls affecting the expression of the glp regulon in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1973;115:816-23 pubmed far more sensitive to specific repression than that of either glycerol kinase (glpK product) or G3P transport (glpT product)...
  3. Elvin C, Hardy C, Rosenberg H. Pi exchange mediated by the GlpT-dependent sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transport system in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1985;161:1054-8 pubmed
    The GlpT system for sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transport in Escherichia coli is shown to catalyze a rapid efflux of Pi from the internal phosphate pools in response to externally added Pi or glycerol-3-phosphate...
  4. Schryvers A, Weiner J. The anaerobic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: cloning and expression of the glpA gene of Escherichia coli and identification of the glpA products. Can J Biochem. 1982;60:224-31 pubmed
    ..recombinant plasmids carrying the glpA gene (anaerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and the closely linked glpT gene (glycerol 3-phosphate transport) were studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions...
  5. Huang Y, Lemieux M, Song J, Auer M, Wang D. Structure and mechanism of the glycerol-3-phosphate transporter from Escherichia coli. Science. 2003;301:616-20 pubmed
    ..Here we report the 3.3 angstrom resolution structure of a member of this superfamily, GlpT, which transports glycerol-3-phosphate into the cytoplasm and inorganic phosphate into the periplasm...
  6. Yamada M, Takeda Y, Okamoto K, Hirota Y. Physical map of the nrdA-nrdB-ftsB-glpT region of the chromosomal DNA of Escherichia coli. Gene. 1982;18:309-18 pubmed
    Seven pLC plasmids (pLC 3-46, 8-12, 8-24, 8-29, 14-12, 19-24 and 42-17) which complemented nrdA, nrdB, ftsB and/or glpT mutations of Escherichia coli were analyzed...
  7. Nilsson A, Berg O, Aspevall O, Kahlmeter G, Andersson D. Biological costs and mechanisms of fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:2850-8 pubmed
    ..Resistance in the mutants isolated in vitro was caused by ptsI, cyaA, glpT, uhpA/T, and unknown mutations, whereas no cyaA or ptsI mutants could be found in vivo...
  8. Leon J, García Lobo J, Ortiz J. Fosfomycin resistance plasmids do not affect fosfomycin transport into Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1982;21:608-12 pubmed
    ..The antibiotic entered the plasmid-harboring cells by means of the glpT and uhp transport systems, as is the case with susceptible bacteria...
  9. Beyersmann D, Messer W, Schlicht M. Mutants of Escherichia coli B-r defective in deoxyribonucleic acid initiation: dnaI, a new gene for replication. J Bacteriol. 1974;118:783-9 pubmed
    ..However, dnaA(-) was dominant to the wild-type allele dnaA(+). All dnaA mutants and four out of six dnaC mutants could be suppressed by F factor integration. The pattern of suppression was specific for each mutant. ..
  10. Law C, Yang Q, Soudant C, Maloney P, Wang D. Kinetic evidence is consistent with the rocker-switch mechanism of membrane transport by GlpT. Biochemistry. 2007;46:12190-7 pubmed
    ..structure of one member of the secondary active transporter family, the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) transporter (GlpT) of the inner membrane of Escherichia coli, suggests a mechanism for substrate translocation across the membrane ..
  11. Law C, Maloney P, Wang D. Ins and outs of major facilitator superfamily antiporters. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2008;62:289-305 pubmed publisher
    ..In the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transporter (GlpT) from Escherichia coli, the substrate-binding site is formed by several charged residues and a histidine that can ..
  12. Law C, Enkavi G, Wang D, Tajkhorshid E. Structural basis of substrate selectivity in the glycerol-3-phosphate: phosphate antiporter GlpT. Biophys J. 2009;97:1346-53 pubmed publisher
    ..A member of the major facilitator superfamily is the glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) transporter (GlpT) from the Escherichia coli inner membrane...
  13. Lemieux M, Huang Y, Wang D. Glycerol-3-phosphate transporter of Escherichia coli: structure, function and regulation. Res Microbiol. 2004;155:623-9 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli uses a secondary membrane transporter protein, GlpT, to uptake G3P into the cytoplasm. The crystal structure of the protein was recently determined to 3.3 A resolution...
