Gene Symbol: gloA
Description: glyoxalase I, Ni-dependent
Alias: ECK1647, JW1643
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Lee C, Shin J, Park C. Novel regulatory system nemRA-gloA for electrophile reduction in Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Microbiol. 2013;88:395-412 pubmed publisher encode a repressor and the N-ethylmaleimide reductase, respectively, is co-transcribed with the 3'-proximal gloA gene encoding glyoxalase I...
  2. Sukdeo N, Honek J. Microbial glyoxalase enzymes: metalloenzymes controlling cellular levels of methylglyoxal. Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2008;23:29-50 pubmed
    ..Recent studies on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome have led to the characterization of three different glyoxalase I enzymes, two of which follow a Ni2+/Co2+ activation profile and the third exhibits a human-like preference for Zn2+. ..
  3. Maclean M, Ness L, Ferguson G, Booth I. The role of glyoxalase I in the detoxification of methylglyoxal and in the activation of the KefB K+ efflux system in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1998;27:563-71 pubmed
    The glyoxalase I gene (gloA) of Escherichia coli has been cloned and used to create a null mutant...
  4. Ferguson G, Tötemeyer S, Maclean M, Booth I. Methylglyoxal production in bacteria: suicide or survival?. Arch Microbiol. 1998;170:209-18 pubmed
    ..New strategies for antibacterial therapy may be based on undermining the detoxification and defence mechanisms coupled with deregulation of methylglyoxal synthesis. ..
  5. Ozyamak E, de Almeida C, de Moura A, Miller S, Booth I. Integrated stress response of Escherichia coli to methylglyoxal: transcriptional readthrough from the nemRA operon enhances protection through increased expression of glyoxalase I. Mol Microbiol. 2013;88:936-50 pubmed publisher
  6. Clugston S, Yajima R, Honek J. Investigation of metal binding and activation of Escherichia coli glyoxalase I: kinetic, thermodynamic and mutagenesis studies. Biochem J. 2004;377:309-16 pubmed
    ..Although this residue has a marked effect on metal binding and activation, it is not the sole factor determining the differential metal activation between the human and E. coli GlxI enzymes. ..
  7. Maroney M. Structure/function relationships in nickel metallobiochemistry. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 1999;3:188-99 pubmed
  8. Cooper R, Anderson A. The formation and catabolism of methylglyoxal during glycolysis in Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 1970;11:273-276 pubmed
  9. He M, Clugston S, Honek J, Matthews B. Determination of the structure of Escherichia coli glyoxalase I suggests a structural basis for differential metal activation. Biochemistry. 2000;39:8719-27 pubmed
    ..A comparison of the human and E. coli enzymes suggests that there are differences between the active sites that might be exploited for therapeutic use...

More Information


  1. Okado Matsumoto A, Fridovich I. The role of alpha,beta -dicarbonyl compounds in the toxicity of short chain sugars. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:34853-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the defensive glyoxalase III is also inactivated by the oxidative stress imposed by the lack of SOD, thereby exacerbating the deleterious effect of sugar oxidation. ..
  2. Booth I, Ferguson G, Miller S, Li C, Gunasekera B, Kinghorn S. Bacterial production of methylglyoxal: a survival strategy or death by misadventure?. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003;31:1406-8 pubmed
    ..Excessive production of MG is an adaptive ploy, which, if it fails, has fatal consequences. On this basis one might define MG-induced loss of life as "death by misadventure" rather than suicide! ..
  3. Davidson G, Clugston S, Honek J, Maroney M. XAS investigation of the nickel active site structure in Escherichia coli glyoxalase I. Inorg Chem. 2000;39:2962-3 pubmed
  4. Vander Jagt D. Growth inhibitory properties of aromatic alpha-ketoaldehydes toward bacteria and yeast. Comparison of inhibition and glyoxalase I activity. J Med Chem. 1975;18:1155-8 pubmed
    ..coli and yeast, similar to the other alpha-ketoaldehydes. Enzymes other than glyoxalase I must play a major role in the metabolism of these alpha-ketoaldehydes during the period of growth inhibition. ..
  5. Davidson G, Clugston S, Honek J, Maroney M. An XAS investigation of product and inhibitor complexes of Ni-containing GlxI from Escherichia coli: mechanistic implications. Biochemistry. 2001;40:4569-82 pubmed
    ..This leads to an anionic complex, which is consistent with an observed 1.7 eV decrease in the Ni K-edge energy. Plausible reaction mechanisms for Ni-GlxI are discussed in light of the structural information available. ..
  6. Clugston S, Daub E, Kinach R, Miedema D, Barnard J, Honek J. Isolation and sequencing of a gene coding for glyoxalase I activity from Salmonella typhimurium and comparison with other glyoxalase I sequences. Gene. 1997;186:103-11 pubmed
    The glyoxalase I gene (gloA) from Salmonella typhimurium has been isolated in Escherichia coli on a multi-copy pBR322-derived plasmid, selecting for resistance to 3 mM methylglyoxal on Luria-Bertani agar...
  7. Cooper R. Metabolism of methylglyoxal in microorganisms. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1984;38:49-68 pubmed
  8. Clugston S, Barnard J, Kinach R, Miedema D, Ruman R, Daub E, et al. Overproduction and characterization of a dimeric non-zinc glyoxalase I from Escherichia coli: evidence for optimal activation by nickel ions. Biochemistry. 1998;37:8754-63 pubmed
    ..To study the Escherichia coli GlxI enzyme, the DNA encoding this protein, gloA, was isolated and incorporated into the plasmid pTTQ18...
  9. Kim I, Kim J, Min B, Lee C, Park C. Screening of genes related to methylglyoxal susceptibility. J Microbiol. 2007;45:339-43 pubmed
    ..In addition to its MG sensitivity, the insertion in yqiI exhibited an impaired motility resulting from a reduced flagellar expression. ..
  10. Murata K, Tani K, Kato J, Chibata I. Excretion of glutathione by methylglyoxal-resistant Escherichia coli. J Gen Microbiol. 1980;120:545-7 pubmed
    ..Methylglyoxal resistance appeared to be due to the simultaneous increase in the activities of these two enzyme systems. ..
  11. Su Z, Sukdeo N, Honek J. 15N-1H HSQC NMR evidence for distinct specificity of two active sites in Escherichia coli glyoxalase I. Biochemistry. 2008;47:13232-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The current results enhance our understanding of GlxI structure-function relationships and provide a potential new strategy for the development of small molecule inhibitors for this enzyme system. ..
  12. Clugston S, Honek J. Identification of sequences encoding the detoxification metalloisomerase glyoxalase I in microbial genomes from several pathogenic organisms. J Mol Evol. 2000;50:491-5 pubmed
    ..Removal of these regions may alter the active-site conformation of the bacterial enzymes in relation to that of the H. sapiens. These differences may be targeted for the development of inhibitors selective to the bacterial enzymes. ..
  13. Thornalley P. Glyoxalase I--structure, function and a critical role in the enzymatic defence against glycation. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003;31:1343-8 pubmed
    ..Glyoxalase I has a critical role in the prevention of glycation reactions mediated by methylglyoxal, glyoxal and other alpha-oxoaldehydes in vivo. ..
  14. Thornalley P. The glyoxalase system: new developments towards functional characterization of a metabolic pathway fundamental to biological life. Biochem J. 1990;269:1-11 pubmed