Gene Symbol: glpD
Description: sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aerobic, FAD/NAD(P)-binding
Alias: ECK3412, JW3389, glyD
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Xavier K, Kossmann M, Santos H, Boos W. Kinetic analysis by in vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance of internal Pi during the uptake of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate by the pho regulon-dependent Ugp system and the glp regulon-dependent GlpT system. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:699-704 pubmed pst (high-affinity Pi transport), ugp (pho-dependent G3P transport), glpT (glp-dependent G3P transport), and glpD (aerobic G3P dehydrogenase)...
  2. Ono M, Kawakami M. Separation of newly-synthesized RNA by organomercurial agarose affinity chromatography. J Biochem. 1977;81:1247-52 pubmed
    ..The molecular size distributions of both total RNA and the adsorbed fraction, synthesized during 30 min in the presence of 2-thiouridine, were similar to that of RNA synthesized in the absence of the drug. ..
  3. Schweizer H, Larson T. Cloning and characterization of the aerobic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase structural gene glpD of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:507-13 pubmed
    The glpD gene encoding aerobic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli K-12 was cloned into pACYC177 from a lambda glpD transducing phage. The recombinant plasmid, designated pSH55, carried a 7...
  4. Xavier K, Bassler B. Regulation of uptake and processing of the quorum-sensing autoinducer AI-2 in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:238-48 pubmed
    ..coli, and screening for mutants defective in AI-2 internalization revealed lsrK and glpD. Unlike the wild type, lsrK and glpD mutants do not activate transcription of the lsr operon in response to AI-2...
  5. Walz A, Demel R, de Kruijff B, Mutzel R. Aerobic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli binds to the cytoplasmic membrane through an amphipathic alpha-helix. Biochem J. 2002;365:471-9 pubmed
    sn-Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GlpD) from Escherichia coli is a peripheral membrane enzyme involved in respiratory electron transfer. For it to display its enzymic activity, binding to the inner membrane is required...
  6. Schryvers A, Weiner J. The anaerobic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. Purification and characterization. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:9959-65 pubmed
    ..Limited proteolysis or treatment with sulfhydryl reagents does not affect activity but removes capacity for stimulation by exogenous flavins. ..
  7. Lengeler J. Characterisation of mutants of Escherichia coli K12, selected by resistance to streptozotocin. Mol Gen Genet. 1980;179:49-54 pubmed
    ..These include a) mutants auxotrophic for amino acids, vitamins, or nucleotides, b) mutants negative or sensitive to carbohydrates in the medium, and c) mutants wth defects in energy metabolism such as PEP synthesis. ..
  8. Ye S, Larson T. Structures of the promoter and operator of the glpD gene encoding aerobic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:4209-15 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of a 690-base-pair DNA segment containing the control region for the glpD gene encoding aerobic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was determined...
  9. Schryvers A, Lohmeier E, Weiner J. Chemical and functional properties of the native and reconstituted forms of the membrane-bound, aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1978;253:783-8 pubmed
    ..7. Detergent-depleted enzyme requires exogenous phospholipid or nondenaturing detergent for electron transfer activity. ..

More Information


  1. Cozzarelli N, Koch J, Hayashi S, Lin E. Growth stasis by accumulated L-alpha-glycerophosphate in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1965;90:1325-9 pubmed
  2. Iuchi S, Cole S, Lin E. Multiple regulatory elements for the glpA operon encoding anaerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and the glpD operon encoding aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli: further characterization of respiratory control. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:179-84 pubmed
    ..flavo-dehydrogenases, an anaerobic enzyme encoded by the glpACB operon and an aerobic enzyme encoded by the glpD operon...
  3. Austin D, Larson T. Nucleotide sequence of the glpD gene encoding aerobic sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:101-7 pubmed
    Aerobic sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, encoded by the glpD gene of Escherichia coli, is a cytoplasmic membrane-associated respiratory enzyme. The nucleotide sequence of glpD was determined...
  4. Choi Y, Kawase S, Nishida T, Sakai H, Komano T, Kawamukai M, et al. Nucleotide sequence of the glpR gene encoding the repressor for the glycerol-3-phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli K12. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:7732 pubmed
  5. Larson T, Ye S, Weissenborn D, Hoffmann H, Schweizer H. Purification and characterization of the repressor for the sn-glycerol 3-phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli K12. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:15869-74 pubmed
    ..The repressor specifically bound DNA fragments containing the control regions for the glpD, glpK, and glpT-A genes. Binding of DNA by the repressor was diminished in the presence of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.
  6. Brzoska P, Rimmele M, Brzostek K, Boos W. The pho regulon-dependent Ugp uptake system for glycerol-3-phosphate in Escherichia coli is trans inhibited by Pi. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:15-20 pubmed
    ..Using a glpD mutant that could not oxidize G3P but which could still phosphorylate exogenous glycerol to G3P after GlpF-mediated ..
  7. Spoering A, Vulic M, Lewis K. GlpD and PlsB participate in persister cell formation in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:5136-44 pubmed
    ..was isolated and was found to overexpress the gene for the conserved aerobic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GlpD. The GlpD overexpression strain showed increased tolerance to ampicillin and ofloxacin, while a strain with glpD ..
  8. Schwartz M. Location of the maltose A and B loci on the genetic map of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1966;92:1083-9 pubmed
    ..A new biotin marker was also shown to be located in this region. The position of malB was studied in relation to the loci for arginine F, methionine A, ultraviolet radiation A, and the origin of transfer of Hfr P10. ..
  9. Yeh J, Chinte U, Du S. Structure of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an essential monotopic membrane enzyme involved in respiration and metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:3280-5 pubmed publisher
    Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GlpD) is an essential membrane enzyme, functioning at the central junction of respiration, glycolysis, and phospholipid biosynthesis...
  10. Choi Y, Kawase S, Kawamukai M, Sakai H, Komano T. Regulation of glpD and glpE gene expression by a cyclic AMP-cAMP receptor protein (cAMP-CRP) complex in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991;1088:31-5 pubmed
    The glpE gene of E. coli was found to be transcribed divergently with respect to glpD, which is adjacent to glpE head-to-head on the E. coli chromosome...
  11. Bettenbrock K, Fischer S, Kremling A, Jahreis K, Sauter T, Gilles E. A quantitative approach to catabolite repression in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:2578-84 pubmed
    ..The different phenomena affecting the phosphorylation level of EIIACrr, the key regulation molecule for inducer exclusion and catabolite repression in enteric bacteria, can now be explained quantitatively. ..
  12. Kistler W, Lin E. Anaerobic L- -glycerophosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli: its genetic locus and its physiological role. J Bacteriol. 1971;108:1224-34 pubmed
    ..The level of the anaerobic dehydrogenase is about the same in cells grown either aerobically or anaerobically with nitrate serving as a terminal hydrogen acceptor. With fumarate as terminal acceptor, the level is elevated several fold. ..
  13. Schweizer H, Sweet G, Larson T. Physical and genetic structure of the glpD-malT interval of the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome. Identification of two new structural genes of the glp-regulon. Mol Gen Genet. 1986;202:488-92 pubmed
    A transducing lambda phage carrying glpD''lacZ, glpR, and malT was isolated from a strain harboring a glpD''lacZ fusion...
  14. Flower A. SecG function and phospholipid metabolism in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:2006-12 pubmed
    ..that the glpR mutation causes an intracellular depletion of glycerol-3-phosphate due to constitutive synthesis of GlpD and subsequent channeling of glycerol-3-phosphate into metabolic pathways...
  15. Lin E. Glycerol dissimilation and its regulation in bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1976;30:535-78 pubmed
  16. Lewis K. Multidrug tolerance of biofilms and persister cells. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2008;322:107-31 pubmed
    ..Ectopic expression of RelE, MazF, and HipA toxins produced multidrug tolerant cells. Apart from TA modules, glpD and plsB were identified as potential persister genes by overexpression cloning of a genomic library and selection ..
  17. Milla M, Raetz C. Association of lipid A disaccharide synthase with aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in extracts of Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996;1304:245-53 pubmed
    ..with LpxB-H8 (both at low and high levels of expression) was the aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GlpD)...
  18. Yeh J, Du S, Tortajada A, Paulo J, Zhang S. Peptergents: peptide detergents that improve stability and functionality of a membrane protein, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Biochemistry. 2005;44:16912-9 pubmed extract and stabilize the integral membrane flavoenzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GlpD), and the soluble redox flavoenzyme, NADH peroxidase (Npx)...
  19. Persson M, Glatz E, Rutberg B. Different processing of an mRNA species in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:689-95 pubmed
    Expression of the Bacillus subtilis glpD gene, which encodes glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) dehydrogenase, is controlled by termination or antitermination of transcription...