Gene Symbol: glpF
Description: glycerol facilitator
Alias: ECK3919, JW3898
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Wistow G, Pisano M, Chepelinsky A. Tandem sequence repeats in transmembrane channel proteins. Trends Biochem Sci. 1991;16:170-1 pubmed
    ..This article suggests that these proteins contain a structural twofold repeat and may have arisen by gene duplication. Such a model has implications for the tertiary structures of these important proteins. ..
  2. Truniger V, Boos W. Glycerol uptake in Escherichia coli is sensitive to membrane lipid composition. Res Microbiol. 1993;144:565-74 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, a functional GlpF protein is necessary for efficient uptake of glycerol at low concentrations. Here we show that GlpF-mediated glycerol uptake was sensitive to a variety of lipid alterations...
  3. Sanders O, Rensing C, Kuroda M, Mitra B, Rosen B. Antimonite is accumulated by the glycerol facilitator GlpF in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:3365-7 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis showed that the TnphoA insertion was located in the glpF gene, coding for the glycerol facilitator GlpF. The mutant was shown to be defective in polyol transport by GlpF...
  4. Tajkhorshid E, Nollert P, Jensen M, Miercke L, O Connell J, Stroud R, et al. Control of the selectivity of the aquaporin water channel family by global orientational tuning. Science. 2002;296:525-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We have determined the structure of the Escherichia coli aquaglyceroporin GlpF with bound water, in native (2.7 angstroms) and in W48F/F200T mutant (2...
  5. Fu D, Libson A, Miercke L, Weitzman C, Nollert P, Krucinski J, et al. Structure of a glycerol-conducting channel and the basis for its selectivity. Science. 2000;290:481-6 pubmed
    ..We report the crystal structure of the Escherichia coli glycerol facilitator (GlpF) with its primary permeant substrate glycerol at 2.2 angstrom resolution...
  6. Meng Y, Liu Z, Rosen B. As(III) and Sb(III) uptake by GlpF and efflux by ArsB in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:18334-41 pubmed
    ..forms of arsenic and antimony into cells of Escherichia coli is facilitated by the aquaglyceroporin channel GlpF and that transport of Sb(III) is catalyzed by the ArsB carrier protein; everted membrane vesicles accumulated Sb(..
  7. Lee J, Khademi S, Harries W, Savage D, Miercke L, Stroud R. Water and glycerol permeation through the glycerol channel GlpF and the aquaporin family. J Synchrotron Radiat. 2004;11:86-8 pubmed
    The 2.2 A resolution crystal structure of GlpF, an E. coli aquaporin that facilitates the flow of glycerol, water and other small solutes, provides much insight into the molecular function and selectivity of aquaporins...
  8. Lin E. Glycerol dissimilation and its regulation in bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1976;30:535-78 pubmed
  9. Jensen M, Tajkhorshid E, Schulten K. Electrostatic tuning of permeation and selectivity in aquaporin water channels. Biophys J. 2003;85:2884-99 pubmed
    ..interactions between water and channel are investigated in the Escherichia coli glycerol uptake facilitator GlpF, a member of the aquaporin water channel family, by molecular dynamics simulations...

More Information


  1. Weissenborn D, Wittekindt N, Larson T. Structure and regulation of the glpFK operon encoding glycerol diffusion facilitator and glycerol kinase of Escherichia coli K-12. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:6122-31 pubmed
    The glpFK operon maps near minute 88 on the linkage map of Escherichia coli K-12 with glpF promoter proximal. The glpF gene encodes a cytoplasmic membrane protein which facilitates the diffusion of glycerol into the cell...
  2. Nollert P, Harries W, Fu D, Miercke L, Stroud R. Atomic structure of a glycerol channel and implications for substrate permeation in aqua(glycero)porins. FEBS Lett. 2001;504:112-7 pubmed
    ..Its gene-duplicated sequence has a structural counterpart in a pseudo two-fold symmetry within the monomeric channel protein. ..
  3. de Groot B, Grubmuller H. Water permeation across biological membranes: mechanism and dynamics of aquaporin-1 and GlpF. Science. 2001;294:2353-7 pubmed
    ..dynamics simulations of water permeation through human aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and the bacterial glycerol facilitator GlpF are presented...