  14. Larson T, Ye S, Weissenborn D, Hoffmann H, Schweizer H. Purification and characterization of the repressor for the sn-glycerol 3-phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli K12. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:15869-74 pubmed
    ..The repressor specifically bound DNA fragments containing the control regions for the glpD, glpK, and glpT-A genes. Binding of DNA by the repressor was diminished in the presence of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.
  15. Elashvili I, DeFrank J, Culotta V. phnE and glpT genes enhance utilization of organophosphates in Escherichia coli K-12. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1998;64:2601-8 pubmed
    ..These genes were identified as phnE and glpT. The original OPU mutation represented phnE gene activation and corresponded to the same 8-bp unit deletion from ..
  16. Yang B, Gerhardt S, Larson T. Action at a distance for glp repressor control of glpTQ transcription in Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Microbiol. 1997;24:511-21 pubmed
    ..Using DNase I footprinting, three additional operators (OT1-3) were identified at positions +307 to +359 within the glpT coding region...
  17. Maloney P, Ambudkar S, Anatharam V, Sonna L, Varadhachary A. Anion-exchange mechanisms in bacteria. Microbiol Rev. 1990;54:1-17 pubmed
    ..Speculations on the derivation of this common form suggest a limited number of structural models to accommodate such proteins. Three such models are presented. ..
  18. Bewick M, Lo T. Localization of the dicarboxylate binding protein in the cell envelope of Escherichia coli K12. Can J Biochem. 1980;58:885-97 pubmed
    ..This protein cannot be surface labeled in whole cells or in EDTA-osmotic shock treated cells; and it is not associated with lipopolysaccharide. Analysis of transport mutants indicates that these DBP are coded by the same gene. ..
  19. Larson T, Cantwell J, van Loo Bhattacharya A. Interaction at a distance between multiple operators controls the adjacent, divergently transcribed glpTQ-glpACB operons of Escherichia coli K-12. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:6114-21 pubmed
    ..A 6-bp insertion located within OA2 or between OT and OA1 eliminated repression of the glpTQ promoter, whereas significant repression was maintained in the case of a 10-bp insertion within OA2. ..
  20. Mildener B, Fondy T, Engel R, Tropp B. Effects of halo analogs of glycerol 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate upon Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1981;19:678-81 pubmed
    ..The fluoro and chloro analogs of glycerol 3-phosphate inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and affect bacterial enzymes involved in lipid synthesis. ..
  21. Rao N, Roberts M, Torriani A, Yashphe J. Effect of glpT and glpD mutations on expression of the phoA gene in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:74-9 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli cells showed that the intracellular concentration of P(i) remained constant in wild-type and in a glpT mutant strain whether the cells were grown on excess (2 mM) P(i) or sn-glycerol-3-phosphate as a phosphate source...
  22. Xavier K, Kossmann M, Santos H, Boos W. Kinetic analysis by in vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance of internal Pi during the uptake of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate by the pho regulon-dependent Ugp system and the glp regulon-dependent GlpT system. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:699-704 pubmed to Pi, using different mutants defective in pst (high-affinity Pi transport), ugp (pho-dependent G3P transport), glpT (glp-dependent G3P transport), and glpD (aerobic G3P dehydrogenase)...
  23. Venkateswaran P, Wu H. Isolation and characterization of a phosphonomycin-resistant mutant of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1972;110:935-44 pubmed
    ..Genetic studies indicate that the increased resistance toward phosphonomycin and temperature sensitivity in growth of this mutant are probably the consequences of a single mutation. ..
  24. Miki K, Silhavy T, Andrews K. Resolution of glpA and glpT loci into separate operons in Escherichia coli K-12 strains. J Bacteriol. 1979;138:268-9 pubmed
    ..bacteriophage Mu into the gene coding for anaerobic sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (glpA) or into the genes coding for sn-glycerol 3-phosphate transport (glpT) suggested that these two closely linked loci are in separate operons.
  25. Lin E. Glycerol dissimilation and its regulation in bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1976;30:535-78 pubmed
  26. D Rozario R, Sansom M. Helix dynamics in a membrane transport protein: comparative simulations of the glycerol-3-phosphate transporter and its constituent helices. Mol Membr Biol. 2008;25:571-83 pubmed publisher
    The glycerol-3-phosphate transporter (GlpT) is a member of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). GlpT is an organic phosphate/inorganic phosphate antiporter. It shares a similar fold with other MFS transporters (e.g...
  27. Larson T, Ludtke D, Hengge R, Boos W. sn-Glycerol-3-phosphate transport in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 1982;7 Suppl:149-55 pubmed
    ..plasmid carrying strain contained large amounts of a soluble protein, identical with the previously recognized GLPT-protein of 40,000 molecular weight...
  28. Tsigelny I, Greenberg J, Kouznetsova V, Nigam S. Modeling of glycerol-3-phosphate transporter suggests a potential 'tilt' mechanism involved in its function. J Bioinform Comput Biol. 2008;6:885-904 pubmed
    ..crystal structures of two bacterial representatives of the MFS family--the glycerol-3-phosphate transporter (GlpT) and lac-permease (LacY)--have been solved and, because of assumptions regarding the high structural conservation ..
  29. Willsky G, Bennett R, Malamy M. Inorganic phosphate transport in Escherichia coli: involvement of two genes which play a role in alkaline phosphatase regulation. J Bacteriol. 1973;113:529-39 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the phoS and phoT genes are primarily involved in P(i) transport and, as a result of this function, play a role in the regulation of alkaline phosphatase synthesis. ..
  30. DeFelice L. Transporter structure and mechanism. Trends Neurosci. 2004;27:352-9 pubmed
  31. Almqvist J, Huang Y, Hovmöller S, Wang D. Homology modeling of the human microsomal glucose 6-phosphate transporter explains the mutations that cause the glycogen storage disease type Ib. Biochemistry. 2004;43:9289-97 pubmed
    ..coli homologue, namely, the substrate binds at the N- and C-terminal domain interface and is then transported across the membrane via a rocker-switch type of movement of the two domains. ..
  32. Boos W, Hartig Beecken I, Altendorf K. Purification and properties of a periplasmic protein related to sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transport in Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 1977;72:571-81 pubmed
    Protein GLPT, a periplasmic protein previously recognized as closely related to the active transport of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate in Escherichia coli was isolated by the cold osmotic shock procedure...
  33. Guth A, Engel R, Tropp B. Uptake of glycerol 3-phosphate and some of its analogs by the hexose phosphate transport system of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1980;143:538-9 pubmed
    ..The hexose phosphate transport system transported glycerol 3-phosphate and its analogs 3,4-dihydroxybutyl-1-phosphonate, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, and 3-hydroxy-4-oxobutyl-1-phosphonate. ..
  34. Miki K, Lin E. Use of Escherichia coli operon-fusion strains for the study of glycerol 3-phosphate transport activity. J Bacteriol. 1980;143:1436-43 pubmed
    Strains of Escherichia coli K-12 deleted in the native lac operon and bearing both a wild-type glpT operon encoding for sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) transport and a hybrid operon in which glpT operator and promoter regions are fused to ..
  35. Cymer F, von Heijne G. Cotranslational folding of membrane proteins probed by arrest-peptide-mediated force measurements. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:14640-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings pinpoint the earliest steps of tertiary structure formation and open up possibilities to study the cotranslational folding of polytopic membrane proteins. ..
  36. Boos W. Binding protein-dependent ABC transport system for glycerol 3-phosphate of Escherichia coli. Methods Enzymol. 1998;292:40-51 pubmed
  37. Hammelburger J, Orr G. Interaction of sn-glycerol 3-phosphorothioate with Escherichia coli: effect on cell growth and metabolism. J Bacteriol. 1983;156:789-99 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that a considerably greater proportion of phosphatidylglycerol turnover may be recover in cardiolipin than is metabolized via other pathways (e.g., the membrane-derived oligosaccharide pathway). ..
  38. Lemieux M, Huang Y, Wang D. Crystal structure and mechanism of GlpT, the glycerol-3-phosphate transporter from E. coli. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 2005;54 Suppl 1:i43-6 pubmed
    ..Here we report the 3.3 A resolution structure of a member of this superfamily--GlpT, the glycerol-3-phosphate transporter from the E. coli inner membrane, in the absence of a substrate...
  39. Lemieux M, Song J, Kim M, Huang Y, Villa A, Auer M, et al. Three-dimensional crystallization of the Escherichia coli glycerol-3-phosphate transporter: a member of the major facilitator superfamily. Protein Sci. 2003;12:2748-56 pubmed
    Here we report the successful three-dimensional crystallization of GlpT, the glycerol-3-phosphate transporter from Escherichia coli inner membrane...
  40. Ludtke D, Larson T, Beck C, Boos W. Only one gene is required for the glpT-dependent transport of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate in Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1982;186:540-7 pubmed
    Deletion and point mutants defective in the glpT-dependent sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transport system were isolated and located on the Escherichia coli chromosome...
  41. Lemieux M, Huang Y, Wang D. The structural basis of substrate translocation by the Escherichia coli glycerol-3-phosphate transporter: a member of the major facilitator superfamily. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2004;14:405-12 pubmed
    ..The structure and mechanism of the glycerol-3-phosphate transporter form a paradigm for other members of the major facilitator superfamily. ..
  42. Leifer Z, Engel R, Tropp B. Transport of 3,4-dihydroxybutyl-1-phosphonate, an analogue of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. J Bacteriol. 1977;130:968-71 pubmed
    ..3,4-Dihydroxybutyl-1-phosphonate (DHBP), an analogue of glycerol 3-phosphate, is actively transported by the sn-glycerol 3-phosphate transport system of Escherichia coli strain 8. The Km for the transport of DHBP is 200 microM. ..
  43. Kurabayashi K, Tanimoto K, Fueki S, Tomita H, Hirakawa H. Elevated Expression of GlpT and UhpT via FNR Activation Contributes to Increased Fosfomycin Susceptibility in Escherichia coli under Anaerobic Conditions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015;59:6352-60 pubmed publisher
    ..coli cells grown under anaerobic conditions had higher levels of expression of glpT and uhpT, encoding proteins that transport fosfomycin into cells with their native substrates, i.e...
  44. Locher K, Bass R, Rees D. Structural biology. Breaching the barrier. Science. 2003;301:603-4 pubmed
  45. Larson T, Schumacher G, Boos W. Identification of the glpT-encoded sn-glycerol-3-phosphate permease of Escherichia coli, an oligomeric integral membrane protein. J Bacteriol. 1982;152:1008-21 pubmed
    A collection of hybrid plasmids carrying either the wild-type or mutated glpT gene was generated in vitro and used to characterize the glpT-dependent active transport system for sn-glycerol-3-phosphate in Escherichia coli K-12...
  46. Ambudkar S, Larson T, Maloney P. Reconstitution of sugar phosphate transport systems of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:9083-6 pubmed
    Studies with Escherichia coli cells showed that the transport systems encoded by glpT (sn-glycerol 3-phosphate transport) and uhpT (hexose phosphate transport) catalyze a reversible 32Pi:Pi exchange...
  47. Ehrmann M, Boos W, Ormseth E, Schweizer H, Larson T. Divergent transcription of the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate active transport (glpT) and anaerobic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (glpA glpC glpB) genes of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:526-32 pubmed
    ..Genetic crosses with a collection of glpT mutant strains were performed with several such phage lines...
  48. Kadner R, Murphy G, Stephens C. Two mechanisms for growth inhibition by elevated transport of sugar phosphates in Escherichia coli. J Gen Microbiol. 1992;138:2007-14 pubmed
    ..The phosphate-dependent uptake of glycerol-3-phosphate by the GlpT antiporter was strongly inhibited under conditions of elevated sugar-phosphate transport...
  49. Silhavy T, Hartig Beecken I, Boos W. Periplasmic protein related to the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transport system of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1976;126:951-8 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli K-12 revealed the presence of a periplasmic protein related to sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transport (GLPT) that is under the regulation of glpR, the regulatory gene of the glp regulon...
  50. Schumacher G, Bussmann K. Cell-free synthesis of proteins related to sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transport in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1978;135:239-50 pubmed
    An Escherichia coli periplasmic protein (GlpT) related to sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transport was synthesized in a cell-free system directed by hybrid plasmic ColE1-glpT DNA...
  51. Argast M, Ludtke D, Silhavy T, Boos W. A second transport system for sn-glycerol-3-phosphate in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1978;136:1070-83 pubmed
    Strains containing phage Mucts inserted into glpT were isolated as fosfomycin-resistant clones. These mutants did not transport sn-glycerol-3-phosphate, and they lacked GLPT, a protein previously shown to be a product of the glpT operon...