  4. Lupski J, Zhang Y, Rieger M, Minter M, Hsu B, Ooi B, et al. Mutational analysis of the Escherichia coli glpFK region with Tn5 mutagenesis and the polymerase chain reaction. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:6129-34 pubmed
    ..The most polar Tn5 insertion was shown by nucleotide sequencing to be in the proposed glpF open reading frame...
  5. Pao G, Wu L, Johnson K, Hofte H, Chrispeels M, Sweet G, et al. Evolution of the MIP family of integral membrane transport proteins. Mol Microbiol. 1991;5:33-7 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic 'trees' interrelating these proteins and segments are presented. ..
  6. Law R, Sansom M. Water transporters: how so fast yet so selective?. Curr Biol. 2002;12:R250-2 pubmed
  7. Hénin J, Tajkhorshid E, Schulten K, Chipot C. Diffusion of glycerol through Escherichia coli aquaglyceroporin GlpF. Biophys J. 2008;94:832-9 pubmed
    The glycerol uptake facilitator, GlpF, a major intrinsic protein found in Escherichia coli, selectively conducts water and glycerol across the inner membrane...
  8. Schlick T. Engineering teams up with computer-simulation and visualization tools to probe biomolecular mechanisms. Biophys J. 2003;85:1-4 pubmed
  9. Stroud R, Savage D, Miercke L, Lee J, Khademi S, Harries W. Selectivity and conductance among the glycerol and water conducting aquaporin family of channels. FEBS Lett. 2003;555:79-84 pubmed
    The atomic structures of a transmembrane water plus glycerol conducting channel (GlpF), and now of aquaporin Z (AqpZ) from the same species, Escherichia coli, bring the total to three atomic resolution structures in the aquaporin (AQP) ..
  10. Lagree V, Froger A, Deschamps S, Pellerin I, Delamarche C, Bonnec G, et al. Oligomerization state of water channels and glycerol facilitators. Involvement of loop E. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:33949-53 pubmed
    ..We performed an analysis of GlpF solubilized from membranes of Escherichia coli or of mRNA-injected Xenopus oocytes...
  11. Jensen M, Tajkhorshid E, Schulten K. The mechanism of glycerol conduction in aquaglyceroporins. Structure. 2001;9:1083-93 pubmed
    The E. coli glycerol facilitator, GlpF, selectively conducts glycerol and water, excluding ions and charged solutes...
  12. Zhang Z, Saier M. A mechanism of transposon-mediated directed mutation. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:29-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The results establish an example of transposon-mediated directed mutation, identify the protein responsible and define the mechanism involved. ..
  13. Raj V, Tomitori H, Yoshida M, Apirakaramwong A, Kashiwagi K, Takio K, et al. Properties of a revertant of Escherichia coli viable in the presence of spermidine accumulation: increase in L-glycerol 3-phosphate. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:4493-8 pubmed
    ..Transformation of glpFK, which encodes a glycerol diffusion facilitator (glpF) and glycerol kinase (glpK), to E...
  14. Thomas D, Bron P, Ranchy G, Duchesne L, Cavalier A, Rolland J, et al. Aquaglyceroporins, one channel for two molecules. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1555:181-6 pubmed
    In the light of the recently published structure of GlpF and AQP1, we have analysed the nature of the residues which could be involved in the formation of the selectivity filter of aquaporins, glycerol facilitators and aquaglyceroporins...
  15. Maurel C, Reizer J, Schroeder J, Chrispeels M, Saier M. Functional characterization of the Escherichia coli glycerol facilitator, GlpF, in Xenopus oocytes. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:11869-72 pubmed
    The glycerol facilitator of Escherichia coli, GlpF, is a putative nonselective transport channel in the inner membrane of this Gram-negative bacterium...
  16. Bron P, Lagree V, Froger A, Rolland J, Hubert J, Delamarche C, et al. Oligomerization state of MIP proteins expressed in Xenopus oocytes as revealed by freeze-fracture electron-microscopy analysis. J Struct Biol. 1999;128:287-96 pubmed the plasma membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes: AQPcic, an aquaporin from the insect Cicadella viridis, and GlpF, a glycerol facilitator from Escherichia coli...
  17. Patargias G, Bond P, Deol S, Sansom M. Molecular dynamics simulations of GlpF in a micelle vs in a bilayer: conformational dynamics of a membrane protein as a function of environment. J Phys Chem B. 2005;109:575-82 pubmed
    ..molecular dynamics simulations (duration 10 ns) have been used to explore an alpha-helical membrane protein, GlpF, in OG micelles and in DMPC bilayers...
  18. Zhu F, Tajkhorshid E, Schulten K. Pressure-induced water transport in membrane channels studied by molecular dynamics. Biophys J. 2002;83:154-60 pubmed
    ..The method is applied and tested on an aquaglyceroporin channel through a series of simulations totaling 5 ns in duration. ..
  19. Kosztin I, Schulten K. Fluctuation-driven molecular transport through an asymmetric membrane channel. Phys Rev Lett. 2004;93:238102 pubmed
  20. Neophytou I, Harvey R, Lawrence J, Marsh P, Panaretou B, Barlow D. Eukaryotic integral membrane protein expression utilizing the Escherichia coli glycerol-conducting channel protein (GlpF). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;77:375-81 pubmed
    ..coli inner membrane protein, GlpF (the glycerol-conducting channel protein)...
  21. Veerappan A, Cymer F, Klein N, Schneider D. The tetrameric ?-helical membrane protein GlpF unfolds via a dimeric folding intermediate. Biochemistry. 2011;50:10223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the folding and stability of the aquaglyceroporin GlpF from Escherichia coli, unfolding of the protein in mixed micelles was monitored by steady-state fluorescence and ..
  22. Jensen M, Mouritsen O. Single-channel water permeabilities of Escherichia coli aquaporins AqpZ and GlpF. Biophys J. 2006;90:2270-84 pubmed
    ..we have determined single-channel water permeabilities for Escherichia coli aquaporin Z (AqpZ) and aquaglyceroporin GlpF with the channels embedded in lipid bilayers...
  23. Abrami L, Tacnet F, Ripoche P. Evidence for a glycerol pathway through aquaporin 1 (CHIP28) channels. Pflugers Arch. 1995;430:447-58 pubmed
    ..The urea exclusion suggests that the selectivity of the AQP1 channels not only depends on the size of the solutes but probably also on their flexibility and their ability to form H-bonds. ..
  24. Fu D, Libson A, Stroud R. The structure of GlpF, a glycerol conducting channel. Novartis Found Symp. 2002;245:51-61; discussion 61-5, 165-8 pubmed
    ..The glycerol facilitator (GlpF) is a 28 kDa aquaglyceroporin that catalyses transmembrane diffusion of glycerol and certain linear polyhydric ..
  25. Baturin S, Galka J, Piyadasa H, Gajjeraman S, O Neil J. The effects of a protein osmolyte on the stability of the integral membrane protein glycerol facilitator. Biochem Cell Biol. 2014;92:564-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of the results for osmolyte mechanism, membrane protein stability, and protein-protein interactions are discussed. ..
  26. Jensen M, Mouritsen O. Lipids do influence protein function-the hydrophobic matching hypothesis revisited. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1666:205-26 pubmed
    ..The case of the trans-membrane water-channel protein aquaporin GlpF from E. coli imbedded in lipid-bilayer membranes is discussed in some detail...
  27. Trefz M, Keller R, Vogt M, Schneider D. The GlpF residue Trp219 is part of an amino-acid cluster crucial for aquaglyceroporin oligomerization and function. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr. 2018;1860:887-894 pubmed publisher
    ..coli aqualgyeroporin GlpF as a model. Replacement of Trp219 affects the activity of GlpF and impairs the stability of the tetrameric protein...
  28. Duchesne L, Pellerin I, Delamarche C, Deschamps S, Lagree V, Froger A, et al. Role of C-terminal domain and transmembrane helices 5 and 6 in function and quaternary structure of major intrinsic proteins: analysis of aquaporin/glycerol facilitator chimeric proteins. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:20598-604 pubmed
    ..part (including the distal part of TM 6) by the equivalent domain of the glycerol channel aquaglyceroporin (GlpF) (chimeras called AGA, AAG, and AGG)...
  29. Burns J, Lewis G. Improved measurement of calcium mobilization by flow cytometry. Biotechniques. 1997;23:1022-4, 1026 pubmed
  30. Klein N, Neumann J, O Neil J, Schneider D. Folding and stability of the aquaglyceroporin GlpF: Implications for human aqua(glycero)porin diseases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1848:622-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The consequences of some known mutations in human aquaporin-encoding genes, which most likely affect the folding and stability of human aquaporins, are discussed. ..
  31. Engel A, Stahlberg H. Aquaglyceroporins: channel proteins with a conserved core, multiple functions, and variable surfaces. Int Rev Cytol. 2002;215:75-104 pubmed
    ..The 3D structures of AQP1 and GlpF have been determined by electron cryomicroscopy. The 3...
  32. Liu Z, Styblo M, Rosen B. Methylarsonous acid transport by aquaglyceroporins. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114:527-31 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that aquaglyceroporin channels, including Escherichia coli GlpF, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fps1p, AQP7, and AQP9 from rat and human, conduct trivalent inorganic arsenic [As(III)] ..
  33. Grayson P, Tajkhorshid E, Schulten K. Mechanisms of selectivity in channels and enzymes studied with interactive molecular dynamics. Biophys J. 2003;85:36-48 pubmed
    ..processes at the atomic level, is applied to study selectivity and regulation of the membrane channel protein GlpF and the enzyme glycerol kinase...
  34. Galka J, Baturin S, Manley D, Kehler A, O Neil J. Stability of the glycerol facilitator in detergent solutions. Biochemistry. 2008;47:3513-24 pubmed publisher
    ..CD suggests that it forms a condensed structure with non-native tertiary contacts highly similar to the state observed in LMPC at low pH. The implications of the results for in vitro and in vivo folding of the protein are discussed. ..
  35. Porquet A, Filella M. Structural evidence of the similarity of Sb(OH)3 and As(OH)3 with glycerol: implications for their uptake. Chem Res Toxicol. 2007;20:1269-76 pubmed
    ..b>GlpF, the glycerol facilitator in Escherichia coli was the first to be identified as a trivalent metalloid transporter...
  36. Jensen M, Rothlisberger U, Rovira C. Hydroxide and proton migration in aquaporins. Biophys J. 2005;89:1744-59 pubmed
    Hypothetical hydroxide and proton migration along the linear water chain in Aquaporin GlpF from Escherichia coli are studied by ab initio Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations...
  37. Zhang Z, Saier M. A novel mechanism of transposon-mediated gene activation. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000689 pubmed publisher
    ..The lacZYA operon is also subject to such activation in the absence of Crp. Thus, we have defined a novel mechanism of gene activation involving transposon insertion that may be generally applicable to many organisms. ..
  38. Stroud R, Miercke L, O Connell J, Khademi S, Lee J, Remis J, et al. Glycerol facilitator GlpF and the associated aquaporin family of channels. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2003;13:424-31 pubmed
    ..The structure also suggests the mechanism behind the selectivity of aquaglyceroporins for glycerol, the basis for enantioselectivity among alditols, and the basis for the prevention of any leakage of the electrochemical gradient. ..
  39. Rosen B, Liu Z. Transport pathways for arsenic and selenium: a minireview. Environ Int. 2009;35:512-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we discuss the membrane proteins that transport arsenic and selenium into cells, from bacteria to humans, as well as some of the efflux proteins involved in detoxification. ..
  40. Voegele R, Sweet G, Boos W. Glycerol kinase of Escherichia coli is activated by interaction with the glycerol facilitator. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:1087-94 pubmed
    ..We conclude that there is an interaction between the glycerol facilitator protein and glycerol kinase that stimulates kinase activity, analogous to the hexokinase- and glycerol kinase-porin interactions in mitochondria. ..
  41. Lu D, Grayson P, Schulten K. Glycerol conductance and physical asymmetry of the Escherichia coli glycerol facilitator GlpF. Biophys J. 2003;85:2977-87 pubmed
    The aquaglyceroporin GlpF is a transmembrane channel of Escherichia coli that facilitates the uptake of glycerol by the cell. Its high glycerol uptake rate is crucial for the cell to survive in very low glycerol concentrations...
  42. Stahlberg H, Engel A, Philippsen A. Assessing the structure of membrane proteins: combining different methods gives the full picture. Biochem Cell Biol. 2002;80:563-8 pubmed
    ..This illustrates that the combination of different methods in structural biology reveals more than each method alone. ..
  43. Jensen M, Park S, Tajkhorshid E, Schulten K. Energetics of glycerol conduction through aquaglyceroporin GlpF. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:6731-6 pubmed
    Aquaglyceroporin GlpF selectively conducts water and linear polyalcohols, such as glycerol, across the inner membrane of Escherichia coli...
  44. Ilan B, Tajkhorshid E, Schulten K, Voth G. The mechanism of proton exclusion in aquaporin channels. Proteins. 2004;55:223-8 pubmed
    ..A second and lower barrier is observed at the selectivity filter near the periplasmic outlet where the channel is narrowest. This secondary barrier may be essential in filtering other large solutes and cations. ..
  45. Bill R, Hedfalk K, Karlgren S, Mullins J, Rydstrom J, Hohmann S. Analysis of the pore of the unusual major intrinsic protein channel, yeast Fps1p. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:36543-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, we took advantage of the fact that the closest bacterial homolog of Fps1p, Escherichia coli GlpF, can be functionally expressed in yeast, thus enabling the analysis in yeast cells of mutations that make this ..
  46. Abrami L, Berthonaud V, Deen P, Rousselet G, Tacnet F, Ripoche P. Glycerol permeability of mutant aquaporin 1 and other AQP-MIP proteins: inhibition studies. Pflugers Arch. 1996;431:408-14 pubmed
    ..major intrinsic protein) proteins: hAQP2, plant water channel gammaTIP and bacterial glycerol permease facilitator, GlpF. Glycerol movements were measured in Xenopus laevis oocytes...
  47. Froger A, Rolland J, Bron P, Lagr e V, Le Cah rec F, Deschamps S, et al. Functional characterization of a microbial aquaglyceroporin. Microbiology. 2001;147:1129-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This MIP is shown to be permeable to glycerol, like E. coli GlpF, and to water, like E. coli AqpZ. This is the first characterization of a microbial MIP that has a mixed function...
  48. Manley D, McComb M, Perreault H, Donald L, Duckworth H, O Neil J. Secondary structure and oligomerization of the E. coli glycerol facilitator. Biochemistry. 2000;39:12303-11 pubmed
    ..A possible role for the facilitator oligomers in interactions with, and regulation of, the glycerol kinase is discussed. ..
  49. Hedfalk K, Törnroth Horsefield S, Nyblom M, Johanson U, Kjellbom P, Neutze R. Aquaporin gating. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2006;16:447-56 pubmed
    ..are determined means that structural models are now available for mammalian AQP0, AQP1, AQP2 and AQP4, bacterial GlpF, AqpM and AQPZ, and the plant SoPIP2;1...
  50. Borgnia M, Agre P. Reconstitution and functional comparison of purified GlpF and AqpZ, the glycerol and water channels from Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:2888-93 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli has two members of this family-a water channel, AqpZ, and a glycerol facilitator, GlpF. Despite having similar primary amino acid sequences and predicted structures, the oligomeric state and solute ..
  51. Bettenbrock K, Fischer S, Kremling A, Jahreis K, Sauter T, Gilles E. A quantitative approach to catabolite repression in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:2578-84 pubmed
    ..The different phenomena affecting the phosphorylation level of EIIACrr, the key regulation molecule for inducer exclusion and catabolite repression in enteric bacteria, can now be explained quantitatively. ..
  52. Calamita I. Understanding microbial MIP channels. Trends Microbiol. 2000;8:104-5 pubmed
  53. Saparov S, Tsunoda S, Pohl P. Proton exclusion by an aquaglyceroprotein: a voltage clamp study. Biol Cell. 2005;97:545-50 pubmed
    ..discrepancies, we have measured proton permeability through the purified Escherichia coli glycerol facilitator (GlpF)...
  54. Berendsen H. Bioinformatics. Reality simulation--observe while it happens. Science. 2001;294:2304-5 pubmed
  55. Hub J, de Groot B. Mechanism of selectivity in aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1198-203 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the selectivity of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and the bacterial glycerol facilitator, GlpF, for O(2), CO(2), NH(3), glycerol, urea, and water...
  56. Stahlberg H, Braun T, de Groot B, Philippsen A, Borgnia M, Agre P, et al. The 6.9-A structure of GlpF: a basis for homology modeling of the glycerol channel from Escherichia coli. J Struct Biol. 2000;132:133-41 pubmed
    The three-dimensional structure of GlpF, the glycerol facilitator of Escherichia coli, was determined by cryo-electron microscopy. The 6...
  57. Manley D, O Neil J. Preparation of glycerol facilitator for protein structure and folding studies in solution. Methods Mol Biol. 2003;228:89-101 pubmed
  58. Braun T, Philippsen A, Wirtz S, Borgnia M, Agre P, Kuhlbrandt W, et al. The 3.7 A projection map of the glycerol facilitator GlpF: a variant of the aquaporin tetramer. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:183-9 pubmed
    b>GlpF, the glycerol facilitator protein of Escherichia coli, is an archetypal member of the aquaporin superfamily...
  59. Chakrabarti N, Roux B, Pomès R. Structural determinants of proton blockage in aquaporins. J Mol Biol. 2004;343:493-510 pubmed
    ..the contribution of specific structural elements to proton blockage in the bacterial glycerol uptake facilitator, GlpF. Potential of mean-force profiles for both hop and turn steps of structural diffusion in the narrow pore are ..
  60. Muramatsu S, Mizuno T. Nucleotide sequence of the region encompassing the glpKF operon and its upstream region containing a bent DNA sequence of Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:4378 pubmed
  61. Wambo T, Rodriguez R, CHEN L. Computing osmotic permeabilities of aquaporins AQP4, AQP5, and GlpF from near-equilibrium simulations. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr. 2017;1859:1310-1316 pubmed publisher
    ..of osmotic current under sub M gradient through three AQPs (water channels AQP4 and AQP5 and glycerol-water channel GlpF) using the mature particle mesh Ewald technique (PME) for which the established force fields have been optimized ..
  62. Wang Y, Schulten K, Tajkhorshid E. What makes an aquaporin a glycerol channel? A comparative study of AqpZ and GlpF. Structure. 2005;13:1107-18 pubmed
    ..but functionally distinct aquaporins from the same species, namely Escherichia coli AqpZ, a pure water channel, and GlpF, a glycerol channel, presents a unique opportunity to understand the mechanism of substrate selectivity in these ..
  63. Chen H, Ilan B, Wu Y, Zhu F, Schulten K, Voth G. Charge delocalization in proton channels, I: the aquaporin channels and proton blockage. Biophys J. 2007;92:46-60 pubmed
    ..Grotthuss shuttling) proton and a classical (nonshuttling) hydronium ion along two aquaporin channels, Aqp1 and GlpF. To elucidate the effects of the bipolar field thought to arise from two alpha-helical macrodipoles on proton ..
  64. Hubert J, Duchesne L, Delamarche C, Vaysse A, Gueuné H, Raguénès Nicol C. Pore selectivity analysis of an aquaglyceroporin by stopped-flow spectrophotometry on bacterial cell suspensions. Biol Cell. 2005;97:675-86 pubmed
    ..Both phases were accelerated when the aquaglyceroporin GlpF was present in cell membranes...
  65. Sweet G, Gandor C, Voegele R, Wittekindt N, Beuerle J, Truniger V, et al. Glycerol facilitator of Escherichia coli: cloning of glpF and identification of the glpF product. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:424-30 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the gene encoding the facilitator, glpF, is the first gene in an operon with glpK, encoding glycerol kinase, at 88 min of the E. coli chromosome...
  66. Spencer R, Rees D. The alpha-helix and the organization and gating of channels. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct. 2002;31:207-33 pubmed
    ..been determined recently, including the KcsA potassium channel, the MscL mechanosensitive channel, and the AQP1 and GlpF members of the aquaporin family...
  67. Gonen T, Walz T. The structure of aquaporins. Q Rev Biophys. 2006;39:361-96 pubmed
    ..The review will discuss the mechanisms governing water conduction, proton exclusion and substrate specificity, and how the pore permeability is regulated in different members of the AQP family. ..
  68. Lin E. Glycerol facilitator in Escherichia coli. Methods Enzymol. 1986;125:467-73 pubmed
  69. Unger V. Fraternal twins: AQP1 and GlpF. Nat Struct Biol. 2000;7:1082-4 pubmed
  70. Engelman D, Chen Y, Chin C, Curran A, Dixon A, Dupuy A, et al. Membrane protein folding: beyond the two stage model. FEBS Lett. 2003;555:122-5 pubmed
    ..Here we present a three stage model which gives considerations to ligand binding, folding of extramembranous loops, insertion of peripheral domains and the formation of quaternary structure. ..
  71. Heller K, Lin E, Wilson T. Substrate specificity and transport properties of the glycerol facilitator of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1980;144:274-8 pubmed
    The specificity of the glycerol facilitator (glpF) of Escherichia coli was studied with an osmotic method. This transport system allowed the entry of polyols (glycerol and erythritol), pentitols, and hexitols